Manufacturing is the value added to production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools and biological processing, or formulation. Manufacturing engineering or manufacturing process are the steps through which raw materials are transformed into a final product, the manufacturing process begins with the product design, and materials specification from which the product is made. These materials are modified through manufacturing processes to become the required part. Manufacturing takes turns under all types of economic systems, in a free market economy, manufacturing is usually directed toward the mass production of products for sale to consumers at a profit. In a collectivist economy, manufacturing is more directed by the state to supply a centrally planned economy. In mixed market economies, manufacturing occurs under some degree of government regulation, modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required the production and integration of a products components.
Some industries, such as semiconductor and steel manufacturers use the term fabrication instead, the manufacturing sector is closely connected with engineering and industrial design. Examples of major manufacturers in North America include General Motors Corporation, General Electric, Procter & Gamble, General Dynamics, Pfizer, examples in Europe include Volkswagen Group and Michelin. Examples in Asia include Sony, Lenovo, Samsung, in its earliest form, manufacturing was usually carried out by a single skilled artisan with assistants. In much of the world, the guild system protected the privileges. Before the Industrial Revolution, most manufacturing occurred in rural areas, entrepreneurs organized a number of manufacturing households into a single enterprise through the putting-out system. Toll manufacturing is an arrangement whereby a first firm with specialized equipment processes raw materials or semi-finished goods for a second firm, manufacturing provides important material support for national infrastructure and for national defense.
On the other hand, most manufacturing may involve significant social and environmental costs, the clean-up costs of hazardous waste, for example, may outweigh the benefits of a product that creates it. Hazardous materials may expose workers to health risks and these costs are now well known and there is effort to address them by improving efficiency, reducing waste, using industrial symbiosis, and eliminating harmful chemicals. The negative costs of manufacturing can be addressed legally, developed countries regulate manufacturing activity with labor laws and environmental laws. Across the globe, manufacturers can be subject to regulations and pollution taxes to offset the costs of manufacturing activities. Labor unions and craft guilds have played a role in the negotiation of worker rights. Environment laws and labor protections that are available in developed nations may not be available in the third world, tort law and product liability impose additional costs on manufacturing
Transport for London
Transport for London is a local government body responsible for the transport system in Greater London, England. Its head office is in Windsor House in the City of Westminster, the underlying services are provided by a mixture of wholly owned subsidiary companies, by private sector franchisees and by licensees. In 2015-16, TfL had a budget of £11.5 billion, the rest comes from government funding, other income and Crossrail funding. On 21 January 2016, it was announced that the responsibility for franchising all of Londons inner suburban services would be transferred from the DfT to TfL. This transfer will take place as current franchises fall due for renewal, TfL was created in 2000 as part of the Greater London Authority by the Greater London Authority Act 1999. It gained most of its functions from its predecessor London Regional Transport in 2000, the first Commissioner of TfL was Bob Kiley. The first Chair was then-Mayor of London Ken Livingstone, and the first Deputy Chair was Dave Wetzel and Wetzel remained in office until the election of Boris Johnson as Mayor in 2008.
Johnson took over as Chairman, and in February 2009 fellow-Conservative Daniel Moylan was appointed as his Deputy, TfL did not take over responsibility for the London Underground until 2003, after the controversial Public-private partnership contract for maintenance had been agreed. Management of the Public Carriage Office had previously been a function of the Metropolitan Police, Transport for London Group Archives holds business records for TfL and its predecessor bodies and transport companies. Some early records are held on behalf of TfL Group Archives at the London Metropolitan Archives. After the bombings on the underground and bus systems on 7 July 2005 and they helped survivors out, removed bodies, and got the transport system up and running, to get the millions of commuters back out of London at the end of the work day. Those mentioned include Peter Hendy, who was at the time Head of Surface Transport division, and Tim OToole, head of the Underground division, carrying open containers of alcohol was banned on public transport operated by TfL.
