Holy Cross Church, Burley
Holy Cross Church is a redundant Anglican church in the village of Burley, England. It is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II* listed building, is under the care of the Churches Conservation Trust, it stands adjacent to Burley-on-the-Hill House. Building of the church started in the 12th century. By the end of that century it consisted of a nave and north aisle. During the following century the south aisle was added. In the 14th century the tower was built; the church was restored in about 1796 when square-headed windows were inserted, box pews were added. In 1869–70 the church was extensively restored by J. L. Pearson; this included rebuilding the east end, replacing all but one of the windows, adding a new porch. The church was declared redundant on 1 May 1984, was vested in the Churches Conservation Trust on 17 February 1988. Holy Cross is constructed in stone of differing colours, has red tile roofs, its plan consists of a four-bay nave with a clerestory and south aisles, a three-bay chancel, a north porch, a west tower.
The nave measures 44 feet 9 inches by 17 feet, the chancel 39 feet by 13 feet 6 inches, the north aisle 10 feet 6 inches by 8 feet, the south aisle 11 feet 3 inches by 7 feet. The tower is in three stages separated by string courses, it is set on a moulded plinth, has paired buttresses at the corners. On the west side of the bottom stage is a two-light window with Decorated tracery, on the north side in the middle stage is a clock face. On each side of the top stage is a tall two-light transomed bell opening. At the top of the tower is a battlemented parapet, under, a moulding carved with flowers and animals' heads. There is a gargoyle at each corner; the east window has geometrical tracery. All the windows along the clerestory and the aisles are flat-headed. On the north wall of the church is a priest's doorway; the two arcades are of different style. The north arcade dates from the 12th century and is Norman in style with round arches, while the south arcade is Gothic, dating from the 13th century with pointed arches.
Between the nave and the chancel is a low screen in pierced stone. The octagonal font is Perpendicular in style; the stained glass in the east window dates from about 1870 and is by Clayton and Bell, while that in the west window is by Westlake. In the church is an alabaster monument with mutilated effigies dating from the late 15th century. There is a memorial by Chantrey to Lady Charlotte Finch who died in 1813, and, governess to the children of George III. In the tower is a single bell, cast in 1705 by Alexander Rigby of Stamford. There is a memorial to George Finch within the church and his grave lies north of the chancel, he was a Conservative politician, who represented Rutland in the House of Commons for forty years, becoming Father of the House of Commons. List of churches preserved by the Churches Conservation Trust in the English Midlands List of ecclesiastical restorations and alterations by J. L. Pearson
Francis Leggatt Chantrey
Sir Francis Legatt Chantrey was an English sculptor. He became the leading portrait sculptor in Regency era Britain, producing busts and statues of many notable figures of the time, he left the Chantrey Bequest for the purchase of works of art for the nation, available from 1878 after the death of his widow. Chantrey was born at Jordanthorpe near Norton, his father, who dabbled in carpentry and wood-carving, died when Francis was twelve. At fifteen, he was working for a grocer in Sheffield, having seen some wood-carving in a shop-window, he asked to be apprenticed as a carver instead, was placed with a woodcarver and gilder called Ramsay in Sheffield. At Ramsay's house he met the draughtsman and engraver John Raphael Smith who recognised his artistic potential and gave him lessons in painting, was to help advance his career by introducing him to potential patrons. In 1802 Chantrey paid £50 to buy himself out of his apprenticeship with Ramsay and set up a studio as a portrait artist in Sheffield, which allowed him a reasonable income.
For several years he divided his time between Sheffield and London, studying intermittently at the Royal Academy Schools. In the summer of 1802 he travelled to Dublin, where he fell ill, losing all his hair, he exhibited pictures at the Royal Academy for a few years from 1804, but from 1807 onwards devoted himself to sculpture. Asked in life, as a witness in a court case, whether he had worked for any other sculptors, he replied: "No, what is more, I never had an hour's instruction from any sculptor in my life", his first recorded marble bust was one of the Rev. James Wilkinson, for Sheffield parish church, his first imaginative sculpture, a head of Satan was shown at the Royal Academy in 1808. In 1809 the architect Daniel Asher Alexander commissioned him to make four monumental plaster busts of the admirals Duncan, Howe and Nelson for the Royal Naval Asylum at Greenwich, for which he received £10 each. Three of them were shown at the Royal Academy that year. On 23 November 1809 he married Mary Ann Wale at St Mary's Church, Twickenham.
