History of the St. Louis Browns
The St. Louis Browns were a Major League Baseball team that originated in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, as the Milwaukee Brewers. Charter member of the American League, the Brewers moved to St. Louis, after the 1901 season, where they played for 52 years as the St. Louis Browns; this article covers the franchise's more-than-five-decade history in St. Louis. After the 1953 season, the team relocated to Baltimore, where it became the Baltimore Orioles; as of May 2018, there are only 11 living former St. Louis Browns players. In the late 19th century, the team was formed as the Milwaukee Brewers in the Western League. For the 1900 season, the Western League was renamed the "American League", in 1901, it was converted to a major league team under the leadership of Ban Johnson. Johnson intended to move the Milwaukee Brewers to St. Louis, a larger market for Major League Baseball; when he could not find a suitable owner, he operated the team in Milwaukee for a lame-duck season in 1901. In 1902, he found a suitable St. Louis-based owner in carriage maker Robert Hedges.
The team moved to St. Louis and changed their name to the "Browns." This referred to the original name of the 1880s club that by 1900 was known as the St. Louis Cardinals. Hedges built a new park, known as Sportsman's Park, on the site of the old Browns' former venue. In their first St. Louis season, the Browns finished second. Although the Browns had only four winning seasons from 1902 to 1922, they were popular at the gate during their first two decades in St. Louis, they trounced the Cardinals in attendance. Pitcher Barney Pelty was a workhorse for the Browns, a member of their starting rotation from 1904, when he pitched 31 complete games and 301 innings, through 1911. In 1909, the Browns rebuilt Sportsman's Park as the third concrete-and-steel park in the major leagues. During this time, the Browns were best known for their role in the race for the 1910 American League batting title. Ty Cobb took off the last game of the season, believing that his slight lead over Nap Lajoie, of the Cleveland Naps, would hold up unless Lajoie had a near-perfect day at the plate.
Browns' manager Jack O'Connor had ordered rookie third baseman Red Corriden to play on the outfield grass. This all but conceded. Lajoie made it to first easily. On his last at-bat, Lajoie reached base on an error – giving him a hitless at-bat. O'Connor and coach Harry Howell tried to bribe the official scorer, a woman, to change the call to a hit – offering to buy her a new wardrobe. Cobb won the batting title by just a few thousandths of a point over Lajoie, but it was reported that one game may have been counted twice in the statistics, there were rumors about the attempted bribery, causing a scandal about the rankings. After news broke of the scandal, a writer for the St. Louis Post claimed: "All St. Louis is up in arms over the deplorable spectacle, conceived in stupidity and executed in jealousy." The resulting outcry triggered an investigation by American League president Ban Johnson. At his insistence, Hedges fired Howell. In 1916, Hedges sold the Browns to Philip DeCatesby Ball, who owned the St. Louis Terriers in the by-then-defunct Federal League.
Under Ball's early tenure, the club had its first sustained period of success on the field. Ball spent to put a winner of the field. But, analysts think Ball made a series of blunders that would doom the franchise. Shortly after buying the team, he fired general manager Branch Rickey, promptly hired by the Cardinals. Four years Ball allowed the Cardinals to move out of dilapidated Robison Field and share Sportsman's Park with the Browns. Rickey and Cardinals owner Sam Breadon used the proceeds from the Robison Field sale to build baseball's first modern farm system; this effort produced several star players who brought the Cardinals more drawing power than the Browns. The 1922 Browns excited their owner by beating the Yankees to a pennant; the club was boasting the best players in franchise history, including future Hall of Famer George Sisler and an outfield trio of Ken Williams, Baby Doll Jacobson, Jack Tobin, who batted.300 or better from 1919–23 and in 1925. In 1922, Williams became the first player in Major League history to hit 30 home runs and steal 30 bases in a season, something that would not be done again in the Majors until 1956.