The Mayor of London and TfL announced the ban with the intention of providing a safer, there were Last Round on the Underground parties on the night before the ban came into force. Passengers refusing to observe the ban may be refused travel and asked to leave the premises, the Greater London Authority reported in 2011 that assaults on London Underground staff had fallen by 15% since the introduction of the ban. In an effort to reduce sexual offences and increase reporting, TfL—in conjunction with the British Transport Police, Metropolitan Police Service, TfL is controlled by a board whose members are appointed by the Mayor of London, a position held by Sadiq Khan since May 2016. The Commissioner of Transport for London reports to the Board and leads a management team with individual functional responsibilities, the body is organised in three main directorates and corporate services, each with responsibility for different aspects and modes of transport. This network is sub-divided into three service units, BCV, Central and Waterloo & City lines.
JNP, Jubilee and Piccadilly lines, SSL, District and Hammersmith & City lines
A van is a type of road vehicle used for transporting goods or people. Depending on the type of van it can be bigger or smaller than a truck and SUV, there is some varying in the scope of the word across the different English-speaking countries. The smallest vans, are used for transporting goods or people in tiny quantities. Mini MPVs, Compact MPVs, and MPVs are all small vans usually used for transporting people in small quantities, larger vans with passenger seats are used for institutional purposes, such as transporting students. Larger vans with only front seats are used for business purposes, to carry goods. Specially-equipped vans are used by television stations as mobile studios, Postal services and courier companies use large step vans to deliver packages. Van meaning a type of vehicle arose as a contraction of the word caravan, the early records of van as a vehicle in English are in the mid 19th century meaning a covered wagon for transporting goods. Caravan with the meaning has records since the 1670s.
A caravan, meaning one wagon, had arisen as an extension or corruption of caravan meaning a convoy of multiple wagons, the word van has slightly different, but overlapping, meanings in different forms of English. While the word now applies to boxy cargo vans, other applications are found to a greater or lesser extent in the different English-speaking countries. In Australian English, the van is commonly used to describe a minivan. A full-size van used for commercial purposes is known as a van, however. Finally, the van can sometimes be used interchangeably with caravan. The British term people mover is used in Australian English to describe a passenger van. The American usage of van to mean a cargo box trailer or semi-trailer is used rarely, if ever, early Japanese vans include the Kurogane Baby, Mazda Bongo and the Toyota LiteAce van. Microvans, vans that fulfill kei car regulations, are popular for small business. The term is used to describe full-fledged station wagons and even hatchbacks with a basic trim package intended for commercial use.
These are sometimes referred to as Light Vans, in British English, the word van refers to vehicles that carry goods only, on both roads and rails
A minibus, microbus, or minicoach is a passenger carrying motor vehicle that is designed to carry more people than a multi-purpose vehicle or minivan, but fewer people than a full-size bus. In the United Kingdom, the minibus is used to describe any full-sized passenger carrying van. Minibuses have a capacity of between 8 and 30 seats. Larger minibuses may be called midibuses, minibuses are typically front-engined step-entrance vehicles, although low floor minibuses do exist. Minibuses are used for a variety of reasons, in a public transport role, they can be used as fixed route transit buses, airport buses, flexible demand responsive transport vehicles, share taxis or large taxicabs. Accessible minibuses can be used for paratransit services, by local authorities, transit operators. Private uses of minibuses can include corporate transport, charter buses, sports clubs, community groups and charities may use minibuses for private transport. Individual owners may use reduced seating minibuses as cheap recreational vehicles, by size, microbuses are minibuses smaller than 8 metres long.
Midibuses are minibuses bigger than microbuses but smaller than plenibuses, there are many different types and configurations of minibuses, due to historical and local differences, and usage. Minibus designs can be classified in three groups, with a general increase in seating capacity with each type, Van conversions. Simple, optional extras Body builds Purpose built The most basic source of minibus is the van conversion, Van conversions involve adding windows to the bodywork, and seating to the cargo area. Van conversion minibuses outwardly look the same shape as the parent van, access to the former cargo area for passengers is through the standard van side sliding door, or the rear doors. These may be fitted with equipment to make boarding easier. Optional extras to van converted minibuses can include the addition of a rollsign for transit work, for public transport use, this door may be an automatic concertina type. For other uses, this may be a simple plug style coach door, depending on the relevant legislation, conversions may involve wheelchair lifts and tachograph equipment. A van conversion with an area in the front and a storage area in the back.
