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Burhou is a small island about 1.4 miles northwest of Alderney, part of the Channel Islands. It has no permanent residents, is a bird sanctuary, so landing there is banned from March 15 to August 1st; the island's wildlife includes a colony of many rabbits. It has no landing stage as such. In rough weather it may be impossible to land; the Guernsey botanist E. D. Marquand called it, "the most desolate and lonely of all the islands in our archipelago." He once had to spend the night there. The 1906 book, The Channel Pilot states – The States of Alderney member, John Beaman has political responsibility for the island. Despite being isolated, inhabited and infrequently, Burhou has a long history. Like the rest of the English Channel, it would have been linked to both modern-day England and France by dry land many thousands of years ago. Burhou, like many other Channel Islands, has the Norman suffix -hou, meaning a small island, from the Old Norse holmr. According to Dr. S. K. Kellet-Smith, "bur" refers to a storehouse – "Burhou is just the place where a fisherman would place a depository for his gear".

However, signs of human occupation/visitation are much older. Flint flakes have been found on the island, one is in the Alderney Museum. In 1847, F. C. Lukis found two standing stones, but these have since been lost, according to the archaeologist David Johnston. According to the Assize Roll of the 14th century, Burhou was a rabbit warren, a refuge for fishermen; as Victor Coysh deduces, this would have meant that there would have been some kind of shelter there, as it would be difficult for the fishermen to take refuge without it. A hut was built on the island in 1820 as a shelter for fishermen and sailors at the instigation of John Le Mesurier, but was destroyed during the German occupation of the Channel Islands; the hut was replaced in 1953, with basic accommodation, rented out to visitors by Alderney Harbour Office. Attempts have been periodically made to raise sheep there. In 1900, a French couple lived there for a year; the soil is thin, spray goes right over the island, ensuring high soil salinity.

The island has no fresh water supply for much of the year, has to rely on shipments, or tanks. The island's animals are of the avian variety, although rabbits are long established here; the island has some storm petrels. Although the latter have declined, they used to nest in the cottage's storm loft. Roderick Dobson in Birds of the Channel Islands said that puffins had been plentiful for over a century; the Birds of Guernsey by Cecil Smith states likewise. The puffins have had to compete with gulls, in 1949, hundreds died from red mite infestation; the rabbit holes on the island make good nesting for them. Amongst the plants noted here are sea spurry, forget-me-nots, scarlet pimpernel, field bugloss and nettles. E. D. Marquand noted a mere 18 species of plant here in 1909, but by the late twentieth century, Frances Le Sueur and David McClintock found 45, which they wrote up in the Transactions of La Société Guernesiaise. List of Ramsar wetlands of international importance Operation Branford Channel Islets – Victor Coysh BBC Pronouncing Dictionary of British Names RAMSAR wetland


NAIRU is an acronym for non-accelerating inflation rate of unemployment, refers to a theoretical level of unemployment below which inflation would be expected to rise. It was first introduced as NIRU by Franco Modigliani and Lucas Papademos in 1975, as an improvement over the "natural rate of unemployment" concept, proposed earlier by Milton Friedman. In the United States, estimates of NAIRU range between 5 and 6%. Monetary policy conducted under the assumption of a NAIRU involves allowing just enough unemployment in the economy to prevent inflation rising above a given target figure. Prices are allowed to increase and some unemployment is tolerated. An early form of NAIRU is found in the work of Abba P. Lerner, who referred to it as "low full employment" attained via the expansion of aggregate demand, in contrast with the "high full employment" which adds incomes policies to demand stimulation. Friedrich von Hayek argued that governments attempting to achieve full employment would accelerate inflation because some people's skills were worthless.

The concept arose in the wake of the popularity of the Phillips curve which summarized the observed negative correlation between the rate of unemployment and the rate of inflation for a number of industrialised countries with more or less mixed economies. This correlation persuaded some analysts that it was impossible for governments to target both arbitrarily low unemployment and price stability, that, therefore, it was government's role to seek a point on the trade-off between unemployment and inflation which matched a domestic social consensus. During the 1970s in the United States and several other industrialized countries, Phillips curve analysis became less popular, because inflation rose at the same time that unemployment rose. Worse, as far as many economists were concerned, was that the Phillips curve had little or no theoretical basis. Critics of this analysis argued that the Phillips curve could not be a fundamental characteristic of economic general equilibrium because it showed a correlation between a real economic variable and a nominal economic variable.

Their counter-analysis was that government macroeconomic policy was being driven by a low unemployment target and that this caused expectations of inflation to change, so that accelerating inflation rather than reduced unemployment was the result. The resulting prescription was that government economic policy should not be influenced by any level of unemployment below a critical level - the "natural rate" or NAIRU; the idea behind the natural rate hypothesis put forward by Friedman was that any given labor market structure must involve a certain amount of unemployment, including frictional unemployment associated with individuals changing jobs and classical unemployment arising from real wages being held above the market-clearing level by minimum wage laws, trade unions or other labour market institutions. Unexpected inflation might allow unemployment to fall below the natural rate by temporarily depressing real wages, but this effect would dissipate once expectations about inflation were corrected.

Only with continuously accelerating inflation could rates of unemployment below the natural rate be maintained. The "natural rate" terminology was supplanted by that of the NAIRU, which referred to a rate of unemployment below which inflation would accelerate, but did not imply a commitment to any particular theoretical explanation, any particular preferred policy remedy or a prediction that the rate would be stable over time. Franco Modigliani and Lucas Papademos defined the noninflationary rate of employment as the rate of employment above which inflation could be expected to decline, attempted to estimate it from empirical data James Tobin suggested the reason for them choosing a different term was to avoid the "normative implications" of the concept of a'natural' rate, he argued that the idea of a'natural' rate of unemployment should be viewed as linked to Friedman's description of it as the unemployment rate emerging in general equilibrium, when all other parts of the economy clear, whereas the notion of a NAIRU was compatible with an economy in which other markets need not be in equilibrium.

