The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Edmund Burke was an Irish statesman born in Dublin, as well as an author, political theorist and philosopher, who after moving to London in 1750 served as a member of parliament between 1766 and 1794 in the House of Commons with the Whig Party. Burke was a proponent of underpinning virtues with manners in society and of the importance of religious institutions for the moral stability and good of the state; these views were expressed in his A Vindication of Natural Society. Burke criticized British treatment of the American colonies, including through its taxation policies, he supported the rights of the colonists to resist metropolitan authority, though he opposed the attempt to achieve independence. Burke is remembered for his support for Catholic emancipation, the impeachment of Warren Hastings from the East India Company and for his staunch opposition to the French Revolution. In his Reflections on the Revolution in France, Burke asserted that the revolution was destroying the fabric of good society and traditional institutions of state and society, condemned the persecution of the Catholic Church that resulted from it.
This led to his becoming the leading figure within the conservative faction of the Whig Party, which he dubbed the "Old Whigs", as opposed to the pro-French Revolution "New Whigs", led by Charles James Fox. In the nineteenth century, Burke was praised by both liberals. Subsequently, in the twentieth century he became regarded as the philosophical founder of modern conservatism. Burke was born in Ireland, his mother Mary née Nagle was a Roman Catholic who hailed from a déclassé County Cork family, whereas his father, a successful solicitor, was a member of the Church of Ireland. The Burke dynasty descends from an Anglo-Norman knight surnamed de Burgh who arrived in Ireland in 1185 following Henry II of England's 1171 invasion of Ireland and is among the chief "Gall" families that assimilated into Gaelic society, becoming "more Irish than the Irish themselves". Burke adhered to his father's faith and remained a practising Anglican throughout his life, unlike his sister Juliana, brought up as and remained a Roman Catholic.
His political enemies accused him of having been educated at the Jesuit College of St. Omer, near Calais, of harbouring secret Catholic sympathies at a time when membership of the Catholic Church would disqualify him from public office; as Burke told Frances Crewe: Mr. Burke's Enemies endeavoured to convince the World that he had been bred up in the Catholic Faith, & that his Family were of it, & that he himself had been educated at St. Omer—but this was false, as his father was a regular practitioner of the Law at Dublin, which he could not be unless of the Established Church: & it so happened that though Mr. B—was twice at Paris, he never happened to go through the Town of St. Omer. After being elected to the House of Commons, Burke was required to take the oath of Allegiance and abjuration, the oath of supremacy, declare against transubstantiation. Although never denying his Irishness, Burke described himself as "an Englishman". According to the historian J. C. D. Clark, this was in an age "before'Celtic nationalism' sought to make Irishness and Englishness incompatible".
As a child he sometimes spent time away from the unhealthy air of Dublin with his mother's family in the Blackwater Valley in County Cork. He received his early education at a Quaker school in Ballitore, County Kildare, some 67 kilometres from Dublin, he remained in correspondence with his schoolmate from there, Mary Leadbeater, the daughter of the school's owner, throughout his life. In 1744, Burke started at Trinity College Dublin, a Protestant establishment, which up until 1793, did not permit Catholics to take degrees. In 1747, he set up a debating society, "Edmund Burke's Club", which, in 1770, merged with TCD's Historical Club to form the College Historical Society; the minutes of the meetings of Burke's Club remain in the collection of the Historical Society. Burke graduated from Trinity in 1748. Burke's father wanted him to read Law, with this in mind he went to London in 1750, where he entered the Middle Temple, before soon giving up legal study to travel in Continental Europe. After eschewing the Law, he pursued a livelihood through writing.
