Central European Time
Central European Time, used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time, 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. The time offset from UTC can be written as UTC+01:00; the same standard time, UTC+01:00, is known as Middle European Time and under other names like Berlin Time, Warsaw Time and Romance Standard Time, Paris Time or Rome Time. The 15th meridian east is the central axis for UTC+01:00 in the world system of time zones; as of 2011, all member states of the European Union observe summer time. A number of African countries use UTC+01:00 all year long, where it is called West Africa Time, although Algeria and Tunisia use the term Central European Time. Central European Time is used in Albania, Austria, Belgium and Herzegovina, Czech Republic, France, Hungary, Kosovo, Luxembourg, North Macedonia, Monaco, Netherlands, Poland, San Marino, Slovakia, Spain and Switzerland. 1884 Serbia starts using CET. 1890 The areas of current Croatia and Hungary start using CET. 1891 The areas of current Czech Republic start using CET. 1 April 1893 The German Empire unified its time zones to use CET.
Italy, Malta use CET. The areas of current Austria start using CET. 1894 Switzerland switches from UTC+00:30 to CET Liechtenstein introduces CET. Denmark adopts CET. 1895 Norway adopts CET. 1900 Sweden adopts CET. 1904 Luxembourg introduces CET, but leaves 1918. 1914 Albania adopts CET. 1914–1918 During World War I CET was implemented in all German-occupied territories. 1920 Lithuania adopts CET. 1922 Poland adopts CET. 1940 Under German occupation:The Netherlands was switched from UTC+00:20 to CET. Belgium was switched from UTC+00:00. Luxembourg was switched from UTC+00:00. France, which had adopted Paris time on 14 March 1891 and Greenwich Mean Time on 9 March 1911, was switched to CET. Spain switched to CET. After World War II Monaco and Gibraltar implemented CET. Portugal used CET in the years 1966–1976 and 1992–1996. United KingdomThe time around the world is based on Universal Coordinated Time, synonymous with Greenwich Mean Time. From late March to late October, clocks in the United Kingdom are put forward by one hour for British Summer Time.
Since 1997, most of the European Union aligned with the British standards for BST. In 1968 there was a three-year experiment called British Standard Time, when the UK and Ireland experimentally employed British Summer Time all year round. Central European Time is sometimes referred to as continental time in the UK. Several African countries use UTC+01:00 all year long, where it called West Africa Time, although Algeria and Tunisia use the term Central European Time, despite being located in North Africa. Between 2005 and 2008, Tunisia observed daylight saving time. Libya used CET during the years 1951–1959, 1982–1989, 1996–1997 and 2012–2013. For other countries see West Africa Time. Legal and economic, as well as physical or geographical criteria are used in the drawing of time zones so official time zones adhere to meridian lines; the CET time zone, were it drawn by purely geographical terms, would consist of the area between meridians 7°30′ E and 22°30′ E. As a result, there are European locales that despite lying in an area with a "physical" UTC+01:00 time use another time zone.
Conversely, there are European areas that have gone for UTC+01:00 though their "physical" time zone is UTC, UTC−01:00, or UTC+02:00. On the other hand, the people in Spain still have all work and meal hours one hour than France and Germany if they have the same time zone. Following is a list of such "incongruences": Historically Gibraltar maintained UTC+01:00 all year until the opening of the land frontier with Spain in 1982 when it followed its neighbour and introduced CEST; these areas are located between 7°30′ E and 22°30′ E The westernmost part of Greece, including the cities of Patras and the island of Corfu The westernmost parts of the Bulgarian provinces of Vidin and Kyustendil The westernmost part of Romania, including most of the area of the counties of Caraș-Severin, Timiș, Bihor, as well as the westernmost tips of the counties of Mehedinți and Satu Mare The westernmost tip of Ukraine, near the border with Hungary and Slovakia, at the Ukrainian Transcarpathian Oblast comprising the city of Uzhhorod and its environs..