These allow a higher seating capacity than a simple van conversion, the second stage manufacturer is a bus manufacturer. In a body-on-chassis minibus, a body is installed on a van or light truck chassis encompassing the drivers area
A carriage is a wheeled vehicle for people, usually horse-drawn and sedan chairs are excluded, since they are wheelless vehicles. The carriage is especially designed for passenger use and for comfort or elegance. It may be light and fast or heavy, Carriages normally have suspension using leaf springs, elliptical springs or leather strapping. A public passenger vehicle would not usually be called a carriage – terms for such include stagecoach, working vehicles such as the wagon and cart share important parts of the history of the carriage, as does too the fast chariot. The word carriage is from Old Northern French cariage, to carry in a vehicle, a carriage is sometimes called a team, as in horse and team. A carriage with its horse is a rig, an elegant horse-drawn carriage with its retinue of servants is an equipage. A carriage together with the horses and attendants is a turnout or setout, a procession of carriages is a cavalcade. Some horsecarts found in Celtic graves show hints that their platforms were suspended elastically, four-wheeled wagons were used in prehistoric Europe, and their form known from excavations suggests that the basic construction techniques of wheel and undercarriage were established then.
The earliest recorded sort of carriage was the chariot, reaching Mesopotamia as early as 1900 BC, used typically for warfare by Egyptians, the near Easterners and Europeans, it was essentially a two-wheeled light basin carrying one or two passengers, drawn by one to two horses. It is likely that Roman carriages employed some form of suspension on chains or leather straps, in the kingdom of the Zhou Dynasty the Warring States were known to have used carriages as transportation. With the decline of these civilizations these techniques almost disappeared, the medieval carriage was typically a four-wheeled wagon type, with a rounded top similar in appearance to the Conestoga Wagon familiar from the USA. Sharing the traditional form of wheels and undercarriage known since the Bronze Age, suspension is recorded in visual images and written accounts from the 14th century, and was in widespread use by the 15th century. Carriages were largely used by royalty and could be decorated and gilded. These carriages were on four wheels often and were pulled by two to four depending on how they were decorated.
Wood and iron were the requirements needed to build a carriage. Another form of carriage was the pageant wagon of the 14th century, historians debate on the structure and size of pageant wagons, they are generally miniature house-like structures that rest on four to six wheels depending on the size of the wagon. Historians debate whether or not pageant wagons were built with pivotal axle systems, whether it was a four- or six-wheel pageant wagon, most historians maintain that pivotal axle systems were implemented on pageant wagons because many roads were often winding with some sharp turns. Six wheel pageant wagons represent another innovation in carriages, they were one of the first carriages to use multiple pivotal axles, pivotal axles were used on the front set of wheels and the middle set of wheels
A bus garage, known as a bus base or bus barn, is a facility where buses are stored and maintained. The term bus depot is used, except that the term bus depot may be used to refer to a bus station. In many conurbations, bus garages are on the site of former car barns or tram sheds, where trams were stored, in other areas, garages were built to replace horse-bus yards or on virgin sites when populations were not as high as now. The largest bus depot in the world is Millennium Park Bus Depot In Delhi India, garages may contain recovery vehicles, often converted buses, although their incidence has declined with the use of contractors to recover break-downs, and the increase in reliability. During the day and external areas will see a variety of movements, heritage vehicles are almost exclusively stored inside the garage. Often garages will feature rest rooms for drivers assigned to as required duties, the garage may have light duties drivers, who merely move the buses internally around the garage, often called shunting.
Several bus companies such as London Buses and Lothian Buses used to operate multiple storage garages around their operating area, central works have declined with increase in sub-contract engineering, and improvements in mechanical reliability of bus designs. Also, the practice of routine mid-life refurbishment of bus fleets has declined, some bus companies make use of outstations, as an additional bus storage facility. These are generally outdoor parking locations, where buses are stored overnight or between peaks, which are conveniently located for operations, reducing dead mileage. Incidents of vandalism and a reduction in services has seen their decline in the UK. Bus garages will generally have large areas unobstructed by supporting columns as well as high roofs, especially for storage of double-decker buses
A mid-engine layout describes the placement of an automobile engine between the rear and front axles. The mid-engine layout makes ABS brakes and traction control systems work better, the mid-engine layout may make a vehicle safer, since an accident can occur if a vehicle cannot stay in its own lane around a curve or is unable to stop quickly enough. This balance is harder to achieve when the weight of the engine is located far to the front or far to the rear of the vehicle. Some automobile designs strive to balance the fore and aft weight distribution by means, such as putting the engine in the front. Another benefit comes when the mass of the engine is located close to the back of the seats. It makes it easier for the suspension to absorb the force of bumps so the riders feel a smoother ride, but in sports cars the engine position is once again used to increase performance and the potentially smoother ride is usually more than offset by stiffer shock absorbers. The largest drawback of mid-engine cars is restricted rear passenger space, the engine in effect pushes the passenger compartment forward towards the front axle.
The mid-engine layout was common in buses in the 1950s and 1960s. The Ferrari Mondial is to date the only example of a true mid-engined convertible with seating for 4. A version of the Lotus Evora with a roof panel is anticipated. Like any layout where the engine is not front-mounted and facing the wind and this has been a problem in some cars, but this issue seems to have been largely solved in newer designs. For example, the Saleen S7 employs large engine-compartment vents on the sides, mid engined cars are more dangerous than front-engined cars if the driver loses control - although this may be initially harder to provoke due to the superior balance - and the car begins to spin. Conversely, a car is more likely to break away in a progressive. The term mid-engine has usually been applied to cars having the engine located between the driver and the drive axles. This layout is referred to here as RMR layout and racing cars typically have this mid-engine layout, as these vehicles handling characteristics are more important than other features, such as capacity.
Additionally the mechanical layout and packaging of an RMR car is substantially different from that of a front engine or rear engine car, in handling and vehicle layout FMR is substantially the same as FR. Some vehicles could be classified as FR or FMR depending on the installed engine. Historically most classical FR cars such as the Ford Models T and A would qualify as a FMR engine car, not all manufacturers use the Front-Mid designation
The Mercedes-Benz O405 was a highly successful single-decker bus manufactured by Mercedes-Benz from the mid-1980s to the early 2000s. It can be built as either a bus or a bus chassis andwas the last VöV SL-II standard bus in production. It was the replacement for the Mercedes-Benz O305 and was used in Europe, United Kingdom, Australia. Last purchase of the model, O405NH was to State Transit Authority of Sydney, the step-entrance version was known as the O405. An 3-axle articulated version was known as O405G. There were two generations of O405, designated as O405 MkI and O405 MkII, the O405 MkI was marketed between mid-1980s and early 1990s. It featured a Mercedes Benz OM447h naturally aspirated engine with outputs of either 157kW or 184 kW, optionally available was a naturally aspirated compressed natural gas engine model M447hG with 150 kW output. The O405 MkII was marketed from the early 1990s to the late 1990s, the gearbox coupled to the engine was either the ZF 4HP500 or 5HP500, or the Voith D864.3.
From 1994, this chassis was available with the M447hG Euro II175 kW naturally aspirated compressed natural gas engine, the low-floor version of the regular O405 was known as the O405N, a further developed version was built, it was known as the O405N²/O405N2. The O405N do not have steps at the entrances and exits, the GN2 type addressed this problem. These buses are fitted with ZF transmissions, but some are fitted with Voith examples. The low-entry version of the O405 was called the O405NH chassis was produced by EvoBus for the Australian market, much of its popularity with government and private operators alike can be attributed to the popularity of the Mercedes-Benz O405 MkII chassis that it replaced. The chassis was derived from a combination of the modules of an O405 MkII chassis. Because of the difference in height between the front and rear modules of the chassis, there are one or more steps leading up from behind the door position to a standard O405 floorline. Because the chassis has an engine, theres no room for a rear door.
This low-entry concept has become popular in Europe - many integral products using this concept have been released such as the Mercedes-Benz Citaro LE. The first ten UK examples of the integral O405N had their bodies finished by UVG, Sydney Buses took delivery of 247 Pressed Metal Corporation bodied O405s between 1987 and October 1990. They were retired in early 2016, in January 1997 it received two Ansair bodied O405Ns
Midibuses are often designed to be lightweight to save on diesel fuel, making them not as durable as heavier full size buses. Some midibuses, such as the Scania OmniTown, are heavier, in some places such as Hong Kong, some bus routes have to be served by midibuses due to the winding roads along such routes. The term midibus is not in use in the United States, such smaller. For example, Muni in San Francisco operates both 30-foot and 40-foot versions of the Orion VII transit bus to serve routes that include some of the steeper and curvier hills, in charter / tour roles, there is indeed a gap between the minibus and the touring coach. Several shuttle bus companies such as Goshen Coaches and Crystal have manufactured rear-engined vehicles that have 30–35 seats and they are usually lumped together with their smaller minibus brethren and called minibus, or shuttle bus. The only other alternative was to import a short version of European touring coaches, known often as coaches, around 30 feet long.
In the 2000s, some manufacturers introduced mid-sized bus models based on truck frames
Carlyle Works was an English builder of bus and coach bodywork based in Egbaston. In 1920, the Birmingham & Midland Motor Omnibus Company established a bus facility on land adjoining Rotton Park Reservoir. It initially performed repair work before chassis construction commenced in 1925, the eight acre site was redeveloped over a five-year period from 1949. It derived its name from its address, Carlyle Road, the company was famous for building its own buses and coaches, under the BMMO name. These buses were very innovative and were the first to introduce many advanced features. When the development and production of its own vehicles became prohibitive in the late 1960s the central works continued to provide engineering services for the company. On 1 January 1969, Midland Red became part of the National Bus Company and these services included major vehicle modifications and adaptations. In the mid-1980s, minibuses became very popular for operators, allowing them to higher frequency service on routes that could serve areas larger vehicles could not access.
Carlyle developed a range of bodywork for minibuses, notably Ford Transit conversions, on 5 September 1981, Midland Red was divided into five operating companies with the Carlyle Works retained to provide engineering support. On 5 March 1987, Carlyle Works became the 22nd National Bus Company subsidiary to be privatised and it was purchased by Frontsource Limited, a company set up by Robert Beattie to purchase eight former National Bus Company engineering companies. Carlyle set about building upon its minibus expertise, and developed bodywork for the Freight Rover chassis and these sold well, especially to former NBC operators. Designs for Iveco and Mercedes Benz 700 and 800 series vehicles followed, in 1989, the body designs for the Duple Dartline were acquired from Trinity Holdings. This body was adapted for the Dennis Dart and was available in 8. 5m,9. 0m and 9. 8m lengths, Carlyle built 140 of an order for the 8. 5m vehicles from London Transport. Warrington Borough Transport bought most of the 9. 0m versions, the 9.
8m version was bought by China Motor Bus and Luton & District. Small numbers of each were bought by independent operators. New orders became increasingly hard to find, as the minibus vogue had ended, in October 1991, Carlyle Works was placed in receivership and closed. The rights to the Dartline were sold to bodybuilder Marshall Bus
Fuel cell bus
A fuel cell bus is a bus that uses a hydrogen fuel cell as its power source for electrically driven wheels, sometimes augmented in a hybrid fashion with batteries or a supercapacitor. Several companies are conducting hydrogen fuel research and practical fuel cell bus trials. These include, Daimler AG, with thirty-six experimental units powered by Ballard Power Systems fuel cells completing a successful trial, in eleven cities. Hydrogen-powered fuel-cell buses began operating in Beijing on a basis in 2006. Three fuel cell buses, made by Daimler in Germany and purchased with a grant from the U. N, development Programme, were the first fuel cell buses to enter operation in China. The technology has not gained broader use in the city because air pollution reduced the efficiency, the first Brazilian hydrogen fuel cell bus prototype began operation in São Paulo during the first semester of 2009. The hydrogen bus was manufactured in Caxias do Sul, and the fuel will be produced in São Bernardo do Campo from water through electrolysis.
