A burrow is a hole or tunnel excavated into the ground by an animal to create a space suitable for habitation, temporary refuge, or as a byproduct of locomotion. Burrows provide a form of shelter against predation and exposure to the elements and can be found in nearly every biome and among various biological interactions. Many different animal species are known to form burrows; these species range from small invertebrates, such as the Corophium arenarium, to large vertebrate species such as the polar bear. Burrows can be constructed into a wide variety of substrates and can range in complexity from a simple tube a few centimeters long to a complex network of interconnecting tunnels and chambers hundreds or thousands of meters in total length. An example of this well-developed burrow would be a rabbit warren. A wide variety of vertebrates construct or use burrows in many different types of substrate and can range in complexity; some examples of vertebrate burrowing animals include a number of mammals, fish and birds.
Mammals are most well known for burrowing. Mammal species such as Insectivora like the voracious mole, rodents like the prolific gopher, great gerbil and groundhog are found to form burrows; some other mammals that are known to burrow are the platypus, pygmy rabbit, armadillo and weasel. The rabbit, a member of the family Lagomorpha, is a well-known burrower; some species such as the groundhog can construct burrows that occupy a full cubic metre, displacing about 300 kilograms of dirt. There is evidence that rodents may construct the most complex burrows of all vertebrate burrowing species. For example, great gerbils live in family groups in extensive burrows, which can be seen on satellite images; the unoccupied burrows can remain visible in the landscape for years. The burrows are distributed although the occupied burrows appear to be clustered in space. Carnivora like the meerkat, marsupials, are burrowers; the largest burrowing animal is the polar bear when it makes its maternity den in snow or earth.
Lizards are known to create and live in burrows, may exhibit territorial behaviour over the burrows as well. There is evidence that a burrow provides protection for the Adelaide pygmy blue-tongue skink when fighting, as they may fight from inside their burrows. Burrows by birds are made in soft soils; the Magellanic penguin is an example, constructing burrows along coastal Patagonian regions of Chile and Argentina. Other burrowing birds are puffins and bee-eaters. Kangaroo mice construct burrows in fine sand. Scabies mites construct their burrows in the skin of the infested human. Termites and some wasps construct burrows in the wood. Ants construct burrows in the soil; some sea urchins and clams can burrow into rock. The burrows produced by invertebrate animals can be filled or passively. Dwelling burrows which remain open during the occupation by an organism are filled passively, by gravity rather than by the organism. Filled burrows, on the other hand, are filled with material by the burrowing organism itself.
The establishment of an invertebrate burrow involves the soaking of surrounding sediment in mucus in order to prevent collapse and to seal off water flow. Examples of burrowing invertebrates are insects, sea urchins, crustaceans and worms. Animals can create burrows using a variety of methods. Burrowing animals can be divided into three categories: primary excavators, secondary modifiers and simple occupants. Primary excavators are the animals that dig and construct the burrow, are very strong; some animals considered to be primary excavators are the aardvark. Pygmy gerbil are an example of secondary modifiers, as they do not build an original burrow, but will live inside a burrow made by other animals and improve or change some aspects of the burrow for their own purpose; the third category, simple occupants, neither build nor modify the burrow but live inside or use it for their own purpose. Some species of Bird will make use of burrows built by tortoises, an example of simple occupancy; these animals can be referred to as commensals.
Some species may spend the majority of their days inside a burrow, indicating it must have good conditions and provide some benefit to the animal. Burrows may be used by certain species as protection from predators. Burrows may be away from the direction of cold wind; this could help with heat retention and insulation, providing protection from temperatures and conditions outside. Insects such as the earwig may create burrows to live in during the winter season, use them for physical protection; some species will use burrows to store and protect food. This provides a benefit to the animal, it allows the animal to keep a good stock of food inside the burrow to avoid extreme weather conditions or seasons where certain food sources may be unavailable. Additionally, burrows can provide protection to animals that have just had their young, providing good conditions and safety for vulnerable newborn animals. Burrows may provide shelter to animals residing in areas destroyed by fire, as animals deep underground in a burrow may be kept dry, safe and at a stable temperature.
The John Loughborough School was a Christian, Voluntary aided school in Tottenham, London in the United Kingdom. It was operated by the Seventh-day Adventist church; the school was named after an early Seventh-day Adventist minister. The John Loughborough School was opened in April 1980 as an independent school, it joined the state system as a grant maintained school in September 1998, converting to voluntary aided status in the following year. In 2013 Haringey London Borough Council decided to close The John Loughborough School. Reasons for the closure included a decline in pupil numbers at the school. Although the school appealed the decision, the closure was confirmed and pupils left the school for the final time at the end of the 2013 Summer term
Jehan Texier known under the name Jehan de Beauce was a 15th/16th-century French architect. He is known for his works of religious architecture, notably on the Chartres cathedral of which he reconstructed the northern spire. Jehan de Beauce settled in Maine at the end of the 15th century: his name appeared in 1474 in the accounts of the town of Orléans; until 1506 he resided at Vendôme. In 1506, he was commissioned to rebuild the northern bell tower of the Chartres Cathedral destroyed by lightning on 26 July 1506. In Chartres, Jehan de Beauce built: The renovation of the Église Saint-Aignan de Chartres between 1513 and 1525; the construction of the pavillon of the Horloge astronomique de Chartres in 1520. The construction of the arch extending the collégiale Saint-André de Chartres above the Eure river. Jean de Beauce on Chartres-tourisme Jehan de Beauce, bâtisseur de la flêche nord de la cathédrale