Bush v. Gore, 531 U. S. 98, was a decision of the United States Supreme Court that settled a recount dispute in Florida's 2000 presidential election. The ruling was issued on December 13, 2000. On December 9, the Court had preliminarily halted the Florida recount, occurring. Eight days earlier, the Court unanimously decided the related case of Bush v. Palm Beach County Canvassing Board; the Electoral College was scheduled to meet on December 2000, to decide the election. In a per curiam decision, the Court ruled that the use of different standards of counting in different counties violated the Equal Protection Clause, ruled that no alternative method could be established within the time limit set by Title 3 of the United States Code, § 5, December 12; the vote regarding the Equal Protection Clause was 7–2, regarding the lack of an alternative method was 5–4. Three concurring justices asserted that the Florida Supreme Court had violated Article II, § 1, cl. 2 of the Constitution, by misinterpreting Florida election law, enacted by the Florida Legislature.
The Supreme Court decision allowed the previous vote certification to stand, as made by Florida Secretary of State Katherine Harris, for George W. Bush as the winner of Florida's 25 electoral votes. Florida's votes gave Bush, the Republican candidate, 271 electoral votes, one more than the required 270 to win the Electoral College, the defeat of Democratic candidate Al Gore, who received 266 electoral votes. Media organizations subsequently analyzed the ballots and found that the proposed county-based recounts would have resulted in a different outcome than a full statewide recount. Florida subsequently changed to new voting machines to avoid punch cards which had allowed dimpled cards or hanging chad. A number of subsequent articles have characterized the decision as damaging the reputation of the court, increasing the view of judges as partisan, decreasing Americans' trust in the integrity of elections. In the United States, each state conducts its own popular vote election for President and Vice President.
The voters are voting for a slate of electors, each of whom pledges to vote for a particular candidate for each office, in the Electoral College. Article II, § 1, cl. 2 of the U. S. Constitution provides. Early in U. S. history, most state legislatures directly appointed the slate of electors for each of their respective states. Today, state legislatures have enacted laws to provide for the selection of electors by popular vote within each state. While these laws vary, most states, including Florida, award all electoral votes to the candidate for either office who receives a plurality of the state's popular vote. Any candidate who receives an absolute majority of all electoral votes nationally wins the Presidential or Vice Presidential election. On November 8, 2000, the Florida Division of Elections reported that Bush won with 48.8% of the vote in Florida, a margin of victory of 1,784 votes. The margin of victory was less than 0.5% of the votes cast, so a statutorily-mandated automatic machine recount occurred.
On November 10, with the machine recount finished in all but one county, Bush's margin of victory had decreased to 327. According to legal analyst Jeffrey Toobin analysis showed that a total of 18 counties—accounting for a quarter of all votes cast in Florida—did not carry out the mandated machine recount, but "o one from the Gore campaign challenged" the notion that the machine recount had been completed. Florida's election laws allow a candidate to request a county to conduct a manual recount, Gore requested manual recounts in four Florida counties: Volusia, Palm Beach and Miami-Dade, which are counties that traditionally vote Democratic and would be expected to garner more votes for Gore. Gore did not, request any recounts in counties that traditionally vote Republican; the four counties began manual recounts. However, Florida law required all counties to certify their election returns to the Florida Secretary of State within seven days of the election, several of the counties conducting manual recounts did not believe they could meet this deadline.
On November 14, the statutory deadline, the Florida Circuit Court ruled that the seven-day deadline was mandatory, but that the counties could amend their returns at a date. The court ruled that the Secretary, after "considering all attendant facts and circumstances," had discretion to include any late amended returns in the statewide certification. Before the 5 pm deadline on November 14, Volusia County completed its manual recount and certified its results. At 5 pm on November 14, Florida Secretary of State Katherine Harris announced that she had received the certified returns from all 67 counties, while Palm Beach and Miami-Dade counties were still conducting manual recounts. Harris issued a set of criteria by which she would determine whether to allow late filings, she required any county seeking to make a late filing to submit to her, by 2 pm the following day, a written statement of the facts and circumstances justifying the late filing. Four counties submitted statements, after reviewing the submissions Harris determined that none justified an extension of the filing deadline.