The programme, called Ônibus Brasileiro a Hidrogênio, includes three additional buses, the town of Whistler in British Columbia, Canada owned and operated the largest fuel-cell bus fleet in the world, having been put in operation for the 2010 Winter Olympics. However, the costs were too high and the program halted in 2015, in Aberdeen, the Aberdeen Hydrogen Bus Project currently has 10 hydrogen fuel cell buses operating, the largest fleet in Europe. The Fuel Cell Bus Club is a cooperative effort in trial fuel cell buses. Ford began leasing E-350 shuttle buses in late 2006 and it conducted some trials,1998 - Chicago and Vancouver, there were two-year three-bus demonstration projects. The 3 Vancouver units were deactivated, some were sold back to Ballard, who made the fuel cells, 2004–present Oakland and California a two-year three-bus trial. During this period, AC Transit and Sunline Transit have been operating three buses and one bus respectively and this trial has shown promising results and has been extended until new buses listed below are delivered.
2004–2006 Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority operated 3 buses Manufactured by Gilig Corp of Hayward California which were equipped with Ballard fuel cells, VTA reported in the press that these buses were too expensive to operate and that they would not continue with their trial. Japan, operating FCHV-BUS manufactured by Hino Motors and Toyota Motors under Japan hydrogen fuel cell project, 2003–2004 – Tokyo, one year and four months one-bus demonstration operated by Toei Bus. 2005 – Expo 2005 Aichi, six-month eight-fleet trial as inter-site shuttle, during Expo,8 FCHV-BUSes carried one million visitors and traveled about 130,000 kilometers. 2006-Tokoname, Aichi, ex-Expo 2005 fleets are leasing 1 to Chita Noriai as route bus in Chūbu Centrair International Airport island, a 12-bus trial program in this city in the San Francisco Bay Area is underway at AC Transit which features buses specially designed by Van Hool of Belgium. These buses use near ambient pressure, PEM fuel cells manufactured by the Hartford, UTC is purchasing four additional buses for use in Hartford, Connecticut under AC Transits contract with Van Hool
A chassis consists of an internal vehicle frame that supports an artificial object in its construction and use, can provide protection for some internal parts. An example of a chassis is the underpart of a motor vehicle, if the running gear such as wheels and transmission, and sometimes even the drivers seat, are included, the assembly is described as a rolling chassis. In the case of vehicles, the rolling chassis means the frame plus the running gear like engine, drive shaft, differential. An under body, which is not necessary for integrity of the structure, is built on the chassis to complete the vehicle. For commercial vehicles, a rolling chassis consists of an assembly of all the parts of a truck to be ready for operation on the road. The design of a car chassis will be different than one for commercial vehicles because of the heavier loads. Commercial vehicle manufacturers sell chassis only and chassis, as well as chassis cab versions that can be outfitted with specialized bodies and these include motor homes, fire engines, box trucks, etc.
In particular applications, such as buses, a government agency like National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in the U. S. defines the design standards of chassis. An armoured fighting vehicles hull serves as the chassis and comprises the part of the AFV that includes the tracks, drivers seat. This describes the hull, although common usage might include the upper hull to mean the AFV without the turret. The hull serves as a basis for platforms on tanks, armoured carriers, combat engineering vehicles. In an electronic device, the chassis consists of a frame or other supporting structure on which the circuit boards. In the absence of a frame, the chassis refers to the circuit boards and components themselves. The combination of chassis and outer covering is called an enclosure. Vietnam Studies, Department of the Army, Washington, D. C.1978