The Burma Railway known as the Death Railway, the Siam–Burma Railway, the Thai–Burma Railway and similar names, was a 415-kilometre railway between Ban Pong and Thanbyuzayat, built by the Empire of Japan in 1943 to support its forces in the Burma campaign of World War II. This railway completed the rail link between Bangkok and Rangoon, Burma; the name used by the Japanese Government is Thai–Men-Rensetsu-Tetsudou, which means Thailand-Myanmar-Link-Railway. The line was closed in 1947, but the section between Nong Pla Duk and Nam Tok was reopened ten years later. Between 180,000 and 250,000 Southeast Asian civilian labourers and about 61,000 Allied prisoners of war were subjected to forced labour during its construction. About 90,000 civilian labourers and more than 12,000 Allied prisoners died. A railway route between Burma and Thailand, crossing Three Pagodas Pass and following the valley of the Khwae Noi river in Thailand, had been surveyed by the British government of Burma as early as 1885, but the proposed course of the line – through hilly jungle terrain divided by many rivers – was considered too difficult to undertake.
In early 1942, Japanese forces invaded Burma and seized control of the colony from the United Kingdom. To supply their forces in Burma, the Japanese depended upon the sea, bringing supplies and troops to Burma around the Malay peninsula and through the Strait of Malacca and the Andaman Sea; this route was vulnerable to attack by Allied submarines after the Japanese defeat at the Battle of Midway in June 1942. To avoid a hazardous 2,000-mile sea journey around the Malay peninsula, a railway from Bangkok to Rangoon seemed a feasible alternative; the Japanese began this project in June 1942. The project aimed to connect Ban Pong in Thailand with Thanbyuzayat in Burma, linking up with existing railways at both places, its route was through Three Pagodas Pass on the border of Burma. 69 miles of the railway were in Burma and the remaining 189 miles were in Thailand. The movement of POWs northward from Changi Prison in Singapore and other prison camps in Southeast Asia began in May 1942. After preliminary work of airfields and infrastructure, construction of the railway began in Burma on 15 September 1942 and in Thailand in November.
The projected completion date was December 1943. Most of the construction materials, including tracks and sleepers, were brought from dismantled branches of Malaya's Federated Malay States Railway network and the East Indies' various rail networks; the railway was completed ahead of schedule. On 17 October 1943, construction gangs originating in Burma working south met up with construction gangs originating in Thailand working north; the two sections of the line met at kilometre 263, about 18 km south of the Three Pagodas Pass at Konkuita. As an American engineer said after viewing the project, "What makes this an engineering feat is the totality of it, the accumulation of factors; the total length of miles, the total number of bridges — over 600, including six to eight long-span bridges — the total number of people who were involved, the short time in which they managed to accomplish it, the extreme conditions they accomplished it under. They had little transportation to get stuff to and from the workers, they had no medication, they couldn’t get food let alone materials, they had no tools to work with except for basic things like spades and hammers, they worked in difficult conditions — in the jungle with its heat and humidity.
All of that makes this railway an extraordinary accomplishment."The Japanese Army transported 500,000 tonnes of freight over the railway before it fell into Allied hands. The line was closed in 1947, but the section between Nong Pla Duk and Nam Tok was reopened ten years in 1957. On 16 January 1946, the British ordered Japanese POWs to remove a four kilometre stretch of rail between Nikki and Sonkrai; the railway link between Thailand and Burma was to be separated again for protecting British interests in Singapore. After that, the Burma section of the railway was sequentially removed, the rails were gathered in Mawlamyine, the roadbed was returned to the jungle; the British government sold the railway and related materials to the Thai government for 50 million baht. After the war the railway was in poor condition and needed reconstruction for use by the Royal Thai Railway system. On 24 June 1949, the portion from Kanchanaburi to Nong Pla Duk was finished. On 1 July 1958 the rail line was completed to Nam Tok The portion in use today is some 130 km long.