Ball confidently predicted that there would be a World Series in Sportsman's Park by 1926. In anticipation, he increased the capacity of his ballpark from 18,000 to 30,000. There was a World Series in Sportsman's Park in 1926 – but it was the Cardinals who took part, upsetting the Yankees. St. Louis had been considered a "Browns town" until then. Meanwhile, the Browns fell into the cellar, they had only two winning records from 1927 to 1943, including a 43-111 mark in 1939, still the worst in franchise history. Ball died in 1933, his estate ran the team for three years until Rickey helped broker a sale to investment banker Donald Lee Barnes. His son-in-law, Bill DeWitt, was the team's general manager. To help finance the purchase, Barnes sold 20,000 shares of stock to the public at $5 a share, an unusual practice for a sports franchise. By 1941, Barnes was convinced. After interests in Los Angeles approached him about buying a stake in the team, he asked AL owners for permission to move there for the 1942 season.
Strip clubs are venues where strippers provide adult entertainment, predominantly in the form of striptease or other erotic or exotic dances. Strip clubs adopt a nightclub or bar style, can adopt a theatre or cabaret-style. American-style strip clubs began to appear outside North America after World War II, arriving in Asia in the late 1980s and Europe in the 1978, where they competed against the local English and French styles of striptease and erotic performances; as of 2005, the size of the global strip club industry was estimated to be US$75 billion. In 2002, the size of the U. S. strip club industry was estimated to be US$3.1 billion, generating 19% of the total gross revenue in legal adult entertainment. SEC filings and state liquor control records available at that time indicated that there were at least 2,500 strip clubs in the United States, since that time, the number of clubs in the U. S. has grown. Profitability of strip clubs, as with other service-oriented businesses, is driven by location and customer spending habits.
The better appointed a club is, in terms of its quality of facilities, equipment and other elements, the more customers are to encounter cover charges and fees for premium features such as VIP rooms. The popularity of a given club is an indicator of its quality, as is the word-of-mouth among customers who have visited a cross section of clubs in different regions; the strip club as an outlet for salacious entertainment is a recurrent theme in popular culture. In some media, these clubs are portrayed as gathering places of vice and ill repute. Clubs themselves and various aspects of the business are highlighted in these references. "Top Strip Club" lists in some media have demonstrated that U. S.-style striptease is a global phenomenon and that it has become a culturally accepted form of entertainment, despite its scrutiny in legal circles and popular media. Popular Internet sites for strip club enthusiasts have lists calculated from the inputs of site visitors; the legal status of strip clubs has evolved over the course of time, with national and local laws becoming progressively more liberal on the issue around the world, although some countries have implemented strict limits and bans.
Strip clubs are frequent targets of litigation around the world, the sex industry, which includes strip clubs, is a hot button issue in popular culture and politics. Some clubs have been linked to organized crime; the term "striptease" was first recorded in 1938, though "stripping", in the sense of women removing clothing to sexually excite men, seems to go back at least 400 years. For example, in Thomas Otway's comedy The Soldier's Fortune a character says: "Be sure they be lewd, stripping whores", its combination with music seems to be as old. A conclusive description and visualization can be found in the 1720 German translation of the French La Guerre D'Espagne, where a galant party of high aristocrats and opera singers has resorted to a small château where they entertain themselves with hunting and music in a three-day turn: The third day, dedicated to ball and dance, was used for the finest entertainment to divert the men; the dancers, to please their lovers the more, dropped their clothes and danced naked, the nicest entrées and ballets.
Other possible influences on modern stripping were the dances of the Ghawazee "discovered" and seized upon by French colonists in 19th century North Africa and Egypt. The erotic dance of the bee, performed by a woman known as Kuchuk Hanem, was witnessed and described by the French novelist Gustave Flaubert. In this dance the performer disrobes as she searches for an imaginary bee trapped within her garments, it is that the women performing these dances did not do so in an indigenous context, but rather, responded to the commercial climate for this type of entertainment. Middle Eastern belly dance known as oriental dancing, was popularized in the United States after its introduction on the Midway at the 1893 World's Fair in Chicago by a dancer known as Little Egypt. In France during the late 19th century, Parisian shows such as the Moulin Rouge and Folies Bergère were featuring attractive, scantily clad, dancing women and tableaux vivants. In this environment, an act featuring a woman removing her clothes in a vain search for a flea crawling on her body was seen in 1895 and filmed in 1897 by the first female director, Alice Guy.
This routine, Le coucher d'Yvette, inspired "French acts" in theaters and brothels in other parts of the world, seen in the U. S. city of New York as early as 1878. The first public act of striptease in modern times is credited to Parisian theater in 1894. In 1905, Dutch dancer Mata Hari shot as a spy by the French authorities during World War I, was an overnight success from the debut of her act at the Musée Guimet; the most celebrated segment of her act was her progressive shedding of clothing until she wore just a jeweled bra and some ornaments over her arms and head. Another landmark performance was the appearance at the Moulin Rouge in 1907 of an actress called Germaine Aymos who entered dressed only in three small shells. In the 1930s, the famous Josephine Baker danced semi-nude in the danse sauvage at the Folies and other such performances were provided at the Tabarin; these shows were notable for their sophisticated choreography and for dressing the girls in glitzy sequin
Enos Bradsher Slaughter, nicknamed "Country", was an American Major League Baseball right fielder. He played for 19-seasons on four major league teams from 1938–1942 and 1946–1959, he is noted for his playing for the St. Louis Cardinals and is best known for scoring the winning run in Game Seven of the 1946 World Series. A ten time All-Star, he has been elected to both the National Baseball Hall of Fame and the St. Louis Cardinals Hall of Fame. Slaughter was born in Roxboro, North Carolina, where he earned the nickname "Country", joined the St. Louis Cardinals in 1938 before being traded to the New York Yankees in 1954; when Slaughter was a minor leaguer in Columbus, Georgia, he went running towards the dugout from his position in the outfield, slowed down near the infield, began walking the rest of the way. Manager Eddie Dyer told him, "Son, if you're tired, we'll try to get you some help". During the remainder of his major-league career, Slaughter ran everywhere he went on a baseball field.
In 1937, he had 147 runs scored for Columbus. Slaughter threw right-handed, he was renowned for his smooth swing. Slaughter had 2,383 hits in his major-league career, including 169 home runs, 1,304 RBIs in 2,380 games. Slaughter played 19 seasons with the Cardinals, Kansas City Athletics, Milwaukee Braves. During that period, he was a 10-time All-Star and played in five World Series, his 1,820 games played ranks fourth in Cardinals' history behind Ozzie Smith, Lou Brock, Stan Musial. He presently ranks second in RBIs with 1,148. Upon return from his military service in 1946, Slaughter led the National League with 130 RBI and led the Cardinals to a World Series win over the Boston Red Sox. In the decisive seventh game of that series, running with the pitch, made a famous "Mad Dash" for home from first base on Harry Walker's hit in the eighth inning, scoring the winning run after a delayed relay throw by the Red Sox' Johnny Pesky; the hit was ruled a double, though most observers felt it should have been ruled a single, as only the throw home allowed Walker to advance to second base.
This play was named #10 on the Sporting News list of Baseball's 25 Greatest Moments in 1999. Slaughter was known for his hustle for running hard to first base on walks, a habit imitated by Pete Rose and David Eckstein. Slaughter was reported at the time as being one of the leaders in racial taunting against the first black major league player, Jackie Robinson and was accused of conspiring with teammate Terry Moore of an attempt to get the Cardinals to refuse to play Brooklyn with Robinson on the field. Slaughter injured Robinson during a game by inflicting a seven-inch gash from his shoe spikes on Robinson's leg. Slaughter denied that he had any animosity towards Robinson, claiming that such allegations had been made against him because he was "a Southern boy", that the injury suffered by Robinson had been typical of Slaughter's rough playing style; as a part-time starter for the Yankees, Slaughter batted fifth and played in left field in Game 5 of the 1956 World Series in which teammate Don Larsen pitched the only perfect game in World Series history, a 2-0 Yankees win.
At age 40, he was the oldest player for either team in the game. Slaughter retired from major league baseball in 1959, he was a player-manager for the Houston Buffs of the Texas League in 1960 and for Raleigh Capitals of the Carolina League in 1961. Slaughter coached baseball for Duke University from 1971 to 1977. Enos Slaughter is a cousin of southern gospel musician. Slaughter died on August 12, 2002, after battling non-Hodgkin lymphoma, he was buried at Allensville United Methodist Church in North Carolina. Slaughter was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1985, his jersey number 9 was retired by the Cardinals on September 6, 1996. The Cardinals dedicated a statue depicting his famous Mad Dash in 1999. Slaughter was a fixture at statue dedications at Busch Stadium II for other Cardinal Hall of Famers during the last years of his life. In January, 2014, the Cardinals announced Slaughter among 22 former players and personnel to be inducted into the St. Louis Cardinals Hall of Fame Museum for the inaugural class of 2014.
List of Major League Baseball career hits leaders List of Major League Baseball career doubles leaders List of Major League Baseball career triples leaders List of Major League Baseball career runs scored leaders List of Major League Baseball career runs batted in leaders List of Major League Baseball annual runs batted in leaders List of Major League Baseball annual doubles leaders List of Major League Baseball annual triples leaders Enos Slaughter at the Baseball Hall of Fame Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Baseball-Reference Enos Slaughter at Find a Grave
Sverdrup & Parcel
Sverdrup & Parcel was an American civil engineering company formed in 1928 by Leif J. Sverdrup and his college engineering professor John I. Parcel; the company worked in a specialty field of bridges. The company's headquarters was located in Missouri; the firm was the designer of the ill-fated I-35W Mississippi River bridge, Minnesota, 1964. The official report by the National Transportation Safety Board blamed the bridge collapse on a design error by the firm, resulting in the gusset plates having inadequate load capacity; some other well-known projects of Sverdrup & Parcel include: Amelia Earhart Bridge 1939, Kansas Sidney Lanier Bridge 1956, Georgia Bridge of the Americas 1962, crosses the Panama Canal Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel, completed in 1964, named one of the "Seven Engineering Wonders of the Modern World" shortly thereafter. Busch Memorial Stadium 1966, St. Louis, Missouri Hearnes Center, 1972, Missouri Puente de Angostura Bolivar, crosses the Orinoco River Louisiana Superdome, New Orleans, Louisiana, 1975Sverdrup & Parcel was succeeded by Sverdrup Civil, which in 1999 was part of the merger between Sverdrup and Jacobs Engineering.
Jacobs Engineering website
1920 in baseball
The following are the baseball events of the year 1920 throughout the world. World Series: Cleveland Indians over Brooklyn Robins MLB Most Valuable Player Award None A loose confederation of teams were gathered in the East to compete with the West, however East teams did not organize a formal league as the West did. Won-loss records were sporadically reported due to lack of interest by the press in New York. Bacharach claimed the pennant. January 3 – The New York Yankees purchase outfielder Babe Ruth from the Boston Red Sox for $100,000. February 13 – A meeting in Kansas City results in the birth of the Negro National League. Rube Foster spearheads the formation of the league, which will consist of eight franchises: Chicago American Giants, Chicago Giants, Cuban Stars, Dayton Marcos, Detroit Stars, Indianapolis ABCs, Kansas City Monarchs and St. Louis Giants. April 14 – Stan Coveleski and the Cleveland Indians hold the St. Louis Browns to five hits in a 5–0 victory at Dunn Field; the Chicago White Sox defeat the Detroit Tigers 3–2 and the Philadelphia Athletics defeat the New York Yankees 3–1 as the road teams win two of the three contests in the season openers in the American League.
April 19 – Babe Ruth enters Fenway Park as a member of the opposing team for the first time in his career as the Boston Red Sox sweep a doubleheader from Ruth and the New York Yankees. Ruth goes three-for-eight with an RBI. April 25 – High Pockets Kelly drives in three as the New York Giants defeat the Brooklyn Robins 5–2 in the first meeting of the National League's two New York teams. May 1 – The Brooklyn Robins' Leon Cadore and the Boston Braves' Joe Oeschger pitched 26 innings in a 1–1 tie. Morning rain delayed the start of the game until 3:00 p.m. The Dodgers scored a run in the top of a single by Ivy Olson driving in Ernie Krueger; the Braves tied it in the bottom of the sixth with a double by Walt Cruise and a single by Tony Boeckel. The game went into extra innings. No runs were scored for the rest of the game and it was called due to darkness in the 26th inning. May 2 – Opening day for the Negro National League. May 3 – Dutch Leonard and the Detroit Tigers defeat the Cleveland Indians 5–1 for their first win of the season versus thirteen losses.