By this time he was settled permanently in London, His wife brought £10,000 into the marriage, which allowed Chantrey to pay off his debts, for the couple to move into a house at 13 Eccleston Street, Pimlico. He bought land to build two more houses, a studio and offices. In 1811 he showed six busts in the Royal Academy; the subjects included Horne Tooke and Sir Francis Burdett, two political figures he admired. Joseph Nollekens placed the bust of Tooke between two of his own, the prominence given to it is said to have had a significant influence on Chantrey's career. In the wake of the exhibition he received commissions amounting to £2,000. In 1813 he was able to raise his price for a bust to a hundred and fifty guineas, in 1822 to two hundred, he visited Paris in 1814, again in 1815, this time with his wife, Thomas Stothard, D. A. Alexander, visiting the Louvre where he admired the works of Raphael and Titian. In 1819 he went to Italy, accompanied by the painter John Jackson, an old friend named Read.
In Rome he met Thorvaldsen and Canova, getting to know the latter well. In 1828 Chantrey set up his own foundry in Eccleston Place, not far from his house and studio, where large-scale works in bronze, including equestrian statues, could be cast. Chantrey developed a procedure of making a portrait sculpture in which he would begin by making two life-sized drawings of his sitter's head, one full-face and one in profile, with the aid of a camera lucida, his assistants would make a clay model based on the drawings, to which Chantry would add the finishing touches in front of the sitter. A plaster cast would be made of the clay model, a marble replica made of that. Allan Cunningham and Henry Weekes were his chief assistants, made of many of the works produced under Chantrey's name; the debilitating effects of heart disease made him more reliant on assistants in the last few years of his life. Chantrey was rare among the leading sculptors of his time in not having visited Italy at a formative stage in his career.
A writer in Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine in 1820 saw him as liberating English sculpture from foreign influence:Those who wish to trace the return of English sculpture from the foreign artificial and allegorical style, to its natural and original character—from cold and conceited fiction to tender and elevated truth, will find it chiefly in the history of Francis Chantrey and his productions. More Margaret Whinney wrote that Chantrey "had a great gift for characterisation, his ability to render the softness of flesh was much admired" and that "though compelled by the fashion of the day to produce, on occasions, classicizing works, his robust common sense and his enormous talent is better displayed in works which combine an classical simplicity of form with naturalism in presentation". Chantrey was a prolific sculptor. According to an article published in 1842, he produced, besides his busts and reliefs, three equestrian statues, 18 standing ones, 18 seated ones and 14 recumbent figures.
His most notable works include the statues of George III in The Guildhall, London.
Devonshire House in Piccadilly was the London residence of the Dukes of Devonshire in the 18th and 19th centuries. Following a fire in 1733 it was rebuilt for William Cavendish, 3rd Duke of Devonshire, in the Palladian style, to designs by William Kent. Completed circa 1740, it stood empty after the First World War and was demolished in 1924. Many of Britain's great peers maintained large London houses; as a ducal house, Devonshire House was one of the largest and grandest, ranking alongside Burlington House, Montague House, Lansdowne House, Londonderry House, Northumberland House, Norfolk House. All of these have been long demolished, except Burlington and Lansdowne, both of which have been altered. Today the site is occupied by an office building known as Devonshire House. Devonshire House was built on the site of Berkeley House, which John, Lord Berkeley, had erected at a cost of over £30,000 from 1665 to 1673 on his return from his tenure of the viceroyalty of Ireland; the house was occupied by Barbara Villiers, Duchess of Cleveland, one of the celebrated mistresses of Charles II.
The house, a classical mansion built by Hugh May, had been purchased by William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Devonshire in 1696, subsequently renamed Devonshire House. As part of the agreement, Lord Berkeley undertook not to build on that part of the land he retained that lay directly behind the house, so keeping the Duke's view; this agreement was continued when the Berkeley land was developed after 1730, the gardens of Berkeley Square are the termination of that undeveloped strip. On 16 October 1733, the former Berkeley House, while undergoing refurbishment, was destroyed by fire, despite firefighting efforts by the Guards, led by Willem van Keppel, 2nd Earl of Albemarle, others led by Frederick, Prince of Wales; the cause was attributed to careless labourers. The Duke's former London residence, Old Devonshire House, at 48 Boswell Street, survived both its successors until the Blitz of World War II. During the 18th century, existing forms of entertainment began to change and large sophisticated receptions came into fashion taking the form of concerts and balls.