Western Lithuania, including the cities of Klaipėda, Tauragė, Telšiai Western Latvia, including the cities of Liepāja and Ventspils The westernmost parts of the Estonian islands of Saaremaa and Hiiumaa, including the capital of the Saare County, Kuressaare The southwestern coast of Finland, including the city of Turku. The Russian exclave of Kaliningr
Yonne is a French department named after the river Yonne. It is one of the eight constituent departments of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté and is located in the northwest of the region, bordering Île-de-France, it was created in 1790 during the French Revolution. Its prefecture is Auxerre and its postcode number is 89, it is the fourth most populous department in the region with a population of about 342,000, an average annual increase over the last few years of 0.41% per year. The biggest city is Auxerre, the capital, with a population of 35,000 in the city and 43,000 in the urban area centred on it; the first evidence of occupation in this area is found in the Grottes d'Arcy-sur-Cure where paintings have been found dating back 28,000 years. The Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers of that time left behind numerous flint artefacts, but the area is believed to have been occupied for about 200,000 years. By 4000 BC, a wave of Neolithics arrived from the Danube region of eastern Europe building substantial wooden houses and introducing pottery decorated with the characteristics of the Linear Pottery culture.
Further waves of immigrants followed, the Chasséen culture, the Michelsberg culture. The Celtic tribe in the area were named "Icauna", after the River Yonne which they thought sacred, the region was occupied by Gallic tribes; the area came under the control of the Romans, whose chief town was Sens, which they called Agendicum. It was the capital of their province of Gallia Lugdunensis, one of four provinces into which France was subdivided; the present main roads from Lyon to Boulogne, from Sens to Alise-Sainte-Reine date from this period. About this time, Auxerre and Avallon were growing in size and in the fourth century, Sens became a walled city, the first bishops were appointed in Sens and Langres whose power was to influence the region profoundly. In 1771, the northwesterly part of the present department belonged to Prince Francis Xavier of Saxony, the uncle of Louis XVI of France; the current Yonne department saw its birth during the French Revolution, on March 4, 1790, as a result of the passing of an Act on December 22, 1789.
It was carved out of parts of the provinces of Burgundy and Orléans, to a lesser extent from parts of the Nivernais and Île-de-France. Yonne is a department in central France, one of the eight constituent departments of the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. To the northeast lies the department of Aube, to the east lies Côte-d'Or, to the south lies Nièvre, to the west lies Loiret and to the northwest, the department of Seine-et-Marne; the River Yonne flows northwards through the department. Auxerre, the capital of the department is situated on the River Yonne, the River Serein joins this a few kilometres north of the city; the Canal de Bourgogne, which connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Atlantic Ocean, joins the River Yonne through locks at Migennes a little further north. The second biggest town is Sens, situated at the confluence of the River Yonne; the geology of the department is complex with concentric rings of granite, Jurassic and Tertiary rocks and layers of sedimentary rocks. The terrain is a low-lying plateau used for agriculture.
The southwestern part is more wooded. To the centre and east, the land inclines to the northwest where the higher land of the Tonnerrois region lies. To the east the rock is limestone and the Auxerrois region is renowned for the grapes grown here which are used in the production of Chablis. To the south lies the mountainous massif of Morvan, the highest parts of which are in the neighbouring department of Nièvre; the department has some forested areas but is down to pasture or cultivated for wheat. Over fifty percent of the inhabitants of the department are engaged in agricultural activities, it is one of the poorest and most rural departments in France. During the hundred years leading up to 1962, its population declined by around 100,000 while all of the surrounding departments had population growth. Yonne had been bypassed by the development of the railways, as French industry flourished elsewhere in the late nineteenth century, the young people left Yonne seeking better opportunities, the department stagnated.
The viticulture industry was affected by the advent of powdery mildew and the arrival of Phylloxera in the nineteenth century. By 1945, only 4000 hectares of grapevines remained and only 471 hectares of grapes were grown for Chablis. More the population trend has been reversed, during the period 1999 to 2007, rose by 8000 to a total of 341,418. However, with a population of 46 inhabitants per square kilometre, the density in Yonne is less than half that for the whole of France, 100.5 for the same year. It elects three members of parliament to the National Assembly – in the 2012–17 parliamentary term, two of them were drawn from the right-wing Union for a Popular Movement and one from Socialist Party. In 2015, the General Council of the department was allotted a budget of 410 million euros. Cantons of the Yonne department Communes of the Yonne department Arrondissements of the Yonne department Prefecture website General Council website Yonne at Curlie Wild Flowers from Yonne Chamber of commerce
Dijon is a city in eastern France, capital of the Côte-d'Or département in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region. The earliest archaeological finds within the city limits of Dijon date to the Neolithic period. Dijon became a Roman settlement named Divio, located on the road from Lyon to Paris; the province was home to the Dukes of Burgundy from the early 11th until the late 15th centuries and Dijon was a place of tremendous wealth and power, one of the great European centres of art and science. Population: 151,576 within the city limits; the city has retained varied architectural styles from many of the main periods of the past millennium, including Capetian and Renaissance. Many still-inhabited town houses in the city's central district date from the 18th century and earlier. Dijon architecture is distinguished by, among other things, toits bourguignons made of tiles glazed in terracotta, green and black and arranged in geometric patterns. Dijon holds an Gastronomic Fair every year in autumn. With over 500 exhibitors and 200,000 visitors every year, it is one of the ten most important fairs in France.