She further announced that after she received the certified returns of the overseas absentee ballots from each county, she would certify the results of the presidential election on Saturday, November 18, 2000. However, on November 17, the Florida Supreme Court enjoine
Uncanny Magazine is an American science fiction and fantasy online magazine and published by Lynne M. Thomas and Michael Damian Thomas. Issues appear bimonthly, starting November 2014 after receiving funding through Kickstarter. Uncanny Magazine has maintained a regular bimonthly schedule since, publishing original works by authors such as Neil Gaiman, Elizabeth Bear, Paul Cornell, Catherynne M. Valente, Charlie Jane Anders, Seanan McGuire, Javier Grillo-Marxuach, Alex Bledsoe, Kameron Hurley and Ken Liu. In 2017, Uncanny won the 2016 Hugo Award for Best Semiprozine, one of its published stories, "Folding Beijing" by Hao Jingfang translated by Ken Liu, won the Hugo Award for Best Novelette. Winner 2015 William Atheling Jr. Award for Criticism or Review– “Does Sex Make Science Fiction ‘Soft’?", Tansy Rayner Roberts Nominee 2015 Prix Aurora Awards- Best Poem/Song – English– “The New Ways” by Amal El-Mohtar, Uncanny Magazine #1 Finalist 2015 Parsec Awards- Best Speculative Fiction Magazine or Anthology Podcast– The Uncanny Magazine Podcast Winner 2016 Gold Spectrum Award- Editorial Category– "Traveling to a Distant" Day by Tran Nguyen Finalist 2016 Theodore Sturgeon Award– “Folding Beijing” by Hao Jingfang, translated by Ken Liu Finalist 2016 Locus Award- Best Novelette– “Folding Beijing” by Hao Jingfang, translated by Ken Liu Winner 2016 Hugo Award for Best Semiprozine– Uncanny Magazine, edited by Lynne M. Thomas & Michael Damian Thomas, Michi Trota, Erika Ensign & Steven Schapansky Winner 2016 Hugo Award for Best Novelette– “Folding Beijing” by Hao Jingfang, translated by Ken Liu Winner 2016 Chesley Awards- Best Cover Illustration: Magazine– "Traveling to a Distant Day" by Tran Nguyen Winner 2016 Parsec Awards- Best Speculative Fiction Magazine or Anthology Podcast– The Uncanny Magazine Podcast Finalist 2016 World Fantasy Award- Best Short Fiction– “Pockets” by Amal El-Mohtar, Finalist 2016 World Fantasy Award- Best Short Fiction– “Heat of Us: Notes Toward an Oral History” by Sam J. Miller, Finalist 2016 World Fantasy Award- Special Award Nonprofessional – Lynne M. Thomas and Michael Damian Thomas, for Uncanny Magazine Finalist 2017 World Fantasy Award Special Award, Non-Professional – Lynne M. Thomas and Michael Damian Thomas, for Uncanny Magazine Lynne M. Thomas, Editor-in-Chief, November 2014 – Present Michael Damian Thomas, Editor-in-Chief, November 2014 – Present Michi Trota, Managing Editor, November 2014 – Present Julia Rios and Poetry Editor/Interviewer, May 2016 – Present Erika Ensign, Podcast Producer, November 2014 – Present Steven Schapansky, Podcast Producer, November 2014 – Present Amal El-Mohtar, Podcast Reader, November 2014 – Present C. S. E. Cooney, Podcast Reader, November 2014 - August 2015 Deborah Stanish, November 2014 - December 2016 Official website
Inga Ravna Eira is a Norwegian Northern Sami language poet, children's writer and schoolteacher. Eira was born in Finnmark, Norway. A schoolteacher, her first children's book, Sámi girječálliid searvi from 1979 was written as a collaboration with her pupils, her first published poetry was included in the anthology Savdnjiluvvon nagir, jointly with Kaia Nilsen and Ellen Marie Vars. Her second children's book, Mellet from 1992, was illustrated by Iver Jåks, her first poetry collection was Lieđážan from 1997, with illustrations by Maj-Lis Skaltje. In 2009 she published, her poetry collection Ii dát leat dat eana from 2018 has illustrations by Mathis Nango, was nominated to the Nordic Council Literature Prize from the Sami language area in 2019. Eira has been leader of Sámi girječálliid searvi, the Sami writers' union