Hosts would hire one of many new assembly rooms built to indulge the fashion. However, it was not long before the more frequent and wealthy hosts began to add a ballroom to their town houses and the more wealthy still to forsake their smaller town houses in favour of a new and vast palace designed purely for entertaining; the Duke of Devonshire, an owner of vast estates, belonged to the latter category. Thus the fire of the Devonshire House in 1733 provided the opportunity to build a house at the height of contemporary fashion; the 3rd Duke chose the fashionable architect William Kent, for whom this was a first commission for a London house. The house was constructed between 1734 and about 1740. Kent was the protegee of the immensely cultivated 3rd Earl of Burlington and had worked at Chiswick House, built by the 3rd Earl in 1729, at Devonshire House's near contemporary Holkham Hall, completed circa 1741, both in the Palladian style. Chiswick House was to come, with other estates, into the Devonshires' possession through the marriage of the 4th Duke to Lady Charlotte Boyle, daughter of Lord Burlington.
In typical Palladian fashion, Devonshire House consisted of a corps de logis flanked by service wings. The severity of the design, of three storeys in eleven bays, caused one contemporary critic to liken the mansion to a warehouse, a modern biographer of Kent to remark its "plain severity". However, the curiously flat exterior concealed Kent's sumptuous interiors. In the Duke's sitting room, a glass case over the chimneypiece contained the best of his collection of engraved gems and Renaissance and Baroque medallions; such a prominent commission could hardly fail to be included in Vitruvius Britannicus. The plan of Devonshire House defines it as one of the earliest of the great 18th-century town houses, its purpose, was identical, to display wealth and power. Thus a great town house, by its size and design, accentuated its owner's power by its contrast with the monotony of the smaller terraced houses surrounding it. At Devonshire House, Kent's exterior stairs led up to a piano nobile, where the entrance hall was the only room that rose through two storeys.
Inconspicuous pairs of staircases are tucked into modest sites at either hand, for the upstairs was private. Enfilades of interconnecting rooms, of which the largest space is devoted to the library, flank central halls, adjusting the traditions of the symmetrical Baroque state apartments, a design which did not lend itself to large gatherings. Greeted at the head of the stairs, they flowed in a convenient circuit, rather thanretracing their steps; this design was first exemplified by the now-demolished Norfolk House completed in 1756. Therefore, it seems that Devonshire House was old-fashioned and unsuited to its intended use from the moment of its complet
East Midlands Ambulance Service
East Midlands Ambulance Service National Health Service Trust provides emergency 999, urgent care and patient transport services for the 4.8 million people within the East Midlands region of the UK - covering Nottinghamshire, Leicestershire, Rutland and Northamptonshire. In 2016/17 EMAS received over 938,837 emergency 999 calls with ambulance clinicians dispatched to 653,215 incidents. EMAS employs about 3,290 staff at more than 70 locations, including two control rooms at Nottingham and Lincoln - the largest staff group are those who provide accident and emergency responses to 999 calls. In 2013 EMAS took on 140 new emergency care assistants. In 2014 EMAS announced. In 2010 − 11 EMAS missed key performance targets after a cold spell brought ice. By June 2015 EMAS had failed to meet their category 1 response times for the fifth successive year. EMAS provided patient transport services until contracts worth £20 million per year were taken over in 2012 by two private sector companies. In 2012−13 EMAS had a budget of £148 million.
