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A bushel is an imperial and US customary unit of volume based upon an earlier measure of dry capacity. The old bushel was equal to 2 kennings, 4 pecks or 8 dry gallons and was used for agricultural products such as wheat. In modern usage, the volume is nominal, with bushels denoting a mass defined differently for each commodity; the name "bushel" is used to translate similar units in other measurement systems. The name comes from the Old French boissiel and buissiel, meaning "little box", it may further derive from Old French boise, thus meaning "little butt". The bushel is an intermediate value between the pound and ton or tun, introduced to England following the Norman Conquest. Norman statutes made the London bushel part of the legal measure of English wine and grains; the Assize of Bread and Ale credited to Henry III, c. 1266, defined this bushel in terms of the wine gallon, while the c. 1300 Assize of Weights and Measures credited to Edward I or II defined the London bushel in terms of the larger corn gallon.

In either case, the bushel was reckoned to contain 64 pounds of 12 ounces of 20 pence of 32 grains. These measures were based on the light tower pound and were used in Scotland, Ireland, or Wales during the Middle Ages; when the Tower system was abolished in the 16th century, the bushel was redefined as 56 avoirdupois pounds. The imperial bushel established by the Weights and Measures Act of 1824 described the bushel as the volume of 80 avoirdupois pounds of distilled water in air at 62 °F or 8 imperial gallons; this is the bushel in some use in the United Kingdom. Thus, there is no distinction between dry measure in the imperial system; the Winchester bushel was the volume of a cylinder 18.5 in in diameter and 8 in high, which gives an irrational number of cubic inches. The modern American or US bushel is a variant of this, rounded to 2150.42 cubic inches, less than one part per ten million less. It is somewhat in use in Canada. Bushels are now most used as units of mass or weight rather than of volume.

The bushels in which grains are bought and sold on commodity markets or at local grain elevators, for reports of grain production, are all units of weight. This is done by assigning a standard weight to each commodity, to be measured in bushels; these bushels depend on the commodities being measured, on the moisture content of the commodity. Some of the more common ones are: Oats: US: 32 lb Canada: 34 lb Barley: 48 lb Malted barley: 34 lb Shelled maize at 15.5% moisture by weight: 56 lb Wheat at 13.5% moisture by weight: 60 lb Soybeans at 13% moisture by weight: 60 lb Other specific values are defined for other grains, fruits, coal and many other commodities. Government policy in the United States is to phase out units such as the bushel and replace them with metric mass equivalents; the German bushel was the Scheffel. The Polish bushel was used as measure of dry capacity, it was divided into 4 quarters and in the early 19th century had a value of 128 litres in Warsaw and 501.116 litres in Kraków.

The Spanish bushel was used as a measure of dry capacity. It was equal to 55.5 litres in Castille. Coomb Lamp under a bushel Winchester measure U. S. Commercial Bushel Sizes for Agricultural Crops at the Wayback Machine


Ballykinlar or Ballykinler is a village and civil parish in County Down, Northern Ireland. It lies 12 kilometres south west of Downpatrick, in the parish of Dundrum. In the 2001 Census it had a population of 348 people, it is within the Newry and Down area. It is a linear settlement running parallel to the Irish Sea coast and bordered by a British Army camp to the west and south west, it is a residential village with a low level of a good bus service. The village is within the Lecale Coast Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the surrounding landscape consists of low marshes. Ballykinlar is the site of a major British Army base now known as Abercorn Barracks. Public houses in the area include The Four Roads Inn; the Minerstown Tavern provide a minibus connection to the village. Visitors to Ballykinlar include walkers and hikers who wish to observe the coastline of County Down, undertake the Ballykinlar to Killough walk which passes the Blue Flag beach at Tyrella. Ballykinlar Halt railway station was opened in March 1915, but was closed on 16 January 1950.

A regular bus service runs via Clough. Ballykinlar has three sports pitches, including two changing facilities, it has several football teams including U13's, U15's, U17's and a second and first team. Ballykinlar has a Gaelic Football team called Baile Choinnleora, founded in 1932; the village was selected for an award from the Big Lottery Fund of £128,472 to provide a new children's playgroup area. The civil parish is in the historic barony of Lecale Upper and contains the settlement of Ballykinler; the civil parish contains the townlands of Ballykinler Lower, Ballykinler Middle, Ballykinler Upper. List of villages in Northern Ireland List of civil parishes of County Down Prisoners of War - Ballykinlar Internment Camp 1920-1921, Liam O'Duibhir 2013 ISBN 978 1 78117 0410 The Ulster Defence Regiment: An Instrument of Peace?, Chris Ryder 1991 ISBN 0-413-64800-1 Drumaroad History Ballykinler Catholic Church BFBS radio in Ballykinler on 107.5 fm

Estelle v. Williams

Estelle v. Williams, 425 U. S. 501, is a Supreme Court case involving Harry Lee Williams' conviction of assault on his former landlord in Harris County, Texas. While awaiting trial Williams was unable to post bail, he was tried in his prison uniform, was found guilty. He sought a writ of habeas corpus saying being tried in a prison uniform violated his Constitutional rights in accordance with the 14th Amendment; the Court of Appeals ruled that the accused does not have to stand trial in identifiable prison clothes and Williams’ right to due process was violated. The Supreme Court reversed, reinstating the conviction, on June 21, 1976. Section one of the Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution states “No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States. Williams argued that being tried in identifiable prison clothes gave a perception of guilt and therefore undermined his due process right to be presumed innocent until proven guilty.

In the case of Chapman v. California the court ruled that some mistakes and errors could be made that do not require reversal; the defendants in the case invoked the 5th Amendment privilege against self-incrimination and chose not to testify. They were found guilty, but appealed on the basis that their silence created negative publicity which skewed the views of the jurors and undermined their trial; the court agreed that negative media attention was severe, but concluded that this occurrence had no effect on the outcome of the trial, therefore did not require any modification. However, the court went on to say each case is particular and the stances should be viewed individually; the error would have to be found insignificant to the overall outcome of the trial in order to not be overturned. The court must find the error to be harmless without a doubt in order for the verdict to be considered final. If the appeal happens to be upheld, the defendant can be awarded a retrial. In Hernandez v. Beto, the accused Hernandez appealed to the court for being tried in prison clothes.

Hernandez had not requested to be tried in his civilian clothes and therefore the prosecutor maintains that if there was an error made it was harmless. The District Court referenced Brooks v. Texas and set the precedent that it is implicitly wrong to try a defendant in prison attire when civilian clothing is at hand; the appearance of the prison uniform should not be able to affect the jurors’ decision making, which should be on the hard evidence alone. The judge at Hernandez's trial referenced the decision in Brooks v. Texas and agreed that the situation is applicable to the case at hand; the Court of Appeals however found that since no objