A turnstile called a baffle gate or turnstyle, is a form of gate which allows one person to pass at a time. It can be made so as to enforce one-way traffic of people, in addition, it can restrict passage only to people who insert a coin, a ticket, a pass, or similar, thus a turnstile can be used in the case of paid access, for example to access public transport, a pay toilet, or to restrict access to authorized people, for example in the lobby of an office building. Turnstiles were used, like other forms of stile, to allow human beings to pass while keeping sheep or other livestock penned in; the use of turnstiles in most modern applications has been credited to Clarence Saunders, who used them in his first Piggly Wiggly store. Turnstiles are used at a wide variety of settings, including stadiums, amusement parks, mass transit stations, office lobbies, ski resorts, power plants and casinos. From a business/revenue standpoint, turnstiles give an accurate, verifiable count of attendance. From a security standpoint, they lead patrons to enter single-file, so security personnel have a clear view of each patron.
This enables security to efficiently isolate potential trouble or to confiscate any prohibited materials. On the other hand, physical barriers become a serious safety issue when a speedy evacuation is needed, requiring emergency exits that bypass any turnstiles. Persons with disabilities may have difficulties using turnstiles. In these cases a wide aisle gate or a manual gate may be provided. At some locations where luggage is expected, a line of turnstiles may be formed of wide aisle gates, for example at Heathrow Terminals 2 & 3 Underground station. Turnstiles use ratchet mechanisms to allow the rotation of the stile in one direction allowing ingress but preventing rotation in the other direction, they are designed to operate only after a payment has been made by inserting a coin or token in a slot. Turnstiles are used for counting the numbers of people passing through a gate when payment is not involved, they are used extensively in this manner in amusement parks, in order to keep track of how many people enter and exit the park and ride each ride.
The first major use of turnstiles at a sporting venue was at Hampden Park in Scotland. Waist-high turnstiles are used in fairs and arenas; the user inserts a pass into the slot, from which a barcode is read. Sometimes referred to as "half-height" turnstiles, this fixed arm style has traditionally been the most popular type of turnstile. There are many variations of this style available, including one, designed to be accompanied by a matching ticket box, one with a ticket box built in; some styles are designed to allow entry only after a payment are inserted, while others allow access after a valid barcode is electronically read. A disadvantage to this type is people can "jump the turnstile" as happens on the Moscow Metro and other mass transport systems in Russia. Optical turnstiles are an alternative to the traditional "arm"-style turnstile and are used in locations where a physical barrier is deemed unnecessary or unaesthetic. Optical turnstiles use an infrared beam to count patrons and recognize anyone attempting to enter a site without a valid entry pass.
The drop arm optical turnstile is a combination of the security of a tripod or barrier turnstile and a optical turnstile. The lanes can have either double arms; when access is granted the arms drop into recesses in the cabinet. Once the arms drop out of the way, the turnstile functions as a optical turnstile; the full-height turnstile is a larger version of the turnstile 7-foot high, similar in operation to a revolving door, which eliminates the possibility of anyone jumping over the turnstile. However, this type of turnstile functions differently than a revolving door, in that it does not allow someone to come in as someone else goes out, it is pejoratively known as an "iron maiden", after the torture device of the same name, or "high-wheel". It is sometimes called a "Rotogate" in Chicago, where it is used at unstaffed exits of Chicago'L' stations, is used at many New York City Subway stations. In Europe, however, "Rotogate" refers to a different kind of gate, not a turnstile. There are two types of High Entrance/Exit Turnstile and Exit-Only.
The difference between them is that HEET turnstiles can rotate in both directions thus allowing two-way traffic, while exit-only turnstiles can only rotate in one direction thus allowing one-way traffic. Exit-only turnstiles are used in mass transit stations to allow passengers to exit the system without interfering with those entering. Exit-only models are used at enclosed areas such as theme parks, zoos, or amusement parks, to allow visitors to leave, while denying admission to those who have not paid. Additionally there are single, double or tandem turnstiles that contain two rotors side by side in the same frame; this allows more throughput in a limited space, as tandems are more narrow than two single turnstiles when placed side-by-side. In the public transport systems of the Soviet Union, the only common use of turnstiles was at the entrance to subway stations. City buses and
Central railway station, Sydney
The Central railway station is a heritage-listed railway station located at the southern end of the Sydney central business district in the City of Sydney local government area of New South Wales, Australia. The station is the largest and busiest railway station in New South Wales and serves as a major transport interchange for NSW TrainLink inter-city rail services, Sydney Trains commuter rail services, Sydney light rail services, State Transit bus services, private coach transport services. Abbreviated as Central or Central station, the station is known as Sydney Terminal and Central Railway Stations Group and Central Railway; the property is owned by an agency of the Government of New South Wales. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999, it recorded 11.35 million passenger movements in 2013. Central station occupies a large city block separating Haymarket, Surry Hills, the central business district, bounded by Railway Square and Pitt Street in the west, Eddy Avenue in the north, Elizabeth Street in the east and the Devonshire Street Tunnel in the south.