May 14 – Walter Johnson of the Washington Senators records his 300th win. May 20 – At Griffith Stadium, the Washington Senators and Chicago White Sox go into extra innings tied at three; the ChiSox score two in the fifteenth inning only to be matched by Washington in the bottom of the inning. Chicago puts up eight runs in the sixteenth to win the game by a final score of 13–5 in sixteen innings. Red Faber pitches all sixteen innings for Chicago. June 1 – In a slugfest at Dunn Field, the Detroit Tigers defeat the Cleveland Indians 11–10. Detroit's Ty Cobb goes two-for-five with two RBIs and a run scored. June 24 – Following a 5–3 loss to the Cincinnati Reds, the Philadelphia Phillies fall into last place in the National League. With the Philadelphia A's having been in last place since the 13th, both Philadelphia teams spend the rest of the season in last. June 28 – The Philadelphia Athletics defeat the Washington Senators 6–2 to end an 18-game losing streak. After giving up two runs on two hits and a walk in the first inning, A's starter Slim Harriss cruises the rest of the way for the complete game victory.
July 1 – Six weeks after recording his 300th, Walter Johnson pitches the only no-hitter of his career, as the Washington Senators top the Boston Red Sox, 1–0. July 27 – The Washington Senators defeat the Cleveland Indians 19–6. Indians starter Ray Caldwell lasts just 1.1 innings, is replaced by George Uhle, who gives up four hits and a walk in only a third of an inning of work. Tony Faeth picks up the third out of the second inning to stop the bleeding after the Senators have plated twelve runs. In all, the Senators collect 22 hits as every starter, including pitcher Eric Erickson collects at least one hit. August 13 – The New York Yankees complete a three-game sweep of the Cleveland Indians to move within a half game of first place. August 16 – Cleveland Indians shortstop Ray Chapman is struck in the head by a pitch from the New York Yankees' Carl Mays in a game at the Polo Grounds, he dies twelve hours from a fractured skull, making it the only fatal field accident in Major League Baseball history.
His death leads to the banning of the spitball. September 10 – Hall of Fame Cleveland Indians shortstop Joe Sewell makes his major league debut in a 6–1 loss to the New York Yankees. September 15 – In the second game of a double header with the Boston Braves, Hall of famer Pie Traynor makes his major league debut at shortstop for the Pittsburgh Pirates. September 17 The Detroit Tigers' Bobby Veach and New York Giants' George Burns hit for the cycle, the first time it happened twice on the same day, according to the Elias Sports Bureau. Veach finished 6-for-6, adding two singles, as Burns added a second double to his cycle in New York's 4–3 win over the Pittsburgh Pirates in ten innings. Two separate players would not hit for the cycle on the same day until 2008, when the feat was duplicated by Stephen Drew and Adrián Beltré for the Arizona Diamondbacks and Seattle Mariners, respectively; the Detroit Tigers defeat the Boston Red Sox, 13–12, in 12 innings, despite a major-league record 20 BoSox receiving walks.
Eight Tigers walk to set another ML record of 28 walks in an extra-inning game. St. Louis Browns first baseman George Sisler goes four-for-five in the Browns' 17–6 victory over the Philadelphia Athletics to raise his average to.400. Sisler will end the season with a.407 batting average. September 25 After having spent most of the season in the minors, having logged only ten innings pitched all season, Pittsburgh Pirates pitcher Jimmy Zinn pitches all twelve innings in the
1964 New York World's Fair
The 1964/1965 New York World's Fair held over 140 pavilions, 110 restaurants, for 80 nations, 24 US states, over 45 corporations to build exhibits or attractions at Flushing Meadows Park in Queens, NY. The immense fair covered 646 acres on half the park, with numerous pools or fountains, an amusement park with rides near the lake. However, the fair did not receive official sanctioning from the Bureau of International Expositions. Hailing itself as a "universal and international" exposition, the fair's theme was "Peace Through Understanding", dedicated to "Man's Achievement on a Shrinking Globe in an Expanding Universe". American companies dominated the exposition as exhibitors; the theme was symbolized by a 12-story-high, stainless-steel model of the earth called the Unisphere, built on the foundation of the Perisphere from the 1939 NYC fair. The fair ran for two six-month seasons, April 22 – October 18, 1964, April 21 – October 17, 1965. Admission price for adults was $2 in 1964 but $2.50 in 1965, $1 for children both years.
The fair is noted as a showcase of technology. The nascent Space Age, with its vista of promise, was well represented. More than 51 million people attended the fair, it remains a touchstone for many American Baby Boomers, who visited the optimistic fair as children before the turbulent years of the Vietnam War, cultural changes, increasing domestic violence associated with the Civil Rights Movement. In many ways the fair symbolized a grand consumer show covering many products produced in America at the time for transportation and consumer electronic needs in a way that would never be repeated at future world's fairs in North America. Many major American manufacturing companies from pen manufacturers, to chemical companies, to computers, to automobiles had a major presence; this fair gave many attendees their first interaction with computer equipment. Corporations demonstrated the use of mainframe computers, computer terminals with keyboards and CRT displays, teletype machines, punch cards, telephone modems in an era when computer equipment was kept in back offices away from the public, decades before the Internet and home computers were at everyone's disposal.
The site, Flushing Meadows Corona Park in the borough of Queens, was Manhattan's Corona Ash Dumps featured prominently in F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby as the Valley of Ashes. Prior to that, the site had been a natural wetland—literally wetland meadows that would flush the nearby runoff entering the adjacent bay. Flushing Meadows had been a Dutch settlement, named after the city of Vlissingen. Subsequently, the site was reclaimed for the 1939/1940 New York World's Fair, one of the largest world's fairs to be held in the United States, occupying nearly a square mile of land; the 1939 fair occupied space, filled in for the 1964/1965 exposition. Preceding these fairs was the 1853–54 New York's World's Fair, called the Exhibition of the Industry of All Nations, located in the New York Crystal Palace on what is now Bryant Park in the borough of Manhattan, New York City; the 1964/1965 Fair was conceived by a group of New York businessmen who remembered their childhood experiences at the 1939 New York World's Fair.
Thoughts of an economic boom to the city as the result of increased tourism was a major reason for holding another fair 25 years after the 1939/1940 extravaganza. Then-New York City mayor, Robert F. Wagner, Jr. commissioned Frederick Pittera, a producer of international fairs and exhibitions, author of the history of International Fairs & Exhibitions for the Encyclopædia Britannica and Compton's Encyclopedia, to prepare the first feasibility studies for the 1964/1965 New York World's Fair. He was joined by Austrian architect Victor Gruen in studies that led the Eisenhower Commission to award the world's fair to New York City in competition with a number of American cities. Organizers turned to the sale of bonds to pay the huge costs to stage them; the organizers hired New York's "Master Builder" Robert Moses, to head the corporation established to run the fair because he was experienced in raising money for vast public projects. Moses had been a formidable figure in the city since coming to power in the 1930s.
He was responsible for the construction of much of the city's highway infrastructure and, as parks commissioner for decades, the creation of much of the city's park system. In the mid-1930s, Moses oversaw the conversion of a vast Queens tidal marsh garbage dump into the fairgrounds that hosted the 1939/1940 World's Fair. Called Flushing Meadows Park, it was Moses' grandest park scheme, he envisioned this vast park, comprising some 1,300 acres of land accessible from Manhattan, as a major recreational playground for New Yorkers. When the 1939/1940 World's Fair ended in financial failure, Moses did not have the available funds to complete work on his project, he saw the 1964/1965 Fair as a means to finish. To ensure profits to complete the park, fair organizers knew. An estimated attendance of 70 million people would be needed to turn a profit and, for attendance that large, the fair would need to be held for two years; the World's Fair Corporation decided to charge site-rental fees to all exhibitors who wished to construct pavilions on the grounds.
This decision caused the fair to come into confl
Multi-purpose stadiums are a type of stadium designed to be used by multiple types of events. While any stadium could host more than one type of sport or event, this concept refers to a specific design philosophy that stresses multifunctionality over specificity, it is used most in Canada and the United States, where the two most popular outdoor team sports – football and baseball – require radically different facilities. Football uses a rectangular field, while baseball is played on large outfield; this requires a particular design to accommodate both an oval. While building stadiums in this way means that sports teams and governments can share costs, it imposes some challenges. In North America, multipurpose stadiums were built during the 1960s and 1970s as shared home stadiums for Major League Baseball and National Football League or Canadian Football League teams; some stadiums were renovated to allow multipurpose configurations during the 1980s. This type of stadium is associated with an era of suburbanization, in which many sports teams followed their fans out of large cities into areas with cheaper, plentiful land.
They were built near highways and had large parking lots, but were connected to public transit. As multipurpose stadiums were ideal for both sports housed in them, they had fallen out of favor by the 1990s. With the completion of the Truman Sports Complex in Kansas City in 1973, a model for purpose-built stadiums was laid down. Since Oriole Park at Camden Yards opened in 1992, most major league sports stadiums have been built for one sport. Outside North America, the term is used, since association football is the only major outdoor team sport in many countries. In Australia, many sports grounds are suited to both Australian rules football and cricket, as Australian rules is played on cricket ovals. In some cases such as Stadium Australia in Sydney, Docklands Stadium in Melbourne and National Stadium, stadiums are designed to be converted between the oval configuration for cricket and Australian rules football and a rectangular configuration for Rugby and Association Football and in the case of Singapore's National Stadium, an Athletics configuration as well.
Association football stadiums have served as track and field arenas, as well, some still do, whereas a newer generation has no running track to allow the fans closer to the field. Among winter sports a speed skating rink can be a multi-purpose stadium. A rink or two of the size 61 × 30 metres - the regulation size of an IIHF ice hockey rink - are placed inside the oval. Sometimes the ice surface is larger, allowing for bandy and curling; as of 2019, the Oakland Coliseum is the last multipurpose stadium to serve as a full-time home to both an MLB team and an NFL team, that arrangement will end once the Oakland Raiders relocate to Las Vegas in 2020. Meanwhile, the current Yankee Stadium houses both the New York Yankees baseball team and New York City FC of Major League Soccer. Several stadiums hosted multiple sports teams prior to the advent of multipurpose stadiums. In New York City, the Polo Grounds hosted football teams early on; the original Yankee Stadium was designed to accommodate football, as well as track and field, in addition to its primary use for baseball.
Wrigley Field, while built for baseball hosted the Chicago Bears, just as Comiskey Park hosted the Chicago Cardinals and Tiger Stadium hosted the Detroit Lions. Venues such as Cleveland Stadium, Milwaukee County Stadium and Baltimore Memorial Stadium were built to accommodate both baseball and football. In the 1960s, multipurpose stadiums began replacing their baseball-only and football-only predecessors, now known as "classics" or "jewel box" parks; the advantage to a multipurpose stadium is that a singular infrastructure and piece of real estate can support both teams in terms of transportation and playing area, money that would have been spent to support infrastructure for two stadiums could be spent elsewhere. Playing into the advent of the multipurpose stadium was Americans' growing use of automobiles, which required professional sports stadiums surrounded by parking. Most cities lacked affordable space for such stadiums near their city centers, so multipurpose stadiums were built in suburbs with freeways access.
Subsets of the multipurpose stadiums were the so-called "cookie-cutter stadiums" or "concrete donuts" which were all similar in design. They featured a circular or nearly circular design, accommodated both baseball and football by rotating sections of the box seat areas to fit the respective playing fields; these fields used artificial turf, as it could withstand the reconfiguration process more or be removed for nonsporting events, plus it could be used in domes, which many of these stadiums were. The first of these stadiums was Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Stadium, it was followed during the 1960s and 1970s by Shea Stadium, Atlanta–Fulton County Stadium, Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum, the Astrodome, Jack Murphy Stadium, Riverfront Stadium, Busch Memorial Stadium, Three Rivers Stadium, Veterans Stadium, the Kingdome. As of 2016, seven of these 11 stadiums have been demolished. Only Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Stadium, the Oakland Coliseum, Jack Murphy S