The line was abandoned beyond Nam Tok Sai Yok Noi. Parts of the abandoned route have been converted into a walking trail. Since the 1990s various proposals have been made to rebuild the complete railway, but as of 2014 these plans had not been realised. Since a large part of the original railway line is now submerged by the Vajiralongkorn Dam, the surrounding terrain is mountainous, it would take extensive tunneling to reconnect Thailand with Burma by rail. Japanese soldiers, 12,000 of them, including 800 Koreans, were employed on the railway as engineers and supervisors of the POW and rōmusha labourers. Although working conditions were far better for the J
Rebecca Gwendolyn Smith known by her married name Becky Wiber, is a Canadian former medley and butterfly swimmer who won the bronze medal in the women's 400-metre individual medley at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal, Canada, finishing behind East German Ulrike Tauber and her Canadian teammate Cheryl Gibson. At the same Olympic Games, she finished third in the women's 4×100-metre freestyle relay, alongside Gail Amundrud, Barbara Clark and Anne Jardin, she is was a grade school teacher at Westbrook School in Edmonton, Alberta for Grade 6. She retired in 2019. List of Olympic medalists in swimming List of Commonwealth Games medallists in swimming Canadian Olympic Committee - A sixth grade student of Westbrook Elementary School
The men's freestyle heavyweight competition at the 1948 Summer Olympics in London took place from 29 July to 31 July at the Empress Hall, Earls Court Exhibition Centre. Nations were limited to one competitor; this freestyle wrestling competition continued to use the "bad points" elimination system introduced at the 1928 Summer Olympics for Greco-Roman and at the 1932 Summer Olympics for freestyle wrestling, with the slight modification introduced in 1936. Each round featured all wrestlers wrestling one bout; the loser received 3 points if the loss was by fall or unanimous decision and 2 points if the decision was 2-1. The winner received 1 point 0 points if the win was by fall. At the end of each round, any wrestler with at least 5 points was eliminated. BoutsPoints BoutsPoints BoutsPoints BoutsPoints Bóbis had defeated both Armstrong and Antonsson, so the only possible match remaining was between the two of them. Antonsson won by fall. BoutsPoints
A statue of Vincent and Theo van Gogh by Ossip Zadkine stands on Vincent van Goghplein in the town of Zundert in the Netherlands. It stands in front of the Van Gogh church and not far from the place; the bronze statue was unveiled by Queen Juliana on 28 May 1964. The statue is 2.5 m tall. It depicts two men standing on a thick square bronze base plate, mounted on a low square stone plinth; the attenuated figures have similar modelling to Zadkine's statue De verwoeste stad in Rotterdam. The figures stand close together, holding hands and leaning their heads together, although neither figure resembles the person it is intended to represent; the 0.5 m high light coloured stone plinth comes from Saint-Rémy-de-Provence in the south of France, where Vincent van Gogh resided for a year, was donated by the municipal council of the French town. It contains a tube with soil from the garden of the hospital at the monastery of Saint-Paul-de-Mausole, where Vincent was treated for his mental health; the plinth has weathered from white to a dirty yellow, stained by verdigris leached from the bronze sculpture.
The front is inscribed with a quotation in French from one of the last letters written by Vincent to Theo van Gogh, dated 23 July 1890. This letter remained unsent at the time of Vincent's death; the Van Lanschot family were originally from Zundert. The Van Gogh brothers were born nearby, Vincent in 1853 and Theo in 1857; the house where they were born has since been demolished, but there is now a museum at the Van Gogh House on the site. Their father Theodorus van Gogh was a Dutch Reformed church pastor who preached at the Van Gogh church on the square. Zadkine was commissioned to make the sculpture in 1963, he made at least four sculptures and busts of Vincent van Gogh between 1955 and 1964, including a statue of Vincent standing alone unveiled in 1961 in Auvers-sur-Oise, near Paris, where Vincent died in 1890 and where both brothers are buried in adjacent plots, a bust of Vincent for the asylum at Saint-Rémy-de-Provence. In his earlier work, Zadkine had discussed the relationship of Vincent with his brother with Van Gogh expert Mark Tralbaut, an initial design had the two men seated, but Zadkine abandoned that concept.
He presented the model to journalists in Zundert on 14 May 1963. The bronze sculpture was cast at the Susse Frères foundry in Paris, it bears the inscriptions "O Zadkine 1963" and "Susse Fondeur Paris". It was unveiled by Queen Juliana on 28 May 1964, in the presence of Zadkine, Mark Tralbaut, the Mayor of Zundert, GJA Manders. Zadkine published a book describing the work, a commemorative medal was made by Begeer. Vincent & Theo van Gogh, Mens & Dier in Steen & Brons, vanderkrogt.net Ossip ZADKINE - sculpture de Van Gogh, van-gogh.fr Van Gogh and Zadkine in Auvers-sur-Oise: Is There Anything to See?, francerevisited.com, 14 June 2011 Beeld Van Vincent En Theo Van Gogh, Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed Beeld Van Vincent En Theo Van Gogh, Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed Neerlandia/Nederlands van Nu. Jaargang 112 Penning, Theo en Vincent van Gogh, door Zadkine, 1964, Haffmans Antiek Van Gogh Monument Zadkine, Van Gogh Brabant
The Sacramento Metropolitan Cable Television Commission is the joint powers agency responsible for regulating the cable television franchises and licenses in Sacramento County, California. The Commission's Board of Directors is composed of members of the constituent jurisdictions: Sacramento County, Citrus Heights, Elk Grove, Rancho Cordova and Galt; the Commission is responsible for: Administering the cable television franchises and licenses in Sacramento County Assisting consumers in resolving their cable and non-cable video concerns Monitoring community programming and grantee funding Operating the local Government-access television cable TV channel, Metro Cable The Commission licenses four cable television providers: Comcast throughout Sacramento County Frontier Communications in Elk Grove Strategic Technologies in Natomas SureWest in Natomas, Carmichael, Fair Oaks, Citrus Heights, Oak Park, Elk Grove, LandPark. On March 23, 1993, Sacramento Cable instituted a $5 late fee on cable bills.