The late Lord Bolingbroke's Letters on the Study and Use of History was published in 1752 and his collected works appeared in 1754. This provoked Burke into writing his first published work, A Vindication of Natural Society: A View of the Miseries and Evils Arising to Mankind, appearing in Spring 1756. Burke imitated Bolingbroke's style and ideas in a reductio ad absurdum of his arguments for atheistic rationalism, in order to demonstrate their absurdity. Burke claimed that Bolingbroke's arguments against revealed religion could apply to all social and civil institutions as well. Lord Chesterfield and Bishop Warburton thought that the work was genuinely by Bolingbroke rather than a satire. All the reviews of the work were positive, with critics appreciative of Burke's quality of writing; some reviewers failed to notice the ironic nature of the book, which led to Burke stating in the preface to the second edition that it was a satire. Richard Hurd believed that Burke's imitation was near-perfect and that this defeated his purpose: an ironist "should take care by a constant exaggeration to
Waynesboro is a city in Burke County, United States. The population was 5,766 at the 2010 census; the city is the county seat of Burke County. It is part of Georgia metropolitan area. Waynesboro is known as "The Bird Dog Capital of the World"; the Waynesboro Commercial Historic District is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Waynesboro is located in one of the eight original counties of Georgia; the city was named after General Anthony Wayne, whose daring efforts during the Revolutionary War earned him the nickname "Mad Anthony Wayne". Although European Americans lived in the area before the Revolutionary War, the town was not laid out until 1783; the city was incorporated in 1883 as Waynesborough. The name was changed to Waynesboro sometime after, it developed as the trading and government center of the county, is the site of the county courthouse and jail. President George Washington spent the night of May 1791, in Waynesboro. A stone monument on Liberty Street marks the historical site.
On December 4, 1864, the Civil War Battle of Waynesboro was fought just south of the town. Forces under Union General Judson Kilpatrick prevented troops led by Confederate General Joseph Wheeler from interfering with Union General William T. Sherman's campaign to destroy a wide swathe of the South on his march to Savannah and the Atlantic Ocean. Waynesboro is located in the center of Burke County at 33°5′26″N 82°0′55″W. U. S. Route 25 bypasses the city on the east side, while State Route 121 passes through the center as Liberty Street. To the north it is 28 miles to downtown Augusta, to the south it is 49 miles to Statesboro. According to the United States Census Bureau, Waynesboro has a total area of 5.5 square miles, of which 5.4 square miles is land and 0.039 square miles, or 0.96%, is water. The city's elevation is 295 feet above sea level. Pine, oak and other trees found in the South are in Waynesboro; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 5,766 people residing in the city. The racial makeup of the city was 70.4% Black, 25.9% White, <0.1% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.1% from some other race and 1.0% from two or more races.
2.0 % were Latino of any race. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,813 people, 2,151 households, 1,473 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,064.1 people per square mile. There were 2,395 housing units at an average density of 438.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 62.55% African American, 35.89% White, 0.10% Native American, 0.09% Asian, 0.41% from other races, 0.96% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.20% of the population. There were 2,151 households out of which 37.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.1% were married couples living together, 32.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.5% were non-families. 28.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.21. In the city, the population was spread out with 33.3% under the age of 18, 10.0% from 18 to 24, 24.6% from 25 to 44, 17.9% from 45 to 64, 14.2% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 78.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 69.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $20,346, the median income for a family was $24,012. Males had a median income of $30,750 versus $19,462 for females; the per capita income for the city was $12,151. About 35.3% of families and 42.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 60.6% of those under age 18 and 28.9% of those age 65 or over. On February 2, 2010, President Obama was expected to announce a total of $8.3 billion in federal loan guarantees to build and operate a pair of nuclear reactors in Burke County by Southern Company, an Atlanta-based energy company. The U. S. Department of Energy offered Southern Company's subsidiary, Georgia Power, a conditional commitment for loan guarantees for the construction of the nation's first nuclear power units in more than 30 years; the new units will be located at Plant Vogtle along the Savannah River 21 miles east of Waynesboro, where the company owns and operates two nuclear units.
The conditional commitment is for loan guarantees that would apply to future borrowings related to the construction of Vogtle units 3 and 4. The Burke County Museum traces the area's history, from plantation life to the establishment of agribusiness. K-12 public education in Waynesboro is managed by Burke County Public Schools, with one high school, one middle school, two elementary/one primary school, one alternative school and four private schools. SGA Elementary School Blakeney Elementary School Waynesboro Primary School Burke County Middle School Burke County High School Burke County Alternative School Private Schools Burke Haven Christian Edmund Burke Academy Lord's House of Praise Christian Waynesboro Mennonite School Waynesboro is the home to the Burke County Bears high school sports teams; the Bears won the 2011 state football championship against the Trojans of Peach County. Back in the 1950s, the former Waynesboro High School team, the Purple Hurricanes, won the state championship, but the Bears had not won a state championship football game until 2011.