Parts of the station and marshalling yards extend as far south as Cleveland Street are located on the site of the former Devonshire Street Cemetery. There have been three terminal stations in Sydney. Although the Sydney Railway Company first applied to the government for four blocks of land between Hay and Cleveland Streets in 1849, the Surveyor General favoured Grose Farm, now the grounds of The University of Sydney, it was less costly to develop. The Company exchanged land in the first and third blocks, between Hay and Devonshire Streets, for an increased area of eight hectares in the fourth block, the Government Paddocks, between Devonshire and Cleveland Streets. Hence the site of the first Sydney railway terminus was located here from 1855; the original Sydney station was opened on 26 September 1855 in an area known as Cleveland Fields. This station, called Sydney Terminal, had Devonshire Street as its northern boundary, it was but unofficially called Redfern station, while at that time the present Redfern station was called Eveleigh.
The first and second Sydney Terminals were never located in Redfern, being to the north of Cleveland Street, Redfern's northern boundary. When this station became inadequate for the traffic it carried, a new station was built in 1874 on the same site and called Sydney Terminal; this was a brick building with two platforms. It grew to 14 platforms before it was replaced by the present-day station to the north of Devonshire Street; the new station was built on a site occupied by the Devonshire Street Cemetery, a convent, a female refuge, a police barracks, a parsonage, a Benevolent Society. The remains exhumed from the cemetery were re-interred at several other Sydney cemeteries including Rookwood and Waverley cemeteries. Bodies were moved to Botany by flat cars. In major metropolitan areas the rail terminus tended to be located within the inner core of the city; the site of the first and second station termini was inconveniently located for the city. A horse-bus service operated from the station to the city, both Engineer-in-Chief, John Whitton, Chief Commissioner for Railways, B. H. Martindale, recognised the urgency of a city rail extension.
In 1877 John Young, a prominent Sydney builder and local politician proposed a scheme to provide a circular city extension to the railway. The route included stations at Oxford Street, William Street and Woolloomooloo in the east, Circular Quay Dawes Point and a line parallel to Darling Harbour in the west. John Whitton designed a grand city terminus at the corner of Hunter and Castlereagh Streets two years later. Neither of these schemes eventuated. In 1897 Norman Selfe drew up a scheme for the gradual enlargement and extension of the railway to the northern end of the city and in the same year Railway Commissioner, E. M. G. Eddy, proposed a terminal city station at the corner of Elizabeth Street and St James' Road; the route of the latter was the same as that for 1879, the new site for the terminus included half of the northern end of Hyde Park. Although 6 hectares of the burial ground in Devonshire Street was offered as compensation, public sentiment still opposed the loss of Hyde Park; the Royal Commission in 1897 again considered the city railway extension because of dangerous congestion at Redfern and recommended using Hyde Park.
After an investigative trip overseas, Henry Deane, Engineer-in-Chief, prepared alternative proposals for a new railway terminal for the government in 1900. The second scheme proposal called for the resumption of the Devonshire Street cemeteries, but this was cheaper and less contentious than the acquisition of Hyde Park, it was the second scheme, adopted. When the third station was built in 1906, it moved closer to the city, it fronted Garden Road, realigned to from Eddy Avenue. If Belmore Park is included, all the land now occupied by the railway at Central and Redfern coincides with the Company's original selection of four blocks between Hay and Cleveland Streets; the present station was opened on 4 August 1906 and opening for passengers on 5 August 1906. The new station included the previous Mortuary railway station used to transport funeral parties to Rookwood Cemetery; the last train departed platform 5 of the 1874 station at midnight. During the remainder of that night, the passenger concourse was demolished and the line extended through the old station into the new station.