The Trust spent £4.3 million on voluntary and private ambulance services in 2013−14 for support in busy periods. In 2015 the service faced a drop in funding of around £6 million a year. In October 2014 the Trust decided to spend £88,000 on upgrading its computer equipment. In 2018 the trust said it would need an extra £20 million a year to meet the new ambulance performance standards. Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom Official website
Lady Charlotte Finch
Lady Charlotte Finch served as royal governess to the children of King George III and Queen Charlotte for over thirty years, holding the position from 1762 to 1793. She was born to Thomas Fermor, 1st Earl of Pomfret, his wife Henrietta Louisa Jeffreys, both of whom held court appointments; the couple were educated and travelled with their growing brood of children to the continent. Charlotte, like her sisters, was well-educated. An accomplished woman, Finch gained her appointment as royal governess in August 1762 upon the birth of George, Prince of Wales, the eldest son of King George and Queen Charlotte. Finch's duties included oversight of the royal nursery and all the staff employed therein, as well as organising lessons for the children. Finch oversaw the princes' education until they became old enough to live in their own households under the watch of governors, while the six princesses remained under her supervision until they turned 21. Finch retired from her role in 1793, though she continued to correspond with members of the royal family and receive gifts from them.
Lady Charlotte Fermor was born on 14 February 1725, the second eldest daughter of Thomas Fermor, 1st Earl of Pomfret and his wife Henrietta Louisa Jeffreys. The growing family would come to include ten children: six daughters. Lord and Lady Pomfret held various court appointments during their lifetimes. Charlotte and her family were well travelled and sojourned to cultural and historical landmarks on the continent. While details on Fermor and her sisters' education are minimal, mention of them in contemporary diaries implies they were well-educated, she and Lady Pomfret were interested in theology. Charlotte was fluent enough in Italian for Horace Walpole to remark in 1740, she "speaks the purest Tuscan, like any Florentine" and "the Florentines look on her as the brightest foreigner that has honoured their." According to Walpole, Lord Granville, married to Charlotte's sister Sophia, was "extremely fond" of Charlotte. On 9 August 1746, Charlotte married the Hon. William Finch, heir to his brother Daniel Finch, 8th Earl of Winchilsea.
Shortly after the wedding, Walpole reported that Charlotte had five thousand pounds from her father, a sum that would increase when "Mr Finch settles fifteen thousand pounds more upon her". William Finch had been married to Lady Anne Douglas but had no issue, he was a diplomat who served as envoy to Sweden and the Netherlands in the 1720s before becoming an MP for Cockermouth and Bewdley. Another of his roles, held from 1742, was to serve as vice-chamberlain of the royal household, he and Lady Charlotte had four daughters together. One of their daughters died in 1765, their only son, inherited the earldoms of Nottingham and Winchilsea from his paternal uncle in 1769. Lady Charlotte Finch's career as royal governess began in August 1762, when she was appointed a day after the birth of George, Prince of Wales, the eldest son and heir of King George III and Queen Charlotte. Walpole called the decision "a choice so universally approved that I do not think she will be abused in the North Briton". Finch's biographer, Jill Shefrin, writes that the governess was noted for the skill she devoted to the raising of her own children, while Christopher Hibbert suggests that her educated background made her "well-suited" to the position.
Lady Charlotte held the role of royal governess for over 30 years, oversaw 14 of the king and queen's 15 children. She presided over the royal nursery, she oversaw the princes until they became old enough to live in their own households, while the six princesses remained under her supervision until they turned 21. In the mid-1760s, shortly after her appointment, troubling developments began occurring in Lady Charlotte's home. One of her daughters died in 1765. Furthermore, William Finch, 34 years older than his wife, had by 1765 become senile and mentally unstable. Rumours circulated. Fearing for her safety, she obtained a formal separation from her husband, taking their children to live with her in an apartment at St James's Palace and a house in Kew, he died in late 1766. Despite these stresses on her personal life, Finch continued to fulfil her position with zeal. However, when another of her daughters became ill in early 1767, Finch took leave of her job and brought the young girl to various locales in the unsuccessful hope she would survive.