Augusta Technical College, Waynesboro campus Jonathan Broxton, Major League Baseball player Wycliffe Gordon, jazz trombonist Cornelius
Barnwell County, South Carolina
Barnwell County is a county in the U. S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2010 census, its population was 22,621, its county seat is Barnwell. The Barnwell District was created in 1797 from the southwestern portion of the Orangeburg District, along the Savannah River, it was named after a local figure in the Revolutionary War. In 1868, under the South Carolina Constitution revised during Reconstruction, South Carolina districts became counties; the government was made more democratic, with county officials to be elected by male citizens at least 21 years old, rather than by the state legislature as done previously. In 1871 the legislature took the northwestern portion of the county to form part of the new Aiken County, the only county organized during the Reconstruction era. In 1874 the border with Aiken County was adjusted slightly; this county and Barnwell, with populations of blacks and whites that were nearly equal, had extensive violence in the months before the 1874 and 1876 elections, as groups of paramilitary Red Shirts rode to disrupt black Republican meetings and intimidate voters to suppress black voting.
More than 100 black men were killed in Aiken County during the violence at Ellenton, South Carolina. In 1895 white Democrats in the state legislature passed a new constitution, disfranchising most blacks for more than 60 years by raising barriers to voter registration. In 1897 the eastern third of the county was taken to form the new Bamberg County. In 1919 most of the southern half of the county was taken to form most of the new Allendale County, thus reducing Barnwell county to its present size. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 557 square miles, of which 548 square miles is land and 8.9 square miles is water. Aiken County - north Bamberg County - east Orangeburg County - east Allendale County - southeast Burke County, Georgia - southwest As of the census of 2000, there were 23,478 people, 9,021 households, 6,431 families residing in the county; the population density was 43 people per square mile. There were 10,191 housing units at an average density of 19 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 55.18% White, 42.55% Black or African American, 0.35% Native American, 0.39% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.78% from other races, 0.72% from two or more races. 1.39% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 9,021 households out of which 34.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.40% were married couples living together, 19.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.70% were non-families. 25.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.08. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.10% under the age of 18, 8.70% from 18 to 24, 27.90% from 25 to 44, 22.60% from 45 to 64, 12.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 92.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $28,591, the median income for a family was $35,866.
Males had a median income of $31,161 versus $21,904 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,870. About 17.90% of families and 20.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.30% of those under age 18 and 24.40% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 22,621 people, 8,937 households, 6,055 families residing in the county; the population density was 41.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 10,484 housing units at an average density of 19.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 52.6% white, 44.3% black or African American, 0.6% Asian, 0.4% American Indian, 0.7% from other races, 1.5% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 11.5% were American, 5.7% were German, 5.4% were English. Of the 8,937 households, 34.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.8% were married couples living together, 20.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.2% were non-families, 28.4% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.05. The median age was 38.8 years. The median income for a household in the county was $33,816 and the median income for a family was $41,764. Males had a median income of $35,957 versus $30,291 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,592. About 20.8% of families and 25.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 39.6% of those under age 18 and 11.5% of those age 65 or over. Barnwell Blackville Elko Hilda Kline Snelling Williston Rosa Louise Woodberry, school founder National Register of Historic Places listings in Barnwell County, South Carolina Barnwell County The Barnwell Web Geographic data related to Barnwell County, South Carolina at OpenStreetMap Barnwell County history and images
Aiken County, South Carolina
Aiken County is a county in the U. S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2010 U. S. Census, its population was 160,099, its county seat and largest city is Aiken. Aiken County is a part of the Augusta-Richmond County, GA-SC Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is in the Sandhills region, with the northern parts reaching in the Piedmont and southern parts reaching into the Coastal Plain. Both Aiken County and its county seat of Aiken are named after William Aiken, the first president of the South Carolina Railroad Company. Aiken County was organized during the Reconstruction era in 1871 from portions of Barnwell, Edgefield and Orangeburg counties. Prince Rivers, a freedman and state legislator from Edgefield County, had been a leader in the United States Colored Troops, he was named to head the commission. He was dubbed "The Black Prince" by local newspapers, including the Edgefield Advertiser, he led the commission that selected the site of Aiken County's present-day courthouse. Other freedmen who were part of the founding of the county were Samuel J. Lee, speaker of the state House and the first black man admitted to the South Carolina Bar.
Political tensions kept rising in South Carolina during the 1870s around elections. In the months prior to the 1876 elections, Aiken County was one of the areas to suffer white paramilitary Red Shirts attacks and violence directed against black Republicans to suppress the black vote. Between the Hamburg Massacre in July and several days of rioting in September in Ellenton, more than 100 black men were killed by white paramilitary groups in this county. Two white men died in the violence. In the late 19th century, the county became a popular winter refuge for affluent Northerners, who built luxury housing; the county remains popular with horse trainers and professional riders because mild winters allow lengthy training seasons. In the 1950s, Aiken County, along with the nearby counties of Allendale and Barnwell was chosen as the location for storage of nuclear materials and various fissile materials, now known as the Savannah River Site. Ellenton, South Carolina was acquired and its buildings demolished for its development for this plant.
Its residents and businesses were all moved north about eight miles to New Ellenton. Developed during Cold War tensions, the facility is now scheduled for decommissioning of various parts of the site. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,081 square miles, of which 1,071 square miles is land and 9.6 square miles is water. It is the fourth-largest county in South Carolina by land area. Saluda County - north Lexington County - northeast Orangeburg County - east Barnwell County - south Burke County, Georgia - southwest Edgefield County - west Richmond County, Georgia - west I-20 I-520 U. S. 1 US 25 US 78 US 278 As of the census of 2000, there were 142,552 people, 55,587 households, 39,411 families residing in the county. The population density was 133 inhabitants per square mile. There were 61,987 housing units at an average density of 58 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 71.37% White, 25.56% Black or African American, 0.40% Native American, 0.63% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.18% from two or more races.
2.12% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 22.0% were of American, 9.7% English, 8.4% German and 7.9% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 55,587 households out of which 33.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.30% were married couples living together, 13.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.10% were non-families. 25.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.03. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.20% under the age of 18, 8.80% from 18 to 24, 28.90% from 25 to 44, 23.30% from 45 to 64, 12.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $37,889, the median income for a family was $45,769. Males had a median income of $36,743 versus $23,810 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $18,772. About 10.60% of families and 13.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.90% of those under age 18 and 12.50% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 160,099 people, 64,253 households, 43,931 families residing in the county; the population density was 149.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 72,249 housing units at an average density of 67.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 69.6% white, 24.6% black or African American, 0.8% Asian, 0.4% American Indian, 2.6% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 4.9% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 20.6% were American, 10.0% were English, 9.9% were German, 8.6% were Irish. Of the 64,253 households, 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.3% were married couples living together, 14.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.6% were non-families, 26.9% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.96. The median age was 40.0 years. The median income for a household in the county was $44,468 and the median income for a family was $57,064. Males had a median income of $44,436 versus $33,207 for females; the pe
Richmond County, Georgia
Richmond County is a county located in the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 200,549, it is one of the original counties of Georgia, created February 5, 1777. Following an election in 1995, the city of Augusta consolidated governments with Richmond County; the consolidated entity is known as Augusta-Richmond County, or Augusta. Exempt are the cities of Hephzibah and Blythe, in southern Richmond County, which voted to remain separate. Richmond County is included in the Augusta-Richmond County, GA-SC Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county is named for Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond, a British politician and office-holder sympathetic to the cause of the American colonies. Richmond was a first cousin to King George III. Richmond County was established in 1777 by the first Constitution of the State of Georgia; as such, it is one of the original counties of the state. It was formed out of a portion of the colonial Parish of St. Paul, after the Revolution disestablished the Church of England in the Royal Province of Georgia.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 329 square miles, of which 324 square miles is land and 4.3 square miles is water. The vast majority of Richmond County is located in the Middle Savannah River sub-basin of the Savannah River basin, with just the southwestern corner of the county, from a line running north from Blythe through the middle of Fort Gordon, located in the Brier Creek sub-basin of the Savannah River basin. Edgefield County, South Carolina Aiken County, South Carolina Burke County Jefferson County McDuffie County Columbia County As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 200,549 people, 76,924 households, 48,641 families residing in the county; the population density was 618.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 86,331 housing units at an average density of 266.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 54.2% black or African American, 39.7% white, 1.7% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.2% Pacific islander, 1.3% from other races, 2.6% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 4.1% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 8.0% were American, 7.0% were Irish, 6.7% were German, 5.3% were English. Of the 76,924 households, 33.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.6% were married couples living together, 22.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.8% were non-families, 30.4% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.09. The median age was 33.2 years. The median income for a household in the county was $37,882 and the median income for a family was $45,220. Males had a median income of $37,368 versus $29,313 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,604. About 19.4% of families and 23.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 36.5% of those under age 18 and 12.1% of those age 65 or over. Augusta Blythe Hephzibah Fort Gordon David E. Twiggs Similar to most urban counties in the state with majority African American populations, Richmond County has backed the Democratic Party candidate by increasing margins since 1992.
However in every presidential election from 1948 to 1988 which did not have Georgian Jimmy Carter on the ballot, the county backed the Republican candidate for president. Prior to 1948, the county voted like a typical Solid South county, voting for Democratic presidential candidates by landslide margins. 1928 was an exception to this rule with Herbert Hoover beating Al Smith handily due to anti-Catholic sentiment. National Register of Historic Places listings in Richmond County, Georgia Richmond County School System New Savannah, Georgia A. Ray Rowland, Historical Markers of Richmond County, Georgia. Augusta, GA: Richmond County Historical Society, 1966. Richmond County History. Augusta, GA: Richmond County Historical Society, 1969-date. —Journal, established Winter 1969. Official website of Augusta-Richmond County consolidated government Documents from Richmond County in the Digital Library of Georgia Georgia Department of Transportation map of Richmond County
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States. It began as a British colony in 1733, the last and southernmost of the original Thirteen Colonies to be established. Named after King George II of Great Britain, the Province of Georgia covered the area from South Carolina south to Spanish Florida and west to French Louisiana at the Mississippi River. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. In 1802–1804, western Georgia was split to the Mississippi Territory, which split to form Alabama with part of former West Florida in 1819. Georgia declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, was one of the original seven Confederate states, it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia is the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Empire State of the South. Atlanta, the state's capital and most populous city, has been named a global city.
Atlanta's metropolitan area contains about 55% of the population of the entire state. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, to the west by Alabama; the state's northernmost part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. The Piedmont extends through the central part of the state from the foothills of the Blue Ridge to the Fall Line, where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the coastal plain of the state's southern part. Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level. Of the states east of the Mississippi River, Georgia is the largest in land area. Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures; the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II.
The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery. The colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins' Ear. In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a crown colony, with a governor appointed by the king; the Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence. The State of Georgia's first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24, 1778, was the 4th state to ratify the United States Constitution on January 2, 1788. In 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains leading to the Georgia Gold Rush and establishment of a federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued in operation until 1861.
The resulting influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to take land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgia's tribes. Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that U. S. states were not permitted to redraw Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched federal troops to gather the tribes and deport them west of the Mississippi; this forced relocation, known as the Trail of Tears, led to the death of over 4,000 Cherokees. In early 1861, Georgia became a major theater of the Civil War. Major battles took place at Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, Atlanta. In December 1864, a large swath of the state from Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. 18,253 Georgian soldiers died in service one of every five who served.
In 1870, following the Reconstruction Era, Georgia became the last Confederate state to be restored to the Union. With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature, they passed a poll tax in 1877, which disenfranchised many poor blacks and whites, preventing them from registering. In 1908, the state established a white primary, they constituted 46.7% of the state's population in 1900, but the proportion of Georgia's population, African American dropped thereafter to 28% due to tens of thousands leaving the state during the Great Migration. According to the Equal Justice Institute's 2015 report on lynching in the United States, Georgia had 531 deaths, the second-highest total of these extralegal executions of any state in the South; the overwhelming number of victims were male. Political disfranchisement persisted through the mid-1960s, until after Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, part of the educated middle class that had developed in Atlanta's African-American community, Martin Luther King, Jr. emerged as a national leader in the civil rights movement.
King joining with others to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in Atlanta in 1957 to provide political leadership for the Civil Rights Movement across the South. By the 1960s, the proportion of