Buried treasure

A buried treasure is an important part of the popular beliefs surrounding pirates and Old West outlaws. According to popular conception, these people buried their stolen fortunes in remote places, intending to return to them often with the use of a treasure map. In reality, pirates burying treasure was rare; the only pirate known to have buried treasure was William Kidd, believed to have buried at least some of his wealth on Gardiners Island near Long Island before sailing into New York City. Kidd had been commissioned as a privateer for England, but his behavior had strayed into outright piracy, he hoped that his treasure could serve as a bargaining chip in negotiations to avoid punishment, his bid was unsuccessful and Kidd was hanged as a pirate. In English fiction there are three well-known stories that helped to popularize the myth of buried pirate treasure: Wolfert Webber by Washington Irving, The Gold-Bug by Edgar Allan Poe and Treasure Island by Robert Louis Stevenson; these stories differ in plot and literary treatment but are all based on the William Kidd legend.

David Cordingly states that "The effect of Treasure Island on our perception of pirates cannot be overestimated," and says the idea of treasure maps leading to buried treasure "is an fictional device." Stevenson's Treasure Island was directly influenced by Irving's Wolfert Webber, Stevenson saying in his preface, "It is my debt to Washington Irving that exercises my conscience, justly so, for I believe plagiarism was carried farther... the whole inner spirit and a good deal of the material detail of my first chapters... were the property of Washington Irving."In 1911, American author Ralph D. Paine conducted a survey of all known or purported stories of buried treasure and published them in The Book of Buried Treasure, he found a common trait in all the stories: there was always a lone survivor of a piratical crew who somehow preserved a chart showing where the treasure was buried, but unable to return himself, he transfers the map or information to a friend or shipmate on his deathbed. This person would go search in vain for the treasure, but not before transferring the legend down to another hapless seeker.

The Roman historian Dio Cassius says that, in the early 2nd century, the Dacian king Decebalus had changed the course of river Sargetia and buried tons of gold and silver in the river bed. He ordered the river to be restored and the slaves involved in the works to be executed. However, one of his nobles revealed the treasure's location to the Romans; the Byzantine historian Jordanes tells a similar story of the burial of the Visigoth king Alaric I and his treasure under the river Busento in 410. The burial places of the Khazar kings and other inner Asian people were under a rerouted river. There are a number of reports of supposed buried pirate treasure that surfaced much earlier than these works, which indicates that the idea was at least around for more than a century before those stories were published. For example, extensive excavation has taken place on Oak Island since 1795 in the belief that one or more pirate captains had hidden large amounts of valuables there; these excavations were said to have been prompted by still older legends of buried pirate treasure in the area.

No treasure has been reported to be found yet. The Treasure of Lima is a supposed buried treasure on Cocos Island in the Pacific abandoned by pirates; the treasure, estimated to be worth £160 million, was stolen by British Captain William Thompson in 1820 after he was entrusted to transport it from Peru to Mexico. The only authenticated treasure chest in the United States, once owned by Thomas Tew, is kept at the Pirate Soul Museum in St. Augustine, Florida. Closer to modern times, the notorious drug lord Pablo Escobar buried large sums of money in the form of US currency across Colombia. While a lot of it has been retrieved, large portions still remain buried. Pirate Olivier Levasseur known as "The Buzzard", was rumoured to have hidden treasure before his death in 1730. No such treasure has been found. During the Great Fire of London, wealthy residents of the city buried luxury goods such as gold and wine in the ground to protect it from the raging flames above. Buried treasure is not the same as a hoard, of which there have been thousands of examples found by archaeologists and metal detectors.

Buried treasure is as much a cultural concept as an objective thing. It is related to pirates and other criminals who leave stolen artifacts behind for retrieval in remote places like islands, sometimes with maps leading back to the treasure. Chest List of missing treasure Treasure of Guarrazar

Vastus lateralis muscle

The vastus lateralis called the"vastus externus" is the largest and most powerful part of the quadriceps femoris, a muscle in the thigh. Together with other muscles of the quadriceps group, it serves to extend the knee joint, moving the lower leg forward, it arises from a series of flat, broad tendons attached to the femur, attaches to the outer border of the patella. It joins with the other muscles that make up the quadriceps in the quadriceps tendon, which travels over the knee to connect to the tibia; the vastus lateralis is the recommended site for intramuscular injection in infants less than 7 months old and those unable to walk, with loss of muscular tone. The vastus lateralis muscle arises from several areas of the femur, including the upper part of the intertrochanteric line; these form a broad flat tendon that covers the upper three-quarters of the muscle. From the inner surface of the aponeurosis, many muscle fibers originate; some additional fibers arise from the tendon of the gluteus maximus muscle, from the septum between the vastus lateralis and short head of the biceps femoris.