The Western Mail arrived at 05:50 on 5 August 1906 at
Gordon railway station, Sydney
The Gordon railway station is a heritage-listed railway station located on the North Shore line, serving the Sydney suburb of Gordon. It is served by Sydney Trains T1 North Shore line services. Situated at St Johns Avenue, Gordon in the Ku-ring-gai Council local government area of New South Wales, the station was designed and built by the New South Wales Department of Railways in 1909, it is known as Gordon Railway Station. The property is owned by an agency of the Government of New South Wales, it was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999. In 1887, tenders were called for construction of a branch line extending south from Hornsby to the North Shore; the 16.8-kilometre section between Hornsby and St. Leonard's was opened on 1 January 1890. Stations provided at the opening of the line included St Leonards. A single line was constructed at the time; the line between St Leonards and Milson's Point was completed 1 May 1893. Gordon Railway Station was opened on 1 January 1890.
In 1909 the single line was duplicated between Hornsby and St. Leonard's. At Gordon, during the duplication the original single platform and station building were replaced by a new island platform with a standard brick island-platform style station building; the island platform served the Down North Shore line. A third platform was built at Gordon adjacent to the Up line; this platform allowed for termination of local trains at Gordon. At the time of duplication, an overhead footbridge and booking office was built which allowed local residents to cross from one side of Gordon to the other and allowed access to the platforms via sets of steps. A goods siding, crossovers and a signal box on the platform completed the track arrangement. Southbound services used Platform 1 with Platform 2 a terminal road with a buffer stop at the northern end. In the early 1990s, the station was reconfigured with Platform 2 becoming the main southbound platform and Platform 1 the terminal road. Since the 1990s, a number of car parks have been built.
In 2014, the bus stop on the station's western side was demolished to make way for a three-storey carpark and bus interchange. The new interchange opened in early June 2015; the buildings comprise a station building, including a signal box, platforms 2/3, completed c. 1909. Other structures include a footbridge, completed in 1909. Gordon Railway Station is located east of the Pacific Highway at Gordon; the station includes three platforms. The station is disabled ramp from either side of the station. There is a commercial strip on the western side of the Pacific Highway across the road from the station. Exterior: Located on the island platform the station building c. 1909 is a good representative example of the standard railway design A8-A10 station buildings along the Northern line. Walls are red face brick, tuck pointed with moulded rendered string course and window sills; the gabled roof is modern corrugated steel, the ends are timber boarded. The lower pitched awnings over the platform are supported on cast iron awning brackets springing from moulded rendered corbels.
One face brick chimney with rendered top is sited along the ridge line. At the northern end of the building is located a brick signal box with encircling sliding 6-paned windows on three sides under the main roof line; the exterior of the station is in original condition, with no additional openings or infilled elements. Interior: The interior of the Platform 2/3 station building contains a high degree of original fabric and layout. Original internal details include mini-orb ceiling, ceiling roses, plastered wall finishes with moulded dado, door and window joinery including 16-paned coloured glass sashes; the floor has been replaced with concrete, modern fluorescent lighting installed. The interior of the signal box is painted brick to window sill height and timber boarded above the windows, with a mini orb ceiling and timber floor. Fittings include the 28 lever frame, key box, 1927 Indicator board, 1969 indicator board, original timber desk and bells. Exterior: The timber framed and weatherboard clad booking office was constructed in 1910 and located on the overhead platform.
It has a gabled roof of modern corrugated iron steel with finials. The roof overhang and projecting gable on the southern side provides a sheltered area for ticket purchasing, features timber boarded ceiling and rose. Two modern ticket windows have been inserted into original openings with decorative timber architraves remaining. Other modern ticket machines have been recessed into the building in new openings with profiled timber architraves. Two new steel and glass lifts are located on the north side of the overbridge. New access structures to these lifts have been constructed in a similar style and material to the original booking office, feature coloured glass panels; the lift access structure on the eastern side includes two small commercial tenancies, only one of, presently occupied. Interior: Internally the original layout of the building appears to have been altered. Timber panelled wall linings appear original
Sydney Trains is the suburban passenger rail network serving the city of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The network is a hybrid suburban-commuter rail system with a central underground core that covers over 815 km of track and 178 stations over eight lines, it has metro-equivalent train frequencies of every three minutes or better in the underground core, 5–10 minutes at most major stations all day and 15 minutes at most minor stations all day. During weekend services trains are less frequent with headways of upwards of a half-hour on outer stations with frequencies of less than 10 minutes in the underground core; the network is controlled by the New South Wales Government's transport authority, Transport for NSW, is part of the authority's Opal ticketing system. In 2017-18, 359.2 million passenger journeys were made on the network. In May 2012 the Minister for Transport announced a restructure of RailCorp, the organisation that owned and managed the metropolitan rail network and operated passenger services throughout the New South Wales.
Two new organisations were created to take over operation of the services from 1 July 2013. Sydney Trains acquired all suburban services in the Sydney metropolitan area bounded by Berowra, Emu Plains and Waterfall from RailCorp's CityRail division. Intercity and Hunter Line services operated by CityRail were taken over by NSW Trains. RailCorp remained as the owner of the network infrastructure; when first created as subsidiaries of RailCorp, Sydney Trains and NSW Trains were not controlled entities of RailCorp, but were instead controlled by Transport for NSW. In July, they ceased to be subsidiaries of RailCorp and became independent standalone agencies in July 2017; the first expansion of the Sydney suburban network during the Sydney Trains era occurred in 2015 when the South West Rail Link opened between Glenfield and Leppington. Beginning in 2018, some sections of the network are being transferred to the city’s metro and light rail networks; the line between Chatswood and Epping will form part of Sydney Metro Northwest and closed for conversion in September 2018.
The section of line between Sydenham and Bankstown will form part of Sydney Metro Southwest. This is due to open in 2024; the section of line between Camellia and Carlingford will form part of the Parramatta Light Rail network. The adjacent section of track between Clyde and Camellia, including Rosehill railway station, will become disused; the light rail is expected to open in 2023. A new rail link has been announced to serve the under-construction Western Sydney Airport; the line will link with the Western Line at St Marys station. The line is the first stage of a proposed "North-South Link" between Macarthur. However, this line is to be delivered using metro or light metro technology. In addition, a proposed extension to the South West Rail Link would connect Leppington to the Badgerys Creek Aerotropolis interchange south of the Western Sydney Airport. In July 2013 Howard Collins, the former Chief Operating Officer of London Underground, was appointed as Chief Executive of Sydney Trains. In addition to operating suburban train services, Sydney Trains maintains the New South Wales Metropolitan Rail Area, maintains all but a handful of operational railway stations in the state.
Sydney Trains operates eight suburban lines across metropolitan Sydney. In conjunction with a new timetable released on 20 October 2013, the Sydney Trains network was reorganised with a new numbering system; the number of lines was reduced from eleven to seven by merging several lines together. An eighth line was created on 26 November 2017 by splitting the T2 line into two separate lines. T5 services were modified to no longer travel to and from Campbelltown, instead starting and terminating at Leppington. From 28 April 2019, the T1 line from Gordon to Hornsby via Strathfield will be renumbered T9, whilst the portion from Berowra to Richmond & Emu Plains via Chatswood and Parramatta will remain T1; the new line will be red in colour. The main hub of the Sydney Trains system is Central station. Central is the terminus of most NSW TrainLink lines. After leaving Central, trains coming from the T2 Inner West & Leppington Line, T3 Bankstown Line and T8 Airport & South Line travel through the City Circle - a ring line beneath the Sydney central business district.
After completing the City Circle, these trains pass through Central for a second time and return to the suburbs. The T1 North Shore, Northern & Western Line and T4 Eastern Suburbs & Illawarra Line pass through the central business district and continue on to other areas of Sydney; the T5 Cumberland Line serves Western Sydney and provides access to the major centre of Parramatta from the south west of the city without requiring a change of trains at Granville. The T6 Carlingford Line and T7 Olympic Park Line are suburban shuttle services. NightRide bus services established in 1989, replace trains between midnight and 4:30am, leaving the tracks clear of trains for maintenance work; such bus services stop near stations operating at hourly intervals. Many services depart the city from bus stops near Town Hall station. NightRide services are contracted to external bus operators and are identified by route numbers beginning with "N". Sydney Trains operates a fleet of double deck electric multiple units.
The trainsets are divided into the following classes: Though operated by NSW TrainLink, some H sets are used on suburban services. Sydney Trains is taking delivery of 24 eight-carriage series 2 Waratah trains, which are similar to the original A sets, it maintains intercity trains for NSW TrainLink. The Sydney Trains network is divided into
Enfield, New South Wales
Enfield is a suburb in the Inner West of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is 11 kilometres south-west of the Sydney central business district in the local government area of Burwood Council; the suburb is named after a suburb of London, England. Before the arrival of the First Fleet in 1788, the Enfield area belonged to the Wangal people, a clan of the Eora tribe, which covered most of Sydney. In the early years, the Eora people were badly affected by smallpox. Many of the clans became unsustainably small and the survivors formed new bands who lived where they could. While it would be wrong to say that the local indigenous population gave no resistance to British land claims, within thirty years or so of the colony's establishment, most of the land in the inner-west had been conceded to British settlers. William Faithful was granted 100 acres in 1810 covering what is now Enfield as well as much of Croydon Park and parts of Burwood and Croydon. In 1812, Liverpool Road was built through Faithful's land and the high position of Enfield made it a sensible spot for a staging post along the road.
By the mid-1840s a small village had formed and the surrounding area supported vegetable gardening and a timber industry. St Thomas' Anglican Church is the oldest surviving building in the suburb. In 1853, a post office was built; this was the first recorded use of the name Enfield for the area although it may have been unofficially known as that. In 1889, Enfield was deemed large enough to have its own municipal council which covered a larger area than the current suburb including those parts of the current Burwood and Strathfield councils south of Liverpool Rd. In 1891, its municipal population of 2,050 was larger than that of neighbouring Strathfield and only just smaller than another neighbour Canterbury. Enfield retained its separate identity until 1949 when the NSW state government decided to abolish a number of small local councils by amalgamating them with their neighbours, thus Enfield was absorbed into Strathfield. Enfield Olympic Pool, located in Henley Park is the oldest freshwater pool in Sydney, completed in 1933 and opened by Bertram Stevens, NSW Premier and Colonial Treasurer, on 18 November 1933.
The Enfield War Memorial is situated on the corner of Liverpool Road and Coronation Parade on the lawn outside the former Enfield Council Chambers. The memorial is a rectangular sandstone pedestal with four marble plaque panels with the engraved names of the men and women who served during World War I; the top of the pedestal displays a 105mm French Howitzer gun, donated to the Australian Government by the French government as recognition of Australia's wartime assistance during World War I. The Memorial was unveiled on 11 October 1924 by the NSW Attorney-General and by the Premier of NSW from 1927-1930. Erection of the memorial was made possible by Mayor and Mayoress of Enfield, Mr and Mrs Ebenezer Ford; the wheel treads of the French howitzer gun which are made of wood are still intact. The Enfield system began as a steam tramway opening in 1891 between Ashfield Station and Enfield and was a separate group of lines that worked independently from the main Sydney network; the lines were based around a depot in Enfield.
The green patch of grass that covers most of Coronation Parade lies on top of the original tram tracks that led, in a straight line, directly north onto the Boulevarde along a route that led from Ashfield. In 1901, this line was extended north to Mortlake, in 1909 a branch to Cabarita Park was opened; the system was electrified in 1912. Services operated from Ashfield Station along Liverpool Road, Georges River Road and Tangarra Street north along Coronation Parade in a straight line passing what is now the Enfield War Memorial and back to Liverpool Road through Enfield, north along Burwood Road through Burwood; the line turned into Crane Street Majors Bay Road and Brewer Street to Cabarita Junction. The line was double track until this point, it split into single-track branches to Mortlake and Cabarita. Short services were turned back at Brighton Avenue, Plymouth Street, Burwood Station and Wellbank St. Services operated every five minutes between Ashfield and Wellbank St in peak periods, every 15 minutes on the two branches.
A depot on Tangarra Street served the lines. The lines closed in 1948, were replaced by buses; the road, now used for motor traffic on Coronation Parade was the road, built beside the original tram track until the main intersection where the road was built over the tracks became the Boulevarde. The Coronation Parade arch that leads into the former Coronation Parade tram station displays 4 light bulbs which were the holders for the four electricity cables that ran along the old tram line. St Joseph's Catholic Church on Liverpool Road was built 1930-31; the church was designed by architect Clement Glancy in Inter-War Academic Classical style inspired by Église de la Madeleine, Paris. St Thomas's Anglican Church, Coronation Parade was built in 1848 in a Gothic Revival style and is now listed on the Register of the National Estate, it is close to the larger commercial areas of Strathfield. Enfield itself is quite small in area being bounded by Liverpool Road, Coronation Parade, Mitchell Street and Burwood Road.
Enfield Public School is on Beaumaris Street. St Joseph's Primary School is located on the corner of Burwood and Liverpool Roads and is a Catholic school for kindergarten to Year 6. Li
A train station, railway station, railroad station, or depot is a railway facility or area where trains stop to load or unload passengers or freight. It consists of at least one track-side platform and a station building providing such ancillary services as ticket sales and waiting rooms. If a station is on a single-track line, it has a passing loop to facilitate traffic movements; the smallest stations are most referred to as "stops" or, in some parts of the world, as "halts". Stations elevated. Connections may be available to intersecting rail lines or other transport modes such as buses, trams or other rapid transit systems. In British English, traditional usage favours railway station or station though train station, perceived as an Americanism, is now about as common as railway station in writing. In British usage, the word station is understood to mean a railway station unless otherwise qualified. In American English, the most common term in contemporary usage is train station. In North America, the term depot is sometimes used as an alternative name for station, along with the compound forms train depot, railway depot, railroad depot, but applicable for goods, the term depot is not used in reference to vehicle maintenance facilities in American English.
The world's first recorded railway station was The Mount on the Oystermouth Railway in Swansea, which began passenger service in 1807, although the trains were horsedrawn rather than by locomotives. The two-storey Mount Clare station in Baltimore, which survives as a museum, first saw passenger service as the terminus of the horse-drawn Baltimore and Ohio Railroad on 22 May 1830; the oldest terminal station in the world was Crown Street railway station in Liverpool, built in 1830, on the locomotive hauled Liverpool to Manchester line. As the first train on the Liverpool-Manchester line left Liverpool, the station is older than the Manchester terminal at Liverpool Road; the station was the first to incorporate a train shed. The station was demolished in 1836 as the Liverpool terminal station moved to Lime Street railway station. Crown Street station was converted to a goods station terminal; the first stations had little in the way of amenities. The first stations in the modern sense were on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, opened in 1830.
Manchester's Liverpool Road Station, the second oldest terminal station in the world, is preserved as part of the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester. It resembles a row of Georgian houses. Early stations were sometimes built with both passenger and goods facilities, though some railway lines were goods-only or passenger-only, if a line was dual-purpose there would be a goods depot apart from the passenger station. Dual-purpose stations can sometimes still be found today, though in many cases goods facilities are restricted to major stations. In rural and remote communities across Canada and the United States, passengers wanting to board the train had to flag the train down in order for it to stop; such stations were known as "flag stops" or "flag stations". Many stations date from the 19th century and reflect the grandiose architecture of the time, lending prestige to the city as well as to railway operations. Countries where railways arrived may still have such architecture, as stations imitated 19th-century styles.
Various forms of architecture have been used in the construction of stations, from those boasting grand, Baroque- or Gothic-style edifices, to plainer utilitarian or modernist styles. Stations in Europe tended to follow British designs and were in some countries, like Italy, financed by British railway companies. Stations built more often have a similar feel to airports, with a simple, abstract style. Examples of modern stations include those on newer high-speed rail networks, such as the Shinkansen in Japan, THSR in Taiwan, TGV lines in France and ICE lines in Germany. Stations have staffed ticket sales offices, automated ticket machines, or both, although on some lines tickets are sold on board the trains. Many stations include a convenience store. Larger stations have fast-food or restaurant facilities. In some countries, stations may have a bar or pub. Other station facilities may include: toilets, left-luggage, lost-and-found and arrivals boards, luggage carts, waiting rooms, taxi ranks, bus bays and car parks.
Larger or manned stations tend to have a greater range of facilities including a station security office. These are open for travellers when there is sufficient traffic over a long enough period of time to warrant the cost. In large cities this may mean facilities available around the clock. A basic station might only have platforms, though it may still be distinguished from a halt, a stopping or halting place that may not have platforms. Many stations, either larger or smaller, offer interchange with local transportation. In many African, South American countries, Asian countries, stations are used as a place for public markets and other informal businesses; this is true on tourist routes or stations near tourist destinations. As well as providing services for passengers and loading facilities for goods, stations can sometimes have locomotive and rolling stock depots (usually with facilities for storing and refuelling rolling stock an
Newtown, New South Wales
Newtown, a suburb of Sydney's inner west, is located four kilometres south-west of the Sydney central business district, straddling the local government areas of the City of Sydney and Inner West Council in the state of New South Wales, Australia. King Street is centre of commercial and entertainment activity; the street follows the spine of a long ridge that rises up near Sydney University and extends to the south, becoming the Princes Highway at its southern end. Enmore Road branches off King Street towards the suburb of Enmore at Newtown Bridge, where the road passes over the railway line at Newtown Station. Enmore Road and King Street together comprise 9.1 kilometres of over 600 shopfronts. The main shopping strip of Newtown is the longest and most complete commercial precinct of the late Victorian and Federation period in Australia. King Street is referred to as "Eat Street" in the media due to the large number of cafés, pubs and restaurants of various cultures. Cafés, restaurants and galleries can be found in the streets surrounding King Street.
Newtown's rugby league club competed in the NSWRFL Premiership from its foundation in 1908 until 1983. The area known as Newtown was part of a broader area where Cadigal tribe of the Eora people, who ranged across the entire area from the southern shores of Sydney Harbour to Botany Bay in the south-east and Petersham in the inner-west; the first indigenous Australian to receive a Christian burial was Tommy, an 11-year-old boy who died of bronchitis in the Sydney Infirmary. He was buried in a section now located outside the wall; the cemetery contains a sandstone obelisk erected in 1944 by the Rangers League of NSW, in memory of Tommy and three other indigenous Australians buried there: Mogo, William Perry and Wandelina Cabrorigirel, although their graves are no longer identifiable. When the names were transcribed from the records onto the monument, there was an error in deciphering the flowing hand in which many of the original burial dockets were written, it is now known that the fourth name was not Mandelina.
King street, Newtown's main street, reputedly follows an Aboriginal track that branched out from the main western track, now beneath Broadway and Parramatta Road, which continued all the way to the coastal plains around Botany Bay. This conflicts with other claims. Newtown was established as a residential and farming area in the early 19th century; the area took its name from a grocery store opened there by John and Margaret Webster in 1832, at a site close to where the Newtown railway station stands today. They placed a sign atop their store that read "New Town Stores". Captain Sylvester John Browne, father of Thomas Alexander Browne, built "Newtown House" in the area around the same time, cited as the source of the name; the name New Town was adopted, at first unofficially, with the space disappearing to form the name Newtown. The part of Newtown lying south of King Street was a portion of the two estates granted by Governor Arthur Phillip to the Superintendent of Convicts, Nicholas Devine, in 1794 and 1799.
Erskineville and much of Macdonaldtown were once part of Devine's grant. In 1827, when Devine was aged about 90, this land was acquired from him by a convict, Bernard Rochford, who sold it to many of Sydney's wealthiest and most influential inhabitants, including the mayor. Devine's heir, John Devine, a coachbuilder of Birmingham, challenged the will, blatantly fraudulent; the "Newtown Ejectment Case" was settled out of court by the payment to Devine of an unknown sum of money said to have been "considerable". The land was further divided into the housing, now evidenced by the rows of terrace houses and commercial and industrial premises. Part of the area now falling within the present boundaries of Newtown, north of King Street, was part of Camperdown; this area was named by Governor William Bligh, who received it as a land grant in 1806 and passed it to his daughter and son-in-law on his return to England in 1810. In 1848 part of this land was acquired by the Sydney Church of England Cemetery Company to create a general cemetery beyond the boundary of the City of Sydney.
Camperdown Cemetery, just one block away from King Street, was to become significant in the life of the suburb. Between its consecration in 1849 and its closure to further sales in 1868 it saw 15,000 burials of people from all over Sydney. Of that number half were paupers buried in unmarked and communal graves, sometimes as many as 12 in a day during a measles epidemic. Camperdown Cemetery remains, though much reduced in size, as a rare example of mid-19th-century cemetery landscaping, it retains the Cemetery Lodge and huge fig tree dating from 1848, as well as a number of oak trees of the same date. It survived to become the main green space of Newtown. Among the notables buried in the cemetery are explorer-surveyor Sir Thomas Livingstone Mitchell, Major Edmund Lockyer and Mary, Lady Jamison, Eliza Emily Donnithorne and rumoured inspiration for Miss Havisham; the cemetery holds the remains of many of the victims of the wreck of the Dunbar in 1857. From 1845, when the first Anglican church was built on the site of the present Community Centre on Stephen Street, by Edmund Blacket, a number of churches were established, including St Joseph's Roman Catholic church in the 1850s, the Methodist church on King Street, now Newtown Mission, the Baptist church in Church Street.
The present St Stephen's Anglican church, a fine example o