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Henry Blosse Lynch

Henry Blosse Lynch was an Anglo-Irish explorer. Henry Blosse Lynch was third of the eleven sons of Major Henry Blosse Lynch of Partry House, County Mayo, His mother was Elizabeth Finnis. Thomas Kerr Lynch and Patrick Kerr Lynch were brothers; when he was 16 years old, he volunteered for the Indian Navy, where he served in the survey of the Persian Gulf. He had a gift for Eastern languages and a good knowledge of Arabic and Persian. At the age of 22 he was promoted to lieutenant, he served as the formal interpreter to the Gulf squadron, whose ships measured and mapped Gulf and the Arabian coast and to the Commodore of the Navy. He spent time traveling around in Arabia and through, able to develop the position of the director of communications with Arab tribes and their'shaykhs'. In 1834 he became second in command to Francis Rawdon Chesney, he was now in charge of negotiations with various Arab tribal leaders. He commanded the Tigris until its sinking, from which he escaped although losing his brother Robert Blosse.

Has in charge of landing of the British delegation at the Gulf of Antioch and assembling of two steamers, brought from England in parts and their launch on the Euphrates. He commanded the Tigris until its sinking. After the sinking of the Tigris and the loss of his brother, Lynch returned home in August/September 1836, traveling via Mosul and Trabzon, Turkey; the relationship between Chesney and Lynch was always tense, they had disagreements. By 1839 he had finished surveying the river Tigris. Under the command of William Michael Lynch, another of Henry Blosse Lynch's brothers, three dismantled steamers were sent around the Cape of Good Hope, they were assembled and joined the Euphrates in Baghdad, which meant that now there were four steamers under the command of H. B. Lynch sailing under the Union Jack, he surveyed the trigonometric of Mesopotamia in 1841, whilst establishing a postal service between Baghdad and Damascus with his brother Thomas Kerr Lynch. In 1842 he deployed once more to India.

He founded the Indian Navy Club. In 1855 when he returned home, he inherited the Mayo estate. One year he retired from the navy, he made comprehensive contributions to the survey and study of all the countries he traveled and worked in. Many maps bear his name. Lynch married in August 1838 Caroline Anne Taylor, daughter of Colonel Robert Taylor, HM's Minister in Baghdad. Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Lynch, Henry Blosse". Dictionary of National Biography. 34. London: Smith, Elder & Co

Structured investment vehicle

A structured investment vehicle is a non-bank financial institution established to earn a credit spread between the longer-term assets held in its portfolio and the shorter-term liabilities it issues. They are simple credit spread lenders "lending" by investing in securitizations, but by investing in corporate bonds and funding by issuing commercial paper and medium term notes, which were rated AAA until the onset of the financial crisis, they did not expose themselves to either interest rate or currency risk and held asset to maturity. SIVs differ from asset-backed securities and collateralized debt obligations in that they are permanently capitalized and have an active management team, they are established as offshore companies and so avoid paying tax and escape the regulation that banks and finance companies are subject to. In addition, until changes in regulations around 2008, they could be kept off the balance-sheet of the banks that set them up – like asset management activity – escaping indirect restraints through regulation though the sponsoring banks provided some level of guarantee to investors in the SIV.

Due to their structure, the assets and liabilities of the SIV were more transparent than traditional banks for investors. SIVs were given the label by Standard & Poor's—Moody's called them "Limited Purpose Investment Companies" or "LiPICs", they are considered to be part of the non-bank financial system, which has two parts, the shadow banking system comprising the "bank sponsored" SIVs and the parallel banking system, made up from independent sponsors. Invented by Citigroup in 1988, SIVs were large investors in securitization; some SIVs had significant concentrations in US subprime mortgages, while other SIV had no exposure to these products that are so linked to the financial crisis in 2008. After a slow start the SIV sector tripled in assets between 2004 and 2007, at their peak just before the financial crisis in mid 2007, there were about 36 SIVs with assets under management in excess of $400 billion. By October 2008, no SIVs remained active; the strategy of SIVs is the same as traditional credit spread banking.

They raise capital and lever that capital by issuing short-term securities, such as commercial paper and medium term notes and public bonds, at lower rates and use that money to buy longer term securities at higher margins, earning the net credit spread for their investors. Long term assets could include, among other things, residential mortgage-backed security, collateralized bond obligation, auto loans, student loans, credit cards securitizations, bank and corporate bonds. In 1988 and 1989, two London bankers, Nicholas Sossidis and Stephen Partridge-Hicks launched the first two SIVs for Citigroup, called Alpha Finance Corp. and Beta Finance Corp. Alpha had a maximum leverage of 5 times its capital with each asset requiring 20% of capital irrespective of its credit quality. Beta had leverage of up to 10 times capital but leverage was based on risk weightings of the assets. In 1993, Sossidis and Partridge-Hicks left Citigroup to form their own management firm, Gordian Knot, located in London's Mayfair.

"Alpha Finance was created in response to volatility in the capital markets at the time. Investors wanted a highly-rated vehicle that would yield more stable returns on their capital, said Henry Tabe, a managing director for Moody's Investors Service's London office." Henry Tabe provides further historical background in his book on how SIVs unravelled during the crisis and lessons that can be learned from the sector's extinction. In 1999, Professor Frank Partnoy wrote, "certain types of so-called'arbitrage vehicles' demonstrate that companies are purchasing credit ratings for something other than their informational value. One example is the credit arbitrage vehicle known as a Structured Investment Vehicle. A typical SIV is a company which seeks to'arbitrage' credit by issuing debt or debt-like liabilities and purchasing debt or debt-like assets, earning the credit spread differential between its assets and liabilities. Much of an SIV's portfolio may consist of asset-backed securities." However, Portnoy's quote is misleading, in reality there is no such "arbitrage", the SIV is acting like any old fashioned spread banker, seeking to earn a spread between its income on assets and cost of funds on liabilities.

It earns this spread by accepting two types of risk: a credit transformation and a maturity transformation. The scale of both transformations were less than traditional banks, leverage was typically half to a quarter of that used by banks, so the risks were less and the returns available were much lower; the introduction of Basel I regulations made holding bank capital and asset-backed securities expensive for a bank, depending on the ratings assigned by one of the Government sponsored ratings agencies. ABS's that were able to attain a rating of AA or AAA had capital requirements as low as 1.6% of the securities' size, allowing for higher leverage than would have been allowed otherwise. Bank capital securities, such as dated subordinated debt could be weighted as as to amount to a deduction from capital; that is to say. A'loophole' in the Basel accords meant that banks could provide a liquidity facility to the SIV of up to 360 days without holding capital against it so long as it was undrawn.

However these facilities represented only between 10% and 20% of the total balance sheet of the SI

Main Street Historic District (Tampico, Illinois)

The Main Street Historic District in Tampico, United States is a historic district notable as home to the birthplace of Ronald Reagan. The district includes the late 19th century collection of buildings that comprise Tampico's central business district, among them are two apartments that the Reagan family occupied in the early 1900s; the buildings in the district went through several periods of rebuilding during the 1870s due to major fires and a tornado. The district boundaries encompass the 100 block of Main Street and exclude properties that do not date from the historic period; the historic district represents an intact commercial district representative of rural, small town Illinois. The buildings present a cohesive architectural unit; the district's contributing properties are divided into two major categories "contributing structures" and "significant structures." Both commercial buildings that the Reagans occupied second floor apartments in are listed as "significant." The Main Street Historic District was added to the U.

S. National Register of Historic Places in 1982. Tampico, Illinois, in southeastern Whiteside County, was founded in 1858 but settlers did not arrive in earnest until 1871 due to the swampy nature of the terrain. After the Chicago and Quincy Railroad constructed a line through Tampico in 1871 growth was rapid but faced a series of major setbacks. In 1872, 1874 and 1876 the village was struck by major fires which required the repeated rebuilding of the town's central business district along Main Street. A tornado destroyed about 40 buildings in 1874; as a result of the repeated rebuilding, all buildings along Main Street built after 1876 are constructed from brick. Between 1896–1905 the Main Street district in Tampico went through a building boom. Many agriculturally oriented industries located in Tampico during this time period; the construction of the Hennepin Canal from 1899–1907 contributed to the influx of new buildings in Tampico and during the period of construction five new buildings were added to Main Street.

It was in 1906 that the family of Ronald Reagan moved into the district, occupying the apartment on the second floor of the building at 111 Main Street. They would live in other locations in Tampico and briefly return to the village and occupy another second floor apartment within the district. Modern Main Street in Tampico has fewer buildings and less density than it did during the peak of its historical significance from 1871–1920. Fires, new construction are to blame, in part, for this situation. Despite fewer buildings, the row of commercial buildings along the east side of Main Street are illustrative of the former density of the district; the central business district in Tampico stretched one block, the 100 block, of Main Street, which extended from Market Street on the north to the Chicago and Quincy tracks on the south. The boundaries of the historic district overlie the traditional boundaries of the central business district The district boundaries exclude properties that are not part of the historic period.

In addition, the boundaries exclude residential properties. The northern boundary of the historic district, near Market Street, was drawn to include the properties at 106 and 107 S. Main while excluding a lot, vacant at the time of the district's inclusion on the National Register, a new building; the southern border was drawn along Pig Alley and designed to exclude a non-historic grain elevator near the railroad tracks. The buildings in the Tampico Historic District all have a uniform setback, save the neo-Colonial, 1970s era bank building. All but one of the district's buildings stand two stories, contributing to a uniform architectural rhythm and harmony. Most of the district's buildings have matching cornice lines and the two frame buildings in the historic district predate the incorporation of Tampico as a village. Land use within the district boundaries is commercial and the architecture of the buildings reflect that use; the most architecturally significant structures in the district are part of an integrated, cohesive unit.

Their significance is dependent upon each other, the removal of any one of the buildings would reduce the integrity of the other buildings. The three buildings considered contributing structures, while dating from the period of historical significance for the district, have been extensively altered. In addition, all three buildings are free-standing structures and thus, not integrated into the whole of the visual harmony found in the significant structures; the three altered buildings are located at 110 and 131 South Main Street. The building at 131 Main, on the east side of the street, was constructed in 1873 and owned by the Glassburn Lumber and Feed company; the west facade of the building has been altered by the addition of a new storefront and a pseudo-Mansard roof. The structures at 106 and 110 Main are connected by a single story structure between them. 106 S. Main Street was constructed in 1873 and features a false-front with a parapet that hides its gable roof; the building housed a millinery and a beauty shop and its front facade has been altered.

At 110 S. Main Street is a 1905 two-story brick building used as a grocery store; the building, used by the Masonic Lodge, has had part of its cornice removed and replaced by a shingled canopy. The building known as the H. C. Pitney Variety Store consists of two store fronts, was erected by Ray McKenzie in 1900; the H. C. Pitney Variety Store occupied the property, under various owners, from 1911 until 1920. H. C. Pitney owned the store f

The Illustrated Bartsch

The Illustrated Bartsch is an extensive compendium of European master prints and commentary, published by the Abaris Books imprint of OPAL Publishing Corporation. Based on the 21 volume list, Le Peintre-Graveur, composed by Adam von Bartsch in the early nineteenth century, the Bartsch has maintained its position as the premier reference work in the field of European master prints for over 40 years; the Illustrated Bartsch consists of images of European master prints from around 1400 until the arrival of the Industrial Revolution, around 1850. This 450-year span details the origins of printmaking, from manually created and pulled prints, to the introduction of mechanical printing presses and photography; the cooperation and contribution of many of the worlds finest art historians have helped the work maintain its relevance as an art reference manual by reflecting the ongoing progress of scholarship. The continual evolution of art history and scholarship provide new additions and attributions, which have caused the project to grow exponentially.

Bartsch's original 24 volume list has grown to over 100 volumes under the Abaris Books imprint, which was, in 2010, compiling further volumes. Walter L. Strauss's General Plan for The Illustrated Bartsch was drawn up in the early 1970s, the first edition of the collection was published in 1978 under Strauss' own publishing company, Abaris Books. While an earlier attempt at producing an illustrated edition of Le Peintre-Graveur was abandoned after a single volume, TIB is now in 104 volumes and growing, it is the most intensive and complete effort made toward the project. After Strauss' death in 1988, Abaris Books was made an imprint of OPAL Publishing Corporation, which continues to produce volumes under his General Plan. Commentary volumes complete the catalogues raisonnés of artists named in Le Peintre-Graveur. Supplementary volumes present the collections of artists not indexed in the original list; the first 48 volumes of The Illustrated Bartsch present every master print in Adam von Bartsch's Le Peintre-Graveur, are referred to as “picture atlases.”

Abaris Books coined this term in the General Plan to refer to the volumes which illustrate the original list of painter-engravers. While "picture atlases" are notable in their faithful presentation of Bartsch's list and scholasticism have ascertained accuracies and inaccuracies in the attributions made by Bartsch. Commentary volumes are important with special consideration to the continuously expanding field of art history, as they list master prints unknown to or excluded by Bartsch: “All the prints known to Bartsch are illustrated in the first fifty volumes... Prints not known to Bartsch, or not listed by him, will be illustrated in companion volumes; these will include commentaries on the prints... as well as new attributions. Bartsch's sequence of artists and subjects has been retained.”Commentary volumes expand and augment individual “Picture Atlases” with new progress of art scholarship. Emphasizing new attributions, de-attributions, additional states, copies maintains the usefulness and pertinence of the historical art collection as scholastic reference works.

Supplementary volumes are a unique creation of Abaris Books. By including Supplement volumes, Abaris Books took note of artists omitted by Bartsch, these volumes detail print artists unknown to, overlooked by, or rejected by Bartsch. Supplement volumes include artists who flourished after Bartsch's death Volumes 101 through 140 on German, French and British artists of the Nineteenth Century, Volume 141, dedicated to Belgian artist James Ensor. Supplement Volumes 161 through 166 follow a scheme of much earlier artists; these volumes consist of German Single Leaf Woodcuts before 1500 by Anonymous Artists, as organized by Wilhelm Ludwig Schreiber and published in the early 20th century. ^ a: An illustrated version of Bartsch's list was first undertaken by the Pennsylvania State University Press, which published an illustrated edition of Bartsch's 12th volume in 1971. However, the project was abandoned after the publication of a single volume

Big Staircase in Kalemegdan Park

The Big Staircase in Kalemegdan Park is the most monumental park motive in Kalemegdan Park. It occupies the area in the southwest frontline of the fortress, on the location of the former rampart and a hidden road; the staircase was built during a major renovation of Kalemegdan Park. The concept design was done by Aleksandar Krstić, head of the parks department in the city administration, while the main project was work of Đorđe Kovaljevski. Main works were finished in 1928. During World War II, the staircase was damaged both during the German bombing of Belgrade in April 1941 and during the war. At the same time when the staircase was being finished, so was the relocation of the Old Cemetery from Tašmajdan. City administration was left with the large number of tombstones so they decided to reuse them for construction works around the city, including the pathways connecting the staircase with the rest of the fortress. A path connecting the fortress with the Lower Town below was made of tombstones with the inscribed sides turned down.

Belgrade chronicler Zoran Nikolić labeled it the Path of the "Former" Deceased. A tombstone was used as the part of the pedestal of the nearby Pobednik monument. Citizens protested, despite this was the usual practice in the Balkan history in general as there are numerous Greek and Byzantine remains in the region. One of the stone benches on the promenade extending from the staircase was made in a way where the name of the deceased, Aksentije Jovanović, was visible, together with the carved cross and skull and crossbones. After the war, the staircase was only repaired, it was neglected during the 1960s. The staircase remained that way until 1987; that year, a project of the full reconstruction of the staircase was completed, including the restoration of the balustrades and lanterns. The work was conducted in 1989, including the new steps; the choice of material, Brač limestone, proved to be a bad one. Due to the bad frost resilience, the steps soon began to crack soon. In October 2006 the steps were renovated again.

The cracks were filled with cement and artificial stone. The staircase deteriorated more in time and the new reconstruction was scheduled for the summer of 2016, but was postponed to December 2017 and to December 2018, due to the lack of funds, it was scheduled for March 2019. The stone steps and lining of the podests will be removed and returned with the new stainless steel made clamps; the subwall will be renovated and the ruined stone slabs will be replaced. Second phase, which includes the rearrangement of the wider surrounding area of the Big Staircase is set for October 2020. However, when works began in March 2019, instead of restoration and repair of the staircase, it was smashed. Architects and art historians protested, but city administration said "this is the best way"; the Brač limestone was replaced with Danilovgrad limestone. Nine stone jardinières which were sculptured on the staircase, but perished in time, were restored, they are made of sandstone from Bela Voda. It was envisioned including two rest areas with semi-circle expansions.

The staircase is designed in the Romanticist style, incorporating elements of the Serbo-Byzantine Revival. It is embellished with the sculpture of the lying lion by Sreten Stojanović; the railing was made of sandstone. The decorative balustrade was demolished in World War II. 44°49′17.14″N 20°26′57.24″E