The Bush Doctrine refers to various related foreign policy principles of the 43rd President of the United States, George W. Bush; these principles include the use of preemptive war. Charles Krauthammer first used the phrase in June 2001 to describe the Bush Administration's "unilaterally withdrawing from the ABM treaty and rejecting the Kyoto protocol." After the 9/11 attack, the phrase described the policy that the United States had the right to secure itself against countries that harbor or give aid to terrorist groups, used to justify the 2001 war in Afghanistan. The Bush Doctrine became associated with the Bush administration's decision to invade Iraq in 2003. Different pundits have attributed different meanings to the Bush Doctrine, it was used to describe specific policy elements, including a strategy of "preemptive strikes" as a defense against an immediate or perceived future threat to the security of the United States. This policy principle was applied in the Middle East to counter international terrorist organizations and to justify the invasion of Iraq.
The Bush Doctrine was used to indicate a willingness to unilaterally pursue U. S. military interests. Some of these policies were codified in a National Security Council text entitled the National Security Strategy of the United States published on September 20, 2002; the phrase "Bush Doctrine" was used by members of the Bush administration. The expression was used at least once, though, by Vice President Dick Cheney, in a June 2003 speech in which he said, "If there is anyone in the world today who doubts the seriousness of the Bush Doctrine, I would urge that person to consider the fate of the Taliban in Afghanistan, of Saddam Hussein's regime in Iraq." The main elements of the Bush Doctrine were delineated in a document, the National Security Strategy of the United States, published on September 17, 2002. This document is cited as the definitive statement of the doctrine, it was updated in 2006 and is stated as follows: The security environment confronting the United States today is radically different from what we have faced before.
Yet the first duty of the United States Government remains what it always has been: to protect the American people and American interests. It is an enduring American principle that this duty obligates the government to anticipate and counter threats, using all elements of national power, before the threats can do grave damage; the greater the threat, the greater is the risk of inaction – and the more compelling the case for taking anticipatory action to defend ourselves if uncertainty remains as to the time and place of the enemy's attack. There are few greater threats than a terrorist attack with WMD. To forestall or prevent such hostile acts by our adversaries, the United States will, if necessary, act preemptively in exercising our inherent right of self-defense; the United States will not resort to force in all cases to preempt emerging threats. Our preference is, and no country should use preemption as a pretext for aggression. The Bush Doctrine is defined as "a collection of strategy principles, practical policy decisions, a set of rationales and ideas for guiding United States foreign policy."
Some of these had reemerged from the 1992 draft Wolfowitz Doctrine, leaked and disavowed by the first Bush administration. Two main pillars are identified for the doctrine: 1.) Preemptive strikes against potential enemies and 2.) Promoting democratic regime change. The George W. Bush administration claimed. Out of the National Security Strategy, four main points are highlighted as the core to the Bush Doctrine: 1.) Preemption, 2.) Military Primacy, 3.) New Multilateralism, 4.) The Spread of Democracy. The document emphasized preemption, stating, "America is now threatened less by conquering states than we are by failing ones. We are menaced less by fleets and armies than by catastrophic technologies in the hands of the embittered few," and required "defending the United States, the American people, our interests at home and abroad by identifying and destroying the threat before it reaches our borders."Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld remarked thus in 2006, in a statement taken to reflect his view of the Doctrine's efficacy: "If I were rating, I would say we deserve a D or D+ as a country as how well we're doing in the battle of ideas that's taking place.
I'm not going to suggest that it's easy, but we have not found the formula as a country."In his 2010 memoir Decision Points, President Bush articulates his discrete concept of the Bush Doctrine. He stated that his doctrine consisted of four "prongs," three of them practical, one idealistic, they are the following: "Make no distinction between terrorists and the nations that harbor them — and hold both to account." "Take the fight to the enemy overseas before they can attack us again here at home." "Confront threats before they materialize." "Advance liberty and hope as an alternative to the enemy's ideology of repression and fear." Unilateral elements were evident early in Bush's presidency. Conservative Charles Krauthammer, who coined the term "Bush Doctrine," deployed "unilateralism," in February 2001 to refer to Bush's increased unilateralism in foreign policy regarding his decision to withdraw from the ABM treaty. There is some evidence that Bush's willingness for the US to act unilaterally came earlier.
