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Bursa

Bursa is a large city in Turkey, located in northwestern Anatolia, within the Marmara Region. The fourth most populous city in Turkey and second most populous in Marmara Region, Bursa functions as one of the industrial and trade centres of Turkey; the city is the capital of Bursa Province. Bursa was the first major and second overall capital of the Ottoman State between 1335 and 1363; the city was referred to as Hüdavendigar during the Ottoman period, while a more recent nickname is Yeşil Bursa in reference to the parks and gardens located across its urban fabric, as well as to the vast and richly varied forests of the surrounding region. Mount Uludağ, the ancient Mysian Olympus, towers over it, has a well-known ski resort. Bursa borders a fertile plain; the mausoleums of the early Ottoman sultans are located in Bursa, the city's main landmarks include numerous edifices built throughout the Ottoman period. Bursa has thermal baths, old Ottoman mansions and several museums; the shadow-play characters Karagöz and Hacivat are based on historic personalities who lived and died in Bursa.

The city is known for İskender kebap, pideli köfte, cantık, marron glacé and Bursa peaches. Bursa houses the Uludağ University, its population can claim one of the highest overall levels of education in Turkey; the historic towns of İznik, Zeytinbağı are near the centrum. As of 2015 Bursa had a population of 1,854,285, Bursa Province had 2,842,000 inhabitants; the earliest known human settlement near Bursa's current location was at Ilıpınar Höyüğü around 5200 BC. It was followed by the ancient Greek city of Cius, which Philip V of Macedon granted to Prusias I, the King of Bithynia, in 202 BC. Prusias renamed it Prusa. After 128 years of Bithynian rule, Nicomedes IV, the last King of Bithynia, bequeathed the entire kingdom to the Roman Empire in 74 BC. An early Roman Treasure was found in the vicinity of Bursa in the early 20th century. Composed of a woman's silver toilet articles, it is now in the British Museum. Bursa became the first major capital city of the early Ottoman Empire following its capture from the Byzantines in 1326.

As a result, the city witnessed a considerable amount of urban growth throughout the 14th century. After conquering Edirne in East Thrace, the Ottomans turned it into the new capital city in 1363, but Bursa retained its spiritual and commercial importance in the Ottoman Empire; the Ottoman sultan Bayezid I built the Bayezid Külliyesi in Bursa between 1390 and 1395 and the Ulu Cami between 1396 and 1400. After Bayezid was defeated in the Battle of Ankara by the forces Timur in 1402, the latter's grandson, Muhammad Sultan Mirza, had the city pillaged and burned. Despite this, Bursa remained to be the most important administrative and commercial centre in the empire until Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453; the population of Bursa was 45,000 in 1487. During the Ottoman period, Bursa continued to be the source of most royal silk products. Aside from the local silk production, the city imported raw silk from Iran, from China, was the main production centre for the kaftans, pillows and other silk products for the Ottoman palaces until the 17th century.

Following the foundation of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, Bursa became one of the industrial centres of the country. The economic development of the city was followed by population growth and Bursa became the 4th most populous city in Turkey; the city has traditionally been a pole of attraction, was a major centre for refugees from various ethnic backgrounds who immigrated to Anatolia from the Balkans during the loss of the Ottoman territories in Europe between the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The most recent arrival of Balkan Turks took place in the 1940s until the 1990s, when the People's Republic of Bulgaria expelled 150,000 Bulgarian Turks to Turkey. About one-third of these 150,000 Bulgarian Turkish refugees settled in Bursa (especially in Hürriyet Neighborhood. With the building of new industrial zones in 1980-2000 lot of people from eastern part of the country came and settled in Bursa. Bursa stands on the northwestern slopes of Mount Uludağ in the southern Marmara Region, it is the capital city of Bursa Province, which borders the Sea of Yalova to the north.

Bursa has a Mediterranean climate under the Köppen classification, dry-hot summer temperate climate Trewartha classification. The city has dry summers that last from June until September. Winters are cold and damp containing the most rainfall. There can be snow on the ground which will last for two. Bursa is the centre of the Turkish automotive industry. Factories of motor vehicle producers like Fiat and Karsan, as well as automotive parts producers like Bosch, Valeo, Johnson Controls, Delphi have been active in the city for decades; the textile and food industries are strong, with Coca-Cola, Pepsi Cola and other beverage brands, as well as fresh and canned food industries being present in the city's organized industrial zones. The top 10 industry corporations in the Bursa province are as follows: Oyak Renault Tofaş Fiat Bosch Borçelik Sütaş Dairy Products Bursa Eczacılar Kooperatifi Türk Prysmian Kablo Özdilek Asil Çelik Componenta DöktaşApart from its large automotive industry, Bursa produce