Dijon is home, every three years, to the international flower show Florissimo. Dijon is famous for Dijon mustard which originated in 1856, when Jean Naigeon of Dijon substituted verjuice, the acidic "green" juice of not-quite-ripe grapes, for vinegar in the traditional mustard recipe; the historical centre of the city has been registered since July 4, 2015 as a UNESCO World Heritage site. The earliest archaeological finds within the city limits of Dijon date to the Neolithic period. Dijon became a Roman settlement called Divio, which may mean sacred fountain, located on the road from Lyon to Paris. Saint Benignus, the city's apocryphal patron saint, is said to have introduced Christianity to the area before being martyred; this province was home to the Dukes of Burgundy from the early 11th until the late 15th century, Dijon was a place of tremendous wealth and power and one of the great European centres of art and science. The Duchy of Burgundy was a key in the transformation of medieval times toward early modern Europe.
The Palace of the Dukes of Burgundy now houses a museum of art. In 1513, Swiss and Imperial armies invaded Burgundy and besieged Dijon, defended by the governor of the province, Louis II de la Trémoille; the siege was violent, but the town succeeded in resisting the invaders. After long negotiations, Louis II de la Trémoille managed to persuade the Swiss and the Imperial armies to withdraw their troops and to return three hostages who were being held in Switzerland. During the siege, the population called on the Virgin Mary for help and saw the town's successful resistance and the subsequent withdrawal of the invaders as a miracle. For those reasons, in the years following the siege the inhabitants of Dijon began to venerate Notre-Dame de Bon-Espoir. Although a few areas of the town were destroyed, there are nearly no signs of the siege of 1513 visible today. However, Dijon's museum of fine arts has a large tapestry depicting this episode in the town's history: it shows the town before all subsequent destruction and is an example of 16th-century art.
Dijon was occupied by anti-Napoleonic coalitions in 1814, by the Prussian army in 1870–71, by Nazi Germany beginning in June 1940, during WWII, when it was bombed by US Air Force B-17 Flying Fortresses, before the liberation of Dijon by the French Army and the French Resistance, 11 September 1944. Dijon is situated at the heart of a plain drained by two small converging rivers: the Suzon, which crosses it underground from north to south, the Ouche, on the southern side of town. Farther south is the hillside, of vineyards that gives the department its name. Dijon lies 310 km southeast of Paris, 190 km northwest of Geneva, 190 km north of Lyon; the average low of winter is −1 °C, with an average high of 4.2 °C. The average high of summer is 25.3 °C with an average low of 14.7 °C. Average normal temperatures are between 2.3 °C and 5.3 °C from November to March, 17.2 to 19.7 °C from June to August. The climate is oceanic but with a greater temperature range than closer to the Atlantic coastline. Dijon has a large number of churches, including Notre Dame de Dijon, St. Philibert, St. Michel, Dijon Cathedral, dedicated to the apocryphal Saint Benignus, the crypt of, over 1,000 years old.