The International Journal of Peace Studies 2003 article "The Bush administration's ima
Adrian Freiherr von Fölkersam was a German Brandenburger and Waffen-SS officer in World War II. Fölkersam was born into an aristocratic Baltic German family with a long record of service to the Russian Empire. Fölkersam's family settled in Latvia. From 1934 he attended university in Munich, Königsberg and Vienna studying economics, at this time he became a member of the National Socialist movement and the SA. Fölkersam joined the Brandenburgers in May 1940, forming a special unit comprising Volksdeutsche of Russian origin, his unit was active extensively during Operation Barbarossa. In 1944 Fölkersam's unit transferred to the Waffen-SS and became the major part of SS-Jagdverband Ost; this unit was active on the Eastern Front and took part in the kidnapping of Miklós Horthy, Jr. and the deposition of his father, the Hungarian regent Miklós Horthy in Operation Panzerfaust. During the Battle of the Bulge, Fölkersam participated in Operation Greif, worked in close coordination with Otto Skorzeny. In January 1945, having posted to the Eastern Front, he fought against the advancing Red Army in central Poland.
Adrian von Fölkersam was killed in action on 21 January 1945 near Poland. At the time of his death, he was an SS-Hauptsturmführer, was in command of the SS-Jagdverband Ost. Iron Cross 2nd and 1st Class Infantry Assault Badge Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross on 14 September 1942 as Leutnant der Reserve and adjutant in the Stab of the I./Lehr-Regiment z.b. V. 800 "Brandenburg"
Stafrænn Hákon is the stage name used by Icelandic musician Ólafur Josephsson. Ólafur has been making music at his home studio since 1999. Stafrænn has self released 3 albums in Iceland. 2 of the albums were re-released on Resonant in the UK and the debut on Secret Eye in the U. S. Stafrænn released his 4th record on Resonant in 2004; the album "Gummi" was released in June 2007, on Resonant and Nature Bliss. in 2010 Stafrænn's 6th full-length album "Sanitas" was released on Darla Records,Happy Prince and Kimi Records in Iceland. Sanitas did find Stafrænn Hákon experimenting more with pop elements. Eignast Jeppa Í ástandi rjúpunnar Skvettir edik á ref Ventill / Poki Gummi Sanitas Prammi Kælir Varðhund Eternal Horse Hausi Aftur 7" Split on Awkward Silence W/ Emery Reel Tour EP W/ Dialect Glussi Christmas 7" Sprengir Ílát EP Kobbi EP Echange:2 Collaboration with Void's Anatomy Apron EP Glussajól Stafrænn Hákon official website Stafrænn Hákon on Facebook Stafrænn Hákon on Myspace Stafrænn Hákon on Twitter
Core Data is an object graph and persistence framework provided by Apple in the macOS and iOS operating systems. It was introduced in Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger and iOS with iPhone SDK 3.0. It allows data organized by the relational entity–attribute model to be serialized into XML, binary, or SQLite stores; the data can be manipulated using higher level objects representing entities and their relationships. Core Data manages the serialized version, providing object lifecycle and object graph management, including persistence. Core Data interfaces directly with SQLite, insulating the developer from the underlying SQL. Just as Cocoa Bindings handle many of the duties of the controller in a model–view–controller design, Core Data handles many of the duties of the data model. Among other tasks, it handles change management, serializing to disk, memory footprint minimization and queries against the data. Core Data describes data with a high level data model expressed in terms of entities and their relationships plus fetch requests that retrieve entities meeting specific criteria.
Code can retrieve and manipulate this data on a purely object level without having to worry about the details of storage and retrieval. The controller objects available in Interface Builder can retrieve and manipulate these entities directly; when combined with Cocoa bindings the UI can display many components of the data model without needing background code. For example: a developer might be writing a program to handle vCards. In order to manage these, the author intends to read the vCards into objects, store them in a single larger XML file. Using Core Data the developer would drag their schema from the data designer in Xcode into an interface builder window to create a GUI for their schema, they could write standard Objective-C or Swift code to read vCard files and put the data into Core Data managed entities. From that point on the author's code manipulates these Core Data objects, rather than the underlying vCards. Connecting the Save menu item to the appropriate method in the controller object will direct the controller to examine the object stack, determine which objects are dirty, re-write a Core Data document file with these changes.
Core Data is organized into a large hierarchy of classes, though interaction is only prevalent with a small set of them. Core Data can serialize objects into binary, or SQLite for storage. With the release of Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard, developers can create their own custom atomic store types. Each method carries advantages and disadvantages, such as being human readable or more memory efficient; this portion of Core Data is similar to the original Enterprise Objects Framework system, in that one can write sophisticated queries. Unlike EOF, it is not possible to write your own SQL. Core Data store for ODBC has been made available in ODBC framework. Core Data schemas are standardized. If you have the Xcode Data Model file, you can write files in that format freely. Unlike EOF, Core Data is not designed for multiuser or simultaneous access unless you use ODBC framework. Schema migration is non-trivial always requiring code. If other developers have access to and depend upon your data model, you may need to provide version translation code in addition to a new data model if your schema changes.
Core Data owes much of its design to Enterprise Objects Framework. EOF was an object-relational mapping for high-end SQL database engines such as Microsoft SQL Server and Oracle. EOF's purpose was twofold: first, to connect to the database engine and hide the implementation details. Developers interacted only with the objects, which simplified development of complex programs, at the cost of some setup to map the data to the objects; the EOF object model was deliberately designed to make the resulting programs work in a document-like fashion. Throughout its history, EOF contained a number of bits of useful code that were not otherwise available under NeXTSTEP/OpenStep. For instance, EOF required the ability to track which objects were dirty so the system could write them out; this was presented to the developer not only as a document-like system, but in the form of an unlimited Undo command stack, with each command applied to the data represented as an undoable action. Many developers complained that this state management code was far too useful to be isolated in EOF, it was moved into the Cocoa API during the transition to Mac OS X. Initially, what was not translated was EOF itself.
EOF was used along with another OpenStep-era product, WebObjects, an application server based on Objective-C. At the time, Apple was in the process of porting WebObjects to the Java programming language, as part of this conversion, EOF became much more difficult to use from Cocoa. Once again, there was considerable complaining among 3rd party developers. One critical realization is that the object state management system in EOF did not have anything to do with relational databases; the same code could be, was, used by developers to manage graphs of other objects as well. In this role, the useful parts of EOF were those that automatically built the object sets from the raw data, tracked them, it is this concept. Apple Inc.. "Core Data Programming Guide". Retrieved from https://developer.apple.com/iphone/library/documentation/Cocoa/Conceptual/CoreData/cdProgrammingGuide.html Apple Inc. (September 9
Romeo Neri was an Italian gymnast. He won three gold medals at the 1932 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, along with Helene Madison of United States, the most successful athlete there, he won a silver medal at the 1928 Summer Olympics. In 1934 he won a bronze medal at the world championships in Budapest. Neri took swimming, running and boxing before changing to gymnastics. In 1926 he won the national championships in the parallel bars, followed by four all-round titles in 1928–1930 and 1933. At the 1928 Olympics, besides winning a silver on the horizontal bar, he finished fourth on the rings and all-around. At the next games he won the all-around competition with a 5.7-point gap from second place and helped Italy to win the team gold. He won gold on the parallel bars and finished fourth on the floor. At the 1936 Olympics Neri did not complete his events, he retired from competitions at the onset of World War II, after the war worked as a gymnastics coach, preparing the national team for the 1952 Olympics and training his sons Romano and Giambattista.
Neri was the first gold medalist from Rimini, the football stadium there, Stadio Romeo Neri, bears his name. Legends of Italian sport - Walk of Fame List of multiple Olympic gold medalists Stadio Romeo Neri
Archbishop Spalding High School is a private, Catholic co-educational high school located in Severn, Maryland, USA. It is located in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Baltimore. Most of its students live in Annapolis, Arnold, Severna Park, Millersville, Glen Burnie, or Davidsonville in Anne Arundel County; some travel from southern Baltimore County, east Prince George's County and parts of Howard County. Spalding has numerous clubs for student involvement and/or academic competition, including Academic Bowl, Mock Trial, Strategic Gaming, HOPE and a NAIMUN award-winning Model United Nations team, it has many competitive sports teams, such as rugby, basketball, american football, ice hockey, baseball and cross country. These athletic teams compete in the IAAM Conferences; the school sponsors a competitive music program, in which students participate in interstate competitions each year. Archbishop Spalding's mascot is the Cavalier. Archbishop Spalding was established in 1963 by as an all-girls high school called Holy Trinity High School.
When the school moved to its present location in 1966, it was renamed Martin Spalding High School in honor of the seventh archbishop of Baltimore. Its name was changed to Archbishop Spalding High School in 1986; the school has been coeducational since 1973. In May 2003, the school acquired the adjacent 22-acre Upton Farm property, enlarging the school's campus to 52-acre; the addition of a new arts and technology wing was completed in September 2009. The school's facilities include four science laboratories, its library maintains a collection of 14,000 books and 24 desktop computers for student research. An entire wing of the school is networked for wireless computing; the school has an IMAC laboratory, two personal computer laboratories and a Project Lead the Way Engineering program. All classrooms have access to computer projection equipment for visual presentations; the auditorium, with 1,200 seats, provides a location for school wide assemblies, as well as theatre and music productions. A new auditorium was built in 2017.
A chapel is available for use by students and faculty. The school has seven athletic fields, its athletic stadium has an all-weather turf field, eight-lane track, seating for 2,000 and a video scoreboard. The main gymnasium seats 1,100 and a secondary gymnasium seats 500. An outdoor area known as the Senior Garden is traditionally reserved for use by senior students during their lunch breaks. Archbishop Spalding competes in the Maryland Interscholastic Athletic Association in boys' sports and in the Interscholastic Athletic Association of Maryland in girls' sports, against Baltimore-area schools, it plays in either the "A" or "B" divisions of these leagues. Reb Beatty: boys' soccer 1997 Rudy Gay: boys' basketball 2004Cole Gallagher:2010 Washington Post All Met Team, 2010 Baltimore Sun All Met Team. Charlie Lynch 2010 Washington Post All Met Team, 2010 Baltimore Sun All Met Team, 2011 National Prep Champion, 2011 Wrestler of The year Washington Post. Tyler Blohm: 2016 Baltimore Sun All-Metro Player of the Year, Gatorade Maryland Baseball Player of the Year, Drafted by the Baltimore Orioles in the 17th round of the MLB draft.
Archbishop Spalding has a number including instrumental and vocal ensembles. Instrumental groups include a guitar ensemble, string ensemble, jazz band, concert band, symphonic band and wind ensemble. Vocal groups include advanced women's chorus, girls' chorale, jazz harmony, chromosome Y and vocal ensemble. AP Music Theory is offered as an elective class in the curriculum. Stephanie Huesgen, band director, was selected as one of SBO's national list of "50 Directors Who Make a Difference" in 2005. In 2007 at the national Musicfest in Orlando, Archbishop Spalding was awarded "Grand Band Champion", was thus the overall national winner for that week's competition. Several instrumental and vocal scholarships are available to incoming students upon audition. Zach Abey, United States Naval Academy quarterback Tamar Braxton, singer David Correy, The X Factor contestant Kyle Dixon, professional lacrosse player Mike Flanagan, film director, producer Rudy Gay, professional basketball player Jimi Haha, Jimmie's Chicken Shack's lead singer Nick Kuhl, professional rugby union player Amy Langville, basketball player and mathematician Chris Lucas, LoCash Cowboys, songwriter, recording artist Christine Nairn, professional soccer player National Catholic Educational Association Archbishop Spalding High School SBO's "50 Directors Who Make a Difference" Archbishop Spalding's Band Wins National Competition Annapolis Review Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Baltimore