These fees soon became the most common subject of complaint received by the Commission. On July 25, 1994 a major class action suit was initiated over the legality of these late fees, which it was contended violated California law; this suit grew out of the Commission's investigation into the issue. The case was settled, new legislation on late fees was drafted. Official website Metro Cable Access Sacramento audio Sacramento Educational Consortium About Sacramento Educational Cable Consortium KVIE Cable 7 Capital Public Radio CA State Senate floor report on late fees legislation this Multichannel news story that discusses action by the commission on possible content restriction. Of cable programming
The University of Illinois School of Architecture is an academic unit within the College of Fine & Applied Arts at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The school is organized around four Program Areas - Building Performance, Detail + Fabrication, Health + Well-being, Urbanism. Faculty teach and conduct research in these areas in support of the School's primary objective to promote critical engagement with the design of a healthy and sustainable built environment; the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign was among the first American institutions of higher learning to offer a curriculum in architecture. Until 1868 there were no architectural schools in the United States, although Thomas Jefferson had proposed one at the University of Virginia in 1814. American architects were trained through pursued studies abroad; the profession's growing awareness of the need for a professional architecture school in the United States was evidenced by the report of the Committee on Education at the first annual convention of the American Institute of Architects in 1867.
In October 1868 the MIT architecture department opened with four students in the four-year course. A thousand miles to the west, newly appointed Regent John Milton Gregory, at the newly established center of learning, the Illinois Industrial University realized the need for formal professional training in architecture. Architecture was included in the Polytechnic Department of the proposed administrative structure Gregory presented to the trustees in May 1867; the first student in this curriculum, Nathan Clifford Ricker arrived in Urbana on January 2, 1870. Ricker became the first graduate of an architecture program in the United States in March 1873, he became head of the Department of Architecture and oversaw the architectural education of many students. One, Mary Louisa Page, was the first woman to graduate with a degree in architecture in North America when she graduated from the University of Illinois in 1879; the Illinois School of Architecture awards the following degrees: a NAAB-accredited professional degree of Master of Architecture, Master of Science in Architectural Studies, Bachelor of Science in Architecture Studies, Doctor of Philosophy in Architecture.
Two tracks are provided for students in the professional M. Arch degree program; the first is for students who hold a Bachelor of Science degree in its equivalent. For graduate students, the School offers a series of joint-degree programs, allowing students to earn two master's degrees in an accelerated timeframe; these include the M. Arch + MBA program, offered jointly with the College of Business at Illinois, the M. Arch + MUP program, offered with the Department of Urban and Regional Planning at Illinois, The M. Arch + MS in Civil Engineering - Structural Engineering and the M. Arch + MS in Civil Engineering - Construction Management programs, offered with the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Illinoi. Additionally, the school offers a Minor in Architecture to non-architecture undergraduate students and Discover Architecture, a two-week summer program which provides high school students and beginning college students the opportunity to be introduced to architectural graphics and modeling.
Architecture Award Banquet Annual Beaux-Arts Ball Critical Mass East St. Louis Action Research Project Architecture Building Temple Hoyne Buell Hall Architecture East Annex One Ricker Library of Architecture and Art The Erlanger House Chicago Studio Nathan Clifford Ricker Fredrick Mann Loring Provin Turpin Bannister Alan Laing Granville Keith Jack Swing Richard Tavis Day Ding Alan Forrester Hub White Michael Andrejasich David Chasco, FAIA Peter Leslie Mortensen Jeffery Poss, FAIA Alpha Rho Chi architecture fraternity American Institute of Architecture Students Architecture Student Advisory Council Architecture, Regional & Urban Planning and Landscape Architecture Open House Ecological Design Consortium The Gargoyle Architecture Honor Society Global Architecture Brigade National Organization of Minority Architecture Students Society of Architectural Historians Society for Business and Management in Architecture Society for Evidence-Based Architecture Women in Architecture Illinois Solar Decathlon The Plym Distinguished Visiting Professorship at the School of Architecture brings recognized architects to the school so that they can serve as lead studio critic with a School of Architecture faculty member as liaison and students in the studio have traveled to the main office of the Plym Professor.
The Plym Distinguished Professorship is made possible by a 1981 gift to the school by the late Lawrence J. Plym of Niles, past president of the Kawneer Corporation. Plym Distinguished Professors: Gunnar Birkerts Paul Rudolph Joseph Esherick Edmund Bacon Thom Mayne Carme Pinos Dominique Perrault Frances Halsband Norman Crowe Ken Yeang Kengo Kuma Kenneth Frampton Juhani Pallasmaa Max Abramovitz, B. S. 1929, architect of the Avery Fisher Hall of Lincoln Center and Assembly Hall on the Illinois campus Henry Bacon, 1884, architect of the Lincoln Memorial