The city has retained varied architectural styles from many of the main periods of the past millennium, including Capetian and Renaissance. Many still-inhabited town houses in the city's central district date from the 18th century and earlier. Dijon architecture is distinguished by, among other things, toits bourguignons made of tiles glazed in terracotta, green and black and arranged in geometric patterns. Dijon was spared the destruction of wars such as the 1870 Franco-Prussian War and the Second World War, despite the city being occupied. Therefore, many of the old buildings such as the half-timbered houses dating from the 12th to the 15th centuries are undamaged, at least by organized violence. Dijon is home to many museums, including the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon in part of the Ducal Palace, it contains, among other things, ducal kitchens dating back to the mid-15th century, a substantial collection of European art, from Roman times through the present. Am
Coat of arms
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon, surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the full heraldic achievement which in its whole consists of shield, supporters and motto. A coat of arms is traditionally unique to an individual person, state, organization or corporation; the Roll of Arms is a collection of many coats of arms, since the early Modern Age centuries it has been a source of information for public showing and tracing the membership of a noble family, therefore its genealogy across time. The ancient Greek hoplites used individual insignia on their shields; the ancient Romans used similar insignia on their shields. Heraldic designs came into general use among western nobility in the 12th century. Systematic, heritable heraldry had developed by the beginning of the 13th century. Who had a right to use arms, by law or social convention, varied to some degree between countries. Early heraldic designs were personal. Arms become hereditary by the end of the 12th century, in England by King Richard I during the Third Crusade.
Burgher arms are used in Northern Italy in the second half of the 13th century, in the Holy Roman Empire by the mid 14th century. In the late medieval period, use of arms spread to the clergy, to towns as civic identifiers, to royally chartered organizations such as universities and trading companies; the arts of vexillology and heraldry are related. The term coat of arms itself in origin refers to the surcoat with heraldic designs worn by combattants in the knightly tournament, in Old French cote a armer; the sense is transferred to the heraldic design itself in the mid-14th century. Despite no widespread regulation, heraldry has remained consistent across Europe, where tradition alone has governed the design and use of arms; some nations, like England and Scotland, still maintain the same heraldic authorities which have traditionally granted and regulated arms for centuries and continue to do so in the present day. In England, for example, the granting of arms has been controlled by the College of Arms.
Unlike seals and other general emblems, heraldic "achievements" have a formal description called a blazon, which uses vocabulary that allows for consistency in heraldic depictions. In the present day, coats of arms are still in use by a variety of institutions and individuals: for example, many European cities and universities have guidelines on how their coats of arms may be used, protect their use as trademarks. Many societies exist that aid in the design and registration of personal arms. Heraldry has been compared to modern corporate logos; the French system of heraldry influenced the British and Western European systems. Much of the terminology and classifications are taken from it. However, with the fall of the French monarchy there is not a Fons Honorum to enforce heraldic law; the French Republics that followed have either affirmed pre-existing titles and honors or vigorously opposed noble privilege. Coats of arms are considered an intellectual property of municipal body. Assumed arms are considered valid unless they can be proved in court to copy that of an earlier holder.
In the heraldic traditions of England and Scotland, an individual, rather than a family, had a coat of arms. In those traditions coats of arms are legal property transmitted from father to son. Undifferenced arms are used only by one person at any given time. Other descendants of the original bearer could bear the ancestral arms only with some difference: a colour change or the addition of a distinguishing charge. One such charge is the label, which in British usage is now always the mark of an heir apparent or an heir presumptive; because of their importance in identification in seals on legal documents, the use of arms was regulated. This has been carried out by heralds and the study of coats of arms is therefore called "heraldry". In time, the use of arms spread from military entities to educational institutes, other establishments. In Scotland, the Lord Lyon King of Arms has criminal jurisdiction to control the use of arms. In England, Northern Ireland and Wales the use of arms is a matter of civil law and regulated by the College of Arms and the High Court of Chivalry.
In reference to a dispute over the exercise of authority over the Officers of Arms in England, Arthur Annesley, 1st Earl of Anglesey, Lord Privy Seal, declared on 16 June 1673 that the powers of the Earl Marshal were "to order and determine all matters touching arms, ensigns of nobility and chivalry. It was further declared that no patents of arms or any ensigns of nobility should be granted and no augmentation, alteration, or addition should be made to arms without the consent of the Earl Marshal. In Ireland the usage and granting of coats of arms was regulated by the Ulster King of Arms from the office's creation in 1552. After Irish independence in 1922 the office was still working out of Dublin Castle; the last Ulster King of Arm
The Burgundians were a large East Germanic tribe or group of tribes that lived in the time of the Roman Empire in the region of Germania, now part of Poland. In the late Roman period, as the empire came under pressure from many such "barbarian" peoples, a powerful group of Burgundians and other Vandalic tribes moved westwards towards the Roman frontiers along the Rhine Valley, making them neighbors of the Franks who formed their kingdoms to the north, the Suebic Alemanni who were settling to their south near the Rhine, they established themselves in Worms, but with Roman cooperation their descendants established the Kingdom of the Burgundians much further south, within the empire, in the western Alps region where modern Switzerland and Italy meet. This became a component of the Frankish empire; the name of this kingdom survives in the regional appellation, a region in modern France, representing only a part of that kingdom. Another part of the Burgundians stayed in their previous homeland in the Oder-Vistula basin and formed a contingent in Attila's Hunnic army by 451.
Before clear documentary evidence begins, the Burgundians may have emigrated from mainland Scandinavia to the Baltic island of Bornholm, from there to the Vistula basin, in the middle of what is now Poland. The ethnonym Burgundians is used in English to refer to the Burgundi who settled in Sapaudia, in the western Alps, during the 5th century; the original Kingdom of the Burgundians intersected the modern Bourgogne and more matched the boundaries of the Arpitan or Romand language area, centred on the Rôno-Arpes region of France, Romandy in west Switzerland and Val d'Outa, in north west Italy. In modern usage, however, "Burgundians" can sometimes refer to inhabitants of the geographical Bourgogne or Borgogne, named after the old kingdom, but not corresponding to the original boundaries of it. Between the 6th and 20th centuries, the boundaries and political connections of "Burgundy" have changed frequently. In modern times the only area still referred to as Burgundy is in France, which derives its name from the Duchy of Burgundy.
But in the context of the Middle Ages the term Burgundian can refer to the powerful political entity the Dukes controlled which included not only Burgundy itself but had expanded to have a strong association with areas now in modern Belgium and Southern Netherlands. The parts of the old Kingdom not within the French controlled Duchy tended to come under different names, except for the County of Burgundy; the Burgundians had a tradition of Scandinavian origin which finds support in place-name evidence and archaeological evidence and many consider their tradition to be correct. The Burgundians are believed to have emigrated to the Baltic island of Bornholm. However, by about 250 AD, the population of Bornholm had disappeared from the island. Most cemeteries ceased to be used, those that were still used had few burials. In Þorsteins saga Víkingssonar, a man named Veseti settled on a holm called borgundarhólmr in Old Norse, i.e. Bornholm. Alfred the Great's translation of Orosius uses the name Burgenda land to refer to a territory next to the land of Sweons.
The poet and early mythologist Viktor Rydberg, asserted from an early medieval source, Vita Sigismundi, that they themselves retained oral traditions about their Scandinavian origin. Early Roman sources, such as Tacitus and Pliny the Elder, knew little concerning the Germanic peoples east of the Elbe river, or on the Baltic Sea. Pliny however mentions them among the Vandalic or Eastern Germanic Germani peoples, including the Goths. Claudius Ptolemy lists them as living between the Suevus and Vistula rivers, north of the Lugii, south of the coast dwelling tribes. Around the mid 2nd century AD, there was a significant migration by Germanic tribes of Scandinavian origin towards the south-east, creating turmoil along the entire Roman frontier; these migrations culminated in the Marcomannic Wars, which resulted in widespread destruction and the first invasion of Italy in the Roman Empire period. Jordanes reports that during the 3rd century, the Burgundians living in the Vistula basin were annihilated by Fastida, king of the Gepids, whose kingdom was at the mouth of the Vistula.
In the late 3rd century, the Burgundians appear on the east bank of the Rhine, confronting Roman Gaul. Zosimus reports them being defeated by the emperor Probus in 278 in Gaul. At this time, they were led by a Vandal king. A few years Claudius Mamertinus mentions them along with the Alamanni, a Suebic people; these two peoples had moved into the Agri Decumates on the eastern side of the Rhine, an area today referred to still as Swabia, at times attacking Roman Gaul together and sometimes fighting each other. He mentions that the Goths had defeated the Burgundians. Ammianus Marcellinus, on the other hand, claimed; the Roman sources do not speak of any specific migration from Poland by the Burgundians, so there have been some doubts about the link between the eastern and western Burgundians. In 369/370, the
A krater or crater was a large vase in Ancient Greece used for watering down wine. At a Greek symposium, kraters were placed in the center of the room, they were quite large, so they were not portable when filled. Thus, the wine-water mixture would be withdrawn from the krater with other vessels, such as a kyathos, an amphora, or a kylix. In fact, Homer's Odyssey describes a steward drawing wine from a krater at a banquet and running to and fro pouring the wine into guests' drinking cups; the modern Greek word now used for undiluted wine, originates from the krasis of wine and water in kraters. Kraters were glazed on the interior to make the surface of the clay more impervious for holding water, for aesthetic reasons, since the interior could be seen; the exterior of kraters depicted scenes from Greek life, such as the Attic Late 1 Krater, made between 760 and 735 B. C. E; this object was found among other funeral objects, its exterior depicted a funeral procession to the gravesite. At the beginning of each symposium a symposiarch, or "lord of the common drink", was elected by the participants.
He would assume control of the wine servants, thus of the degree of wine dilution and how it changed during the party, the rate of cup refills. The krater and how it was filled and emptied was thus the centerpiece of the symposiarch's authority. An astute symposiarch should be able to diagnose the degree of inebriation of his fellow symposiasts and make sure that the symposium progressed smoothly and without drunken excess. Drinking ákratos wine was considered a severe faux pas in ancient Greece, enough to characterize the drinker as a drunkard and someone who lacked restraint and principle. Ancient writers prescribed that a mixing ratio of 1:3 was optimal for long conversation, a ratio of 1:2 when fun was to be had, 1:1 was only suited for orgiastic revelry, to be indulged in rarely, if at all. Since such mixtures would produce an unpalatable and watery drink if applied to most wines made in the modern style, this practice of the ancients has led to speculation that ancient wines might have been vinified to a high alcoholic degree and sugar content, e.g. by using dehydrated grapes, could withstand dilution with water better.
Such wines would have withstood time and the vagaries of transportation much better. The ancient writers offer scant details of ancient vinification methods, therefore this theory, though plausible, remains unsupported by evidence; this form originated in Corinth in the seventh century BCE but was taken over by the Athenians where it is black-figure. They ranged in size from 35 centimetres to 56 centimetres in height and were thrown in three pieces: the body/ shoulder area was one, the base another, the neck/ lip/ rim a third; the handles were pulled separately. These are among the largest of the kraters developed by the potter Exekias in black figure though in fact always seen in red; the lower body is shaped like the calyx of a flower, the foot is stepped. The psykter-shaped vase fits inside it so well stylistically that it has been suggested that the two might have been made as a set, it is always made with two robust upturned handles positioned on opposite sides of the lower body or "cul".
This type of krater, defined by volute-shaped handles, was invented in Laconia in the early 6th century BC adopted by Attic potters. Its production was carried on by Greeks in Apulia until the end of the 4th century BC, its shape and method of manufacture are similar to those of the column krater, but the handles are unique: to make each, the potter would have first made two side spirals as decorative disks attached a long thin slab of clay around them both forming a drum with flanged edges. This strip would have been continued downward until the bottom of the handle where the potter would have cut a U-shaped arch in the clay before attaching the handle to the body of the vase. Bell kraters were first made in the early fifth century which meant that it came than the three other krater types This form of krater looks like an inverted bell with handles that are faced up. Bell kraters are not black-figure like the other kraters. According to most scholars ceramic kraters imitated shapes designed for metal vessels.
Among the largest and most famous metal kraters in antiquity were one in the possession of the Samian tyrant Polycrates, another one dedicated by Croesus to the Delphic oracle. There are a few extant Archaic bronze kraters exclusively of the volute-type, their main production centres were Sparta and Corinth, in Peloponnesus. During the Classical period the Volute-type continued to be popular along with the calyx-type, beside the Corinthian workshop an Attic one was active. Exquisite exemplars of both volute- and calyx-kraters come from Macedonian 4th century BC graves. Among them the gilded Derveni Krater represents an exceptional chef d’œuvre of late Classical metalwork; the Vix bronze crater, found in a Celtic tomb in central France is the largest known Greek krater, being 1.63 m in height and over 200 kg in weight. Others were in silver, which were too valuable and tempting to thieves to be buried in graves, have not survived. Ornamental stone kraters are known from Hellenistic times, the most famous being the Borghese Vase of Pentelic Marble and the Medici Vase, als