Finch left the sub-governess Mrs Cotesworth in charge and returned grieving in November 1767, in time to care for the fifth addition to the nursery, Prince Edward. Lady Charlotte has been variously described by biographers as warm and kindly; as was typical for the period, the children were infrequently seen by the queen. While the royal princes endured disciplined lessons in an austere educational environment, Finch was loved by her female charges, they affectionately referred to her as "Lady Cha", upon returning from a trip to the continent in 1771, Queen Charlotte wrote her, "They can never be in better hands than yours". Shefrin says that Finch "supervised a progressive nursery focused on child
Oakham is the county town of Rutland in the East Midlands of England, 25 miles east of Leicester, 28 miles south-east of Nottingham and 23 miles west of Peterborough. Oakham has a population of 10,922, as of the 2011 census. Oakham lies to the west of one of the largest man-made lakes in Europe, it is in the Vale of Catmose and is built on an incline, varying from 325 ft to 400 ft above sea level. It is twinned with Barmstedt and Dodgeville, United States. Local governance for Oakham is provided for by the single-tier unitary Rutland County Council, of which Oakham is the headquarters. Lying within the historic county boundaries of Rutland from a early time, from 1974 until 1997 Oakham lay within the non-metropolitan county of Leicestershire. Oakham, along with Melton Mowbray in Leicestershire, the rest of Rutland, has been represented at Westminster by the Conservative Member of Parliament Alan Duncan since 1992. Women in the Oakham South East ward had the fifth highest life expectancy at birth, 95.7 years, of any ward in England and Wales in 2016.
Tourist attractions in Oakham include Oakham Castle. Another popular and historic feature is the open-air market held in the town's market square every Wednesday and Saturday; the impressive spire of Oakham parish church, built during the 14th century, dominates distant views of the town for several miles in all directions. Restored in 1857–58 by Sir George Gilbert Scott, the church is a Grade I listed building. Only the great hall of the Norman castle is still standing, surrounded by steep earthworks marking the inner bailey; the hall dates from c. 1180–90 and according to Nikolaus Pevsner: It is the earliest hall of any English castle surviving so and it is doubly interesting in that it belonged not to a castle speaking, but rather to a fortified manor house. The building is attractively ornamented with Romanesque architectural details, including six carvings of musicians, it is a Grade I listed building. The hall was in use as an assize court until 1970 and is still used as a coroner's court or Crown Court.
It is licensed for weddings. The outer bailey of the castle, still surrounded by low earthworks, lies to the north of the castle. Known as Cutts Close, it is now a park with a bandstand, skateboard area and children's play area; some deep hollows in the park are the remnants of the castle's dried-up stew ponds. A Castle class corvette named HMS Oakham Castle was launched in July 1944. Traditionally, members of royalty and peers of the realm who visited or passed through the town had to pay a forfeit in the form of a horseshoe; this unique custom has been enforced for over 500 years, but nowadays it only happens on special occasions, when an outsize ceremonial horseshoe, specially made and decorated, is hung in the great hall of the castle. There are now over 200 of these commemorative shoes on its walls. Not all are dated and some of the earliest may not have survived; the earliest datable one is an outsize example commemorating a visit by King Edward IV in about 1470. The horseshoes hang with the ends pointing down.
The horseshoe motif appears on the local Ruddles beer labels. Recent horseshoes commemorate visits by Prince Charles and Princess Alexandra; the museum is located in the old Riding School of the Rutland Fencible Cavalry, built in 1794–95. The museum houses a collection of objects relating to local rural and agricultural life, social history and archaeology; the Birmingham–Peterborough line runs through the town, providing links to Birmingham, Peterborough and Stansted Airport. Oakham railway station is positioned halfway between Peterborough railway station and Leicester railway station, at both of which passengers can board a train to London – either from Leicester to London St Pancras or from Peterborough to London King's Cross. There are two direct services to London St Pancras, one evening return service from London St Pancras, each weekday. There are good road links to: Leicester, Melton Mowbray, Corby, Stamford; the main route for travellers to Leicester by road is first south to Uppingham and westward along the A47.
Oakham is on the A606 between Melton Stamford. On 10 January 2007, the A606 bypass opened diverting traffic from the town centre; the Oakham Canal connected the town to the Melton Mowbray Navigation, the River Soar and the national waterways system between 1802 and 1847. The town is home to Oakham School, one of the major English public schools, founded, together with Uppingham School, in 1584; the original school building survives, northeast of the church. Oakham School is the current owner of Oakham's former workhouse. Built in 1836–37 by Oakham Poor Law Union, it served as a workhouse for 167 inmates, until it became Catmose Vale Hospital, it now accommodates two school houses for girls. Catmose College, founded in 1920, is a state-funded secondary school in the town. Harington School is a sixt
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion