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Bus (computing)

In computer architecture, a bus is a communication system that transfers data between components inside a computer, or between computers. This expression covers all related hardware components and software, including communication protocols. Early computer buses were parallel electrical wires with multiple hardware connections, but the term is now used for any physical arrangement that provides the same logical function as a parallel electrical bus. Modern computer buses can use both parallel and bit serial connections, can be wired in either a multidrop or daisy chain topology, or connected by switched hubs, as in the case of USB. Computer systems consist of three main parts: the central processing unit that processes data, memory that holds the programs and data to be processed, I/O devices as peripherals that communicate with the outside world. An early computer might contain a hand-wired CPU of vacuum tubes, a magnetic drum for main memory, a punch tape and printer for reading and writing data respectively.

A modern system might have a multi-core CPU, DDR4 SDRAM for memory, a solid-state drive for secondary storage, a graphics card and LCD as a display system, a mouse and keyboard for interaction, a Wi-Fi connection for networking. In both examples, computer buses of one form or another move data between all of these devices. In most traditional computer architectures, the CPU and main memory tend to be coupled. A microprocessor conventionally is a single chip which has a number of electrical connections on its pins that can be used to select an "address" in the main memory and another set of pins to read and write the data stored at that location. In most cases, the CPU and memory share signalling operate in synchrony; the bus connecting the CPU and memory is one of the defining characteristics of the system, referred to as the system bus. It is possible to allow peripherals to communicate with memory in the same fashion, attaching adaptors in the form of expansion cards directly to the system bus.

This is accomplished through some sort of standardized electrical connector, several of these forming the expansion bus or local bus. However, as the performance differences between the CPU and peripherals varies some solution is needed to ensure that peripherals do not slow overall system performance. Many CPUs feature a second set of pins similar to those for communicating with memory, but able to operate at different speeds and using different protocols. Others use smart controllers to place the data directly in memory, a concept known as direct memory access. Most modern systems combine both solutions; as the number of potential peripherals grew, using an expansion card for every peripheral became untenable. This has led to the introduction of bus systems designed to support multiple peripherals. Common examples are the SATA ports in modern computers, which allow a number of hard drives to be connected without the need for a card. However, these high-performance systems are too expensive to implement in low-end devices, like a mouse.

This has led to the parallel development of a number of low-performance bus systems for these solutions, the most common example being the standardized Universal Serial Bus. All such examples may be referred to as peripheral buses, although this terminology is not universal. In modern systems the performance difference between the CPU and main memory has grown so great that increasing amounts of high-speed memory is built directly into the CPU, known as a cache. In such systems, CPUs communicate using high-performance buses that operate at speeds much greater than memory, communicate with memory using protocols similar to those used for peripherals in the past; these system buses are used to communicate with most other peripherals, through adaptors, which in turn talk to other peripherals and controllers. Such systems are architecturally more similar to multicomputers, communicating over a bus rather than a network. In these cases, expansion buses are separate and no longer share any architecture with their host CPU.

What would have been a system bus is now known as a front-side bus. Given these changes, the classical terms "system", "expansion" and "peripheral" no longer have the same connotations. Other common categorization systems are based on the bus's primary role, connecting devices internally or externally, PCI vs. SCSI for instance. However, many common modern bus systems can be used for both. Other examples, like InfiniBand and I²C were designed from the start to be used both internally and externally; the internal bus known as internal data bus, memory bus, system bus or Front-Side-Bus, connects all the internal components of a computer, such as CPU and memory, to the motherboard. Internal data buses are referred to as local buses, because they are intended to connect to local devices; this bus is rather quick and is independent of the rest of the computer operations. The external bus, or expansion bus, is made up of the electronic pathways that connect the different external devices, such as printer etc. to the computer.

An address bus is a bus, used to specify a physical address. When a processor or DMA-enabled device needs to read or write to a memory location, it specifies that memory location on the address bu

Bob McNally

Robert McNally is an energy expert and consultant and president of Rapidan Energy Group, a Washington D. C.-based energy market and geopolitical consulting firm he established in 2009. During the first term of President George W. Bush, McNally served on the White House staff as Special Assistant to the President on the National Economic Council and Senior Director for International Energy on the National Security Council, he is the author of the award-winning book Crude Volatility: The History and the Future of Boom-Bust Oil Prices, which received a favorable review by the Wall Street Journal and the leading energy academic publication The Energy Journal. Crude Volatility won the Honorable Mention in Economics in the 2018 PROSE Award recognizing outstanding scholarship and prose. McNally's professional career has focused on energy markets and policymaking, specializing in global oil fundamentals, geopolitical risk, regulatory policies affecting conventional and alternative fuel markets, he received a BA/BS in International Relations and Political Science from American University and an MA in International Economics and American Foreign Policy from The Johns Hopkins University Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies.

McNally was stationed in Senegal. He began his energy career in 1991 as an analyst at Energy Security Analysis, Inc. in Washington DC. In 1994, he joined Tudor Investment Corporation, where he advised portfolio managers on energy markets, macroeconomic policy and geopolitics. McNally co-authored an essay with Michael Levi in the July/August 2011 issue of Foreign Affairs titled "A Crude Predicament: The Era of Volatile Oil Prices", he has been interviewed by publications such as The Economist, Financial Times, The Washington Post, appears on news networks such as CNN, CNBC, Bloomberg News, NPR's MarketPlace radio. McNally speaks on energy markets and geopolitics at industry conferences, his articles on oil and OPEC have been published in the Financial Times. McNally testifies to Congress on energy markets and policy and informally advises officials on energy market trends and developments. In March 2011 was invited by the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources to brief a Senate member-only meeting on oil price developments.

He is a member of the National Petroleum Council and Non-Resident Fellow at the Columbia University Center on Global Energy Policy. McNally was co-chair of the energy policy advisory group on the 2008 Mitt Romney presidential campaign and energy advisor on Senator Marco Rubio's 2010 campaign

Romani people in Albania

Albania houses a large population of Romani, who are part of the larger Romani diaspora. In Albania they are divided into two groups, the "Jevgs", who speak only Albanian and are more assimilated, the "Gabels", who are bilingual, live more according to Roma tradition. Jevgs claim Egyptian descent, but are considered as magjup by the Albanian majority, the same category used to include the Gabels. Others divide the Roma in four groups. Ethnic Albanians have used various different names to refer to Romani people, most of them today being considered offensive, including: Gabel used to distinguish the traditionally nomadic and less assimilated Roma as opposed to the Jevgs who live in cities and speak Albanian Evgjit Magjup, Arixhi predominantly used in Southern dialects, Kurbat and Cergetar/Cergar. Among Roma, ethnic Albanians, in addition to being ‘’gadjo’’, may be referred to as “whites”. "White hand" may be used by Gabels and Jevgs to refer to Albanians as well as non-Roma minorities such as Greeks and Slavs.

Jevgs may be derogatorily referred to as gadjo due to their greater level of assimilation, are called sir by Gabels. Albanians, may refer to Jevgs and Gabels as "blacks" conversely, although this may be considered offensive. Using the phrase tsigan to refer to Roma is considered offensive and should be avoided; the Jevgs and Gabels share common genetic history. Though they share similar genetic history a recent study showed that Jevgs and Gabels have different dna. With Jevgs being close to Portuguese and Spanish roma,suggesting Balkan and Albanian admixture in recent years. Roma are held to share the "faith" of Aromanians in Albania, not for religious reasons, but because of their historic shared nomadic lifestyle, although in the case of Albania many Roma had long been settled; the Romani people originate from Northern India from the northwestern Indian states Rajasthan and Punjab. The linguistic evidence has indisputably shown that roots of Romani language lie in India: the language has grammatical characteristics of Indian languages and shares with them a big part of the basic lexicon, for example, body parts and daily routines.

More Romani shares the basic lexicon with Hindi and Punjabi. It shares many phonetic features with Marwari. Genetic findings in 2012 suggest the Romani originated in northwestern India and migrated as a group. According to a genetic study in 2012, the ancestors of present scheduled tribes and scheduled caste populations of northern India, traditionally referred to collectively as the Ḍoma, are the ancestral populations of the modern European Roma. In February 2016, during the International Roma Conference, the Indian Minister of External Affairs stated that the people of the Roma community were children of India; the conference ended with a recommendation to the Government of India to recognize the Roma community spread across 30 countries as a part of the Indian diaspora. The Jevgs have asserted origins of being Coptic migrants from Egypt in the fourth century, or of Egyptian slaves who escaped from Greece to Albania during the period of Egyptian intervention in the Greek War of Independence, but the authenticity of their proposed Egyptian origins is questioned by others in Albania.

The oldest attestation of Romani people in Albania is from 1635, they may have been present since the 12th and 13th centuries. The Ottoman era saw the conversion of most Roma populations in Albania as well as the surrounding territories to Islam. Ottoman rule set up a millet system by which the right of Christians to practice their religion was protected, but they were given second class citizenship with higher taxes, inability to bear witness against Muslims, inability to bear arms or have horses, restrictions on church building, forbidden from proselytizing, various other restrictions, factors which induced conversions to Islam. Additionally, responding to seasonal rebellions, there were episodes where regional governors in Albanian territories coerced conversions, despite such compulsion being traditionally prohibited by Islamic and Ottoman law. For these reasons, the majority of Roma in Albania and most neighboring regions converted to Islam, as did much of the surrounding Albanian and Slavic populations with the exception of certain regions.

Under certain Ottoman rulers, Muslim Roma were considered to not be proper Muslims because of certain ritual differences, they were taxed and discriminated against in similar ways to Christians. Under Mehmed IV, a tax was placed on dead Roma that would continue to be paid until enough had been gathered from living Roma to replace their supposed dues, while other rulers made attempts to “reeducate” Roma. There were cases where the presence of Roma was forbidden in mosques or cemeteries. In the late Ottoman Empire, Aromanians and Roma shared an "oppressed" position of being socioeconomically disadvantaged minority populations inhabiting a crumbling state. In this way, the Ottoman era has been considered one of relative "equality" for the Roma and gadjo populations in Albania, with the two populations living peacefully in harmony, with Roma camps being located on the outskirts of Albanian

KWCD

KWCD is a radio station broadcasting a Country Western format. It is licensed to Bisbee, United States; this station serves Arizona and a small piece of northern Sonora, Mexico. The station is owned by CCR-Sierra Vista IV, LLC; this station went on the air using the call letters KBAZ on October 12, 1979. This station was the second FM radio station in southern Cochise County AZ. In 1982, under new ownership, this station rebranded itself, changed its call letters to KZMK and was called "The Starship". For several months prior to the change billboards appeared around Cochise County featuring a flying saucer with the words "the starship is coming", leaving people to wonder what the billboards meant. Just prior to the change, the call letters and the frequency were added to the billboards as well as the wording was changed to "the starship is here". KZMK entered into direct competition with KTAZ-FM, at the time the number 1 rock and roll station in the area. KZMK broadcasts with less power than its rival KTAZ, was called by broadcasters "the 50 watt blowtorch", however KZMK's signal covers a greater area, to include all of the populated areas in southern Cochise County as well as parts of northern Cochise County and parts of northern Sonora, Mexico because its transmitter is located on a mountain peak, at an approximate elevation of 7,000 feet above sea level.

Both stations are now owned by the same company On September 1, 1993, the station changed its call letters to the current KWCD, changed its format to Country Western. The call letters KZMK were assumed by its old rival KTAZ-FM; the station's power was increased to 90 watts. 1979–1982 Wrye and Associates 1982–1996 Copper Valley Broadcasting 1996–2000 DB Broadcasting 2000–2003 Commonwealth Broadcasting 2003–present Cherry Creek Media Query the FCC's FM station database for KWCD Radio-Locator information on KWCD Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for KWCD

Bhutan national under-17 football team

The Bhutan national under-17 football team represents Bhutan in men's international under-17 football. The team is controlled by the governing body for football in Bhutan, the Bhutan Football Federation, a member of the Asian Football Federation and the regional body the South Asian Football Federation; the under-17 team has played sporadically since its first foray into international football in 2004, competing either in the qualifying rounds for the AFC U-16 Championship or the SAFF U-16 Championship. They are one of the weakest teams in their age group within both their continental and regional federations, having never qualified for the competition proper of the AFC U-16 Championship, they have played only nineteen competitive games in their entire history, losing eighteen of them, their only result coming in the form of a 0-0 draw with Pakistan in the 2013 SAFF U-16 Championship, conceding 102 goals along the way whilst scoring only seven in reply. Bhutan under-17s, much like the senior side came to international football late.

Although formal competition organized by the continental federation for this age group only commenced in 1985, Bhutan did not take part until 2004 when they entered the qualification rounds for the 2004 AFC U-17 Championship following three consecutive withdrawals from the qualifying competition in 1998, 2000 and 2002. Following this somewhat stuttering entry into the international arena, they travelled to Uzbekistan where their group games were to be played, but met with little success, failing to qualify and returning home without a point, or scoring, losing 3-0 to Sri Lanka and 6-0 to hosts Uzbekistan; the team did not compete in the qualifying rounds of the next edition of the tournament but returned to continental competition two years entering the qualifying rounds of the 2008 edition. This time the team travelled to Saudi Arabia, their break from international football had not helped the team progress, as they lost their opening two matches 4-0 to Saudi Arabia and 1-0 to Sri Lanka. Their third match was to be their worst performance to that point, an 11-0 thrashing at the hands of Iraq.

Although they continued in this vein, losing their next group game as well, they recorded their first competitive goal at the sixth time of asking in a 4-1 defeat to Lebanon, Thinley Dorji scoring a consolation goal for Bhutan in injury time at the end of the game. They were however unable to build on this, losing their final group game to India 4-0, to return home pointless for the second time. For the first time in their history Bhutan competed in two consecutive editions of the AFC U-17 Championship qualifying rounds, travelling to Sana'a in Yemen for another round of five matches in their attempt to qualify for the 2010 AFC U-16 Championship, their campaign got off to a terrible start, as they nearly eclipsed their unenviable record defeat suffered in the previous edition against Iraq, losing 10-0 in their opening match to Syria. The team recovered somewhat though in their next game, a narrow 2-1 defeat to Palestine, Chencho Gyeltshen putting Bhutan in front for the first time in any competitive match with only their second competitive goal in their history after just over a quarter of an hour, only to see Ashraf Nababta equalise ten minutes later.

It looked as though Bhutan might hold on for a draw and their first positive result until Nababta scored his second of the game for Palestine in the eighty-third minute to claim all three points. The following two games saw Bhutan concede seven goals to both hosts Yemen and Iraq, although Dawa Tshering was able to convert a penalty on the stroke of half-time and the six goal margin was a considerable improvement on the scoreline the last time the two teams met. However, for the third time in three attempts Bhutan returned home without a point, albeit the two goals they scored represented their best attacking performance in competition to that point. After missing the qualifying tournament for the 2012 AFC U-16 Championship, Bhutan's next foray into international football was the second edition of the SAFF U-16 Championship. Hosted by himalayan neighbour Nepal, the team's first performance in a regional international competition was their best to date, their opening match against the hosts in the tournament's opening fixture at the Dasarath Rangasala Stadium in Kathmandu started promisingly as Bhutan went in at half time with the game scoreless.

However they were unable to keep up their level of performance and conceded seven goals in the second half, with Bimal Magar and his namesake Hemant Magar both scoring hat-tricks. Bhutan's next match in the competition was arguably their greatest performance to date, as they secured their first positive result at the fourteenth time of asking in a 0-0 draw with Pakistan, despite being put under immense pressure from the Pakistanis in the second half, they were unable to build on this draw in their final game, losing 3-1 to Afghanistan Tenzin Shezang gave Bhutan the lead in the nineteenth minute although Afghanistan equalised through Atiqulallah Waziri to take the two teams into the break level. A further two goals in the second half from Nasir Ahmad consigned Bhutan to defeat and confirmed that Afghanistan would progress to the knock-out stages whilst Bhutan would go home. Two months the under-17 team travelled to Kuwait for the qualifying rounds of the 2014 AFC U-16 Championship. An opening 4-2 defeat to Lebanon was lent some respectability with two goals in injury time at the end of the game from Samten Norbu and Nawang Tshering, marking the first time in their history that the team had managed to score more than a single goal in a game.

The remainder of the tournament was forgettable for Bhutan. Their next match against Tajikistan resulted in a

Mendinho

Mendinho Meendinho, Mendiño and Meendiño, was a medieval Iberian poet. Nothing is known about Mendinho except by inference. Scholars assume from the reference to the shrine of San Simión that he was Galician, and it is supposed from his name, his style, the place of his song in the manuscripts that he was a jogral - a non-noble Minstrel. Mendinho may have been active in the early 13th century, making him one of the earliest poets in this genre whose work has survived. A single cantiga de amigo is attributed to him - Sedia-m' eu na ermida de San Simion, but it is among the most famous in the Galician-Portuguese lyric corpus of around 1685 texts, it has been admired for its imagery, its rhythm, its formal and semantic parallelism. The text in the manuscripts is problematic in places in the refrain, where the reading is much disputed. In 1998, the Día das Letras Galegas was dedicated to Mendinho, along with Martín Codax and Xohán de Cangas, his single known poem was set to music by Alain Oulman, the French composer and long term musical collaborator of the great Portuguese Fado singer Amália Rodrigues.

An English translation/adaptation of Sedia-m'eu na ermida... is contained in the longpoem The Tale of Tekarionyoken by Thomas M. Capuano. Text of Cohen 2003 modified. Cohen, Rip. 500 Cantigas d’ Amigo: Edição Crítica. Ferreira, M. do Rosário. Águas Doces, Águas Salgadas: da funcionalidade dos motivos aquáticos nas cantigas de amigo, pp. 41–53. Montero, Xesús Alonso. “Fortuna literaria de Meendiño”, in Estudos Portugueses. Homenagem a Luciana Stegagno Picchio, pp. 86–109 Oliveira, António Resende de. Depois do Espectáculo Trovadoresco. A estrutura dos cancioneiros peninsulares e as recolhas dos séculos XIII e XIV, pp. 391–92. Reckert, Stephen & Helder Macedo. Do cancioneiro de Amigo, pp. 145–51. Tavani, Giuseppe. "Meendinho", in G. Lanciani & G. Tavani, edd. Dicionário da Literatura Medieval Galega e Portuguesa, p. 456. Tavani, Giuseppe. Trovadores e Jograis: Introdução à poesia medieval galego-portuguesa, pp. 417–18