Shevchenkivskyi District, Kiev

The Shevchenkivskyi District is an urban district of the city of Kiev, the capital of Ukraine. It was established on 4 April 1937, although in 2001 its area was increased following an annexation of the former Radianskyi and Starokyivskyi districts; the district is significant, as it was here on the Old Kiev mount where the apostle Saint Andrew erected the cross the famous Golden Gate of Kiev, the main entrance to the medieval city of Kiev is located in the district, as are the three major churches of the city: Saint Sophia, Saint Michael and Saint Andrew. Furthermore, in this district the first parliament of Ukraine met at the Ukrainian Club Building and declared Independence in 1917; the district has the local opera house and several universities. It houses the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine on the Volodymyr Street. Kiev Zoo, local zoo, is located here; the other no less important landmarks of the district are historic monuments such as churches and cathedrals: Sophia Cathedral, Volodymyr Cathedral, others.

The place where the Orange Revolution took place, Maydan Nezalezhnosti is in the district and is adjacent to Khreshchatyk. Main streets are: Khreshchatyk, Volodymyrska Street, Victory Parkway/Shevchenko Boulevard, Dehtiariov Street, Olena Teliha Street, Melnykov Street, others; the district borders Podil to the north. In June 2008 the Kiev City Council renamed Kominternivska Street into Symon Petliura Street to commemorate the occasion of his 130th birthday anniversary. Old Kyiv Kudryavets Soldatska slobidka Tatarka Lukyanivka Shuliavka Syrets Nyvky shev.gov.ua – Shevchenkivskyi District administration website

David Eastwood (British Army officer)

Herbert David Eastwood was a British Army officer, awarded the Military Cross for courage during Operation Market Garden in the Second World War. Eastwood was born in Bangor and educated at Bloxham School and St Edmund Hall, Oxford, he commissioned into the Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry on 16 February 1940, was posted to India on internal security duties. After the Battle of France, his regiment was recalled to England to become part of the 31st Independent Infantry Brigade, the 1st Airlanding Brigade. Eastwood took part in the Allied invasion of Sicily, he was subsequently given the job of briefing the D-Day planners on the lessons to be learned from the errors made in the Italian campaign. Eastwood's company landed on 17 September 1944 as part of the British element of Operation Market Garden. Eastwood and his men were responsible for securing and protecting drop zones in preparation for the arrival of the 1st Parachute Brigade. On the next evening Eastwood, in command of No.1 platoon, was detailed to put out navigational aids for a supply drop.

Finding Germans in occupation of the zone in some strength, he attacked, killing some and capturing the rest. On 19 September he returned to the DZ to assist in the landing of the first wave of Polish gliders; as soon as these appeared, the Germans attacked. Eastwood and his men drove them off. Cut off, however, he led his platoon through enemy positions under cover of darkness and reached Ommershof on the north-western outskirts of Arnhem, they dug in there and remained for two days before reinforcing the defensive perimeter around the nearby Hartenstein Hotel. For the next four days they held the crucial area near the Schoonord crossroads, exposed to heavy enemy fire. Regardless of personal danger, Eastwood moved between his sections encouraging his men. In spite of numerous attacks and heavy casualties, their morale was such that they remained in position until ordered to withdraw back across the Rhine on 25 September, he was recommended for, subsequently awarded, the Military Cross. CitationThe above officer led his platoon with great gallantry throughout the action.

On the evening of 18.9.44, he was detailed with his platoon to put out navigational aids on L. Z. "L" for a supply drop. He found the enemy in occupation of this area in some strength, he attacked them, killing or capturing the lot. On 19.9.44, he again returned to this area to assist in the landing of gliders. As soon as the gliders appeared the enemy put in an attack; this was driven off and the enemy held until all the gliders had been unloaded. He found that his route back to the Company area had been cut off by the enemy, but he led his platoon through the enemy positions. From 20.9.44 until the withdrawal on 25.9.44, he held a position, exposed to murderous enemy fire, but regardless of personal danger he went round his section positions encouraging his men. His great example undoubtedly kept the spirits of his men at such a high level that in spite of numerous enemy attacks and heavy casualties they hung on to their positions until the end. Eastwood further served with the 21st Company in the Battle of Arnhem and in the liberation of Norway.

He relinquished his commission in 1947. Following the end of the war, Eastwood joined the colonial Malayan Civil Service in 1947, he served there during the Malay Emergency. Eastwood became district commissioner for Trengganu, on the country's eastern coast, where he wrote the Land Law for the State before going to Malacca. Returning to England after Malaya achieved independence in 1957, he joined the Ministry of Defence in 1959. After serving in Jamaica he completed a four-year tour of Northern Ireland during The Troubles, working in intelligence for the Northern Ireland Office, he was invested as a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1973