The fibers form a large fleshy mass, attached to a second strong aponeurosis, placed on the deep surface of the lower part of the muscle. This lower aponeurosis becomes contracted and thickened into a flat tendon that attaches to the outer border of the patella, subsequently joins with the quadriceps femoris tendon, expanding the capsule of the knee-joint; the vastus lateralis muscle is innervated by the muscular branches of the femoral nerve. Notes This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 470 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Cross section image: pembody/body18b—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna Cross section image: pelvis/pelvis-e12-15—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna PTCentral

Panje-Dongri wetlands

The Panje-Dongri wetlands is located in the coastal town of Uran, Navi Mumbai in Raigad district of Maharashtra in India. It is a major bird watching site in Mumbai Metropolitan Region; the wetland is home to 1.4 lakhs migratory birds in the winter. It is the last surviving wetland at Uran; the core wetland area at Panje covers 213 hectares and consists of foraging and roosting areas of several bird species. The buffer area of 157 hectares is mangroves. Panje consists of a mix of habitats including freshwater and saline marshes, mangroves and scrub — make it a fine birding place; the Panje wetlands are notified and protected under the Maharashtra National Wetland Atlas 2011. In 2015, The State Wildlife Board approved the creation of a bird sanctuary at Panje-Funde near Uran. A film documenting the flora and fauna of this wetland was made by Aishwarya Sridhar-a young wildlife film maker; the film is called"Panje-The Last Wetland". The area is home to large numbers of coconut mangroves, it is the foraging and roosting area for several bird species like Lesser sand plover, Curlew sandpiper, Little stint, Gull billed tern, Brown headed Gull, Black headed Gull, Heuglin’s Gull, Blue-tailed bee-eater, Lesser Flamingoes, Greater Flamingoes, Purple moorhens, Eurasian Curlew, Ruddy Shelduck, Common Shelduck, Eurasian Coots, Spot-billed bucks, Pheasant tailed Jacana, Bar tailed Godwits, Black tailed Godwit, Marsh sandpipers, Scaly breasted Munia, Tri-colored Munia, Red Avadavat, Indian Skimmer, the Asian Desert Warbler, the Bristled Grassbird, Caspian Plover and many more.

One can see as many as 800-900 flamingoes at Panje coastal village during the months of October–March. Last year, two rare wetland birds of the species Red-necked Phalarope were seen at Panje after a gap of 15 years. Mammals found here include Indian Grey Mongoose, Jungle Cat, Indian Fox and Indian Jackal. Reptiles found are Common Rat Snake, Indian Cobra, Checkered Keelback, Buff striped Keelback, Rock python, Common Krait, Russel’s Viper and Saw scaled Viper. Panje wetland is rich in terms of fish catch; the Uran wetlands serve as a fish breeding ground and the main livelihood of the local people is fishing. Around 85% of Uran’s wetlands have been destroyed. Recurring cases of mangrove destruction and reclamation of wetlands have happened at Uran. Illegal landfills are on the rise and the wetlands are being assimilated in the coastal city; this unprecedented land development and urbanization are creating concerns about the impact on the environment. This is because the wetlands serve as a natural sponge absorbing excess rainfall and doing its bit to reduce pollution.

Wetlands are under threat due to exponential expansion of real-estate projects in Mumbai Now a day, land encroachment and land alteration are the important aspect of threats for Panje wetlands and the Bombay Natural History Society had published a report stating the protection of Panje wetlands due to its proximity to the Navi Mumbai International Airport. The wetland is a part of the Navi Mumbai Special Economic Zone and in the entire wetland a boundary has been created by NMSEZ. In September 2018, City and Industrial Development Corporation of Maharashtra shut the high tide water ingress to the Panje Wetlands; the barrier was built in the year 1991 with help from Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay as a flood control mechanism. It shuts automatically during high tide and opens up during low tide, remaining closed throughout the months of monsoon. However, in the last week of September, some gates were damaged and the barrier was shut down, starving water supply into the mangroves. Around 60% of the Panje wetlands dried up.

Navi Mumbai residents and environmentalists filed a complaint with the state highlighting CIDCO’s actions. This led to the HC appointed state mangrove committee to issue directions to stop reclamation activities at Uran to protect bird habitats. On October 6, 2018, CIDCO opened 10 out of the 76 sluice gates, but environmentalists complained. Vanashakti filed a contempt petition against Cidco under its original petition to safeguard wetlands in Maharashtra. On October 10, 2018, a day before the Bombay High Court appointed wetland grievance redressal committee was to hear the matter, Cidco vice chairman and managing director instructed his engineering team to open majority of the gates at Panje. Of 76 gates, 70 opened by Cidco, the wetland and holding pond area were restored. Today, Panje is the last surviving wetland of Uran