In practice the terms can be viewed as synonymous. If U ∗ is the NAIRU and U is the actual unemployment rate, the theory says that: if U < U ∗ for a few years, inflationary expectations rise, so that the inflation rate tends to increase. Okun's law can be stated as saying that for every one percentage point by which the actual unemployment rate exceeds the so-called "natural" rate of unemployment, real gross domestic product is reduced by 2% to 3%; the level of the NAIRU itself is assumed to fluctuate over time as the relationship between unemployment level and pressure on wage levels is affected by productivity and public policies In Australia, for example, the NAIRU is estimated to have fallen

PC Live!

PC Live! was a digital lifestyle magazine from the Republic of Ireland edited and produced by the publishing company Mediateam in Dublin. PC Live! was first published in 1994 by the Scope Communications Group and by Mediateam, a company formed when Scope merged with Computer Publications Group in 2005. The magazine was aimed at readers with an interest in computer hardware, home entertainment, personal technology and gaming. A number of editors worked on PC Live! during its run, including Paul Healy, John Collins, Stephen Cawley and Niall Kitson. PC Live! Ceased publication with its April/May 2011 issue. Mediateam still publishes two other ICT titles. ComputerScope is an end user ICT magazine. Irish Computer is a separate ICT magazine bundled with ComputerScope for channel readers. An online presence is maintained through the news and analysis website, a podcast made in association with Digital Audio Productions. Outside of ICT, MediaTeam publishes Shelflife, an FMCG title, The Irish Garden.

Mediateam is a member of Magazines Ireland, a professional body whose members are the major magazine publishers in the Republic of Ireland. PC Live! was nominated in the Best Specialist Consumer Magazine category at the 2007, 2009 PPAI Awards and 2010 Magazines Ireland Awards. Official Website MediaTeam ComputerScope Irish Computer ShelfLife The Irish Garden Digital Audio Productions Magazines Ireland

Archdeacon of Salop

The Archdeacon of Salop is a senior ecclesiastical officer in the Church of England Diocese of Lichfield. The incumbent is Paul Thomas. Shropshire was split between the diocese of Hereford and the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield; the Shropshire archdeaconry in the Hereford diocese included the deaneries of Burford, Ludlow, Pontesbury and Wenlock and the Salop archdeaconry in the Coventry and Lichfield diocese the deaneries of Salop and Newport. In 1876, the archdeaconry of Shropshire became the archdeaconry of Ludlow, with the additional deaneries of Bridgnorth, Bishops Castle and Church Stretton, added in 1535; the archdeaconry of Salop, now in the Lichfield diocese, includes the deaneries of Edgmond, Hodnet, Telford, Wem and Wrockwardine. Part of Welsh Shropshire was included in the diocese of St Asaph until the disestablishment of the Church in Wales, comprising the deanery of Oswestry in the archdeaconry of Montgomery, two parishes in the deanery of Llangollen and the archdeaconry of Wrexham.

Certain parishes in Montgomeryshire chose to remain in the Hereford diocese. Le Neve, John. Archdeacons of Salop. Fasti ecclesiae Anglicanae. 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Pp. 573–4 – via Wikisource. Jones, B. Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1300–1541, 10, pp. 17–18 Horn, Joyce M. Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1541–1857, 10, pp. 12–14

1998–99 Football League Trophy

The Football League Trophy 1998–99, known as the Auto Windscreens Shield 1998–99 for sponsorship reasons, was the 16th staging of the Football League Trophy, a knock-out competition for English football clubs in Second and Third Division. The winners were Wigan Athletic; the competition began on 8 December 1998 and ended with the final on 18 April 1999 at the Wembley Stadium. In the first round, there were two sections: South. In the following rounds each section eliminates teams in knock-out fashion until each has a winning finalist. At this point, the two winning finalists face each other in the combined final to determine the winners of the Football League Trophy. Wigan Athletic beat Wrexham 5–2 on aggregate. Millwall beat Walsall 2–1 on aggregate. Official website Auto Windscreens Shield – 1998/99


Pointe-aux-Trembles was a municipality, founded in 1674, annexed by Montreal, Canada, in 1982. This was the last city to be merged into Montreal until the 2002 municipal reorganization. On January 1, 2002 this neighbourhood at the far east end of the Island of Montreal became part of the borough of Rivière-des-Prairies–Pointe-aux-Trembles–Montréal-Est. On January 1, 2006 Montreal East demerged, the borough became Rivière-des-Prairies–Pointe-aux-Trembles. One can find a windmill, at the corner of Notre-Dame Street and Third Avenue, built in 1719, its three storeys make it the tallest windmill in Québec. In 1650 the Grou family of Rouen France established a land holding here; the Commission scolaire de la Pointe-de-l'Île operates Francophone schools in this area. The district's headquarters is in Pointe-aux-Trembles; the École secondaire Pointe-aux-Trembles and the École secondaire Daniel-Johnson are both within the community. Primary schools: Félix-Leclerc François-La Bernarde Le Tournesol Montmartre Notre Dame Saint-Marcel Sainte-Germaine-Cousin Sainte-Marguerite-Bourgeoys Sainte-Maria-GorettiThe English Montreal School Board operates Anglophone schools serving the area.

The community is served by the Pointe-aux-Trembles branch of the Montreal Public Libraries Network. Jean Basset Boroughs of Montreal Districts of Montreal Municipal reorganization in Quebec History of Montreal Pointe-aux-Trembles Pointe-aux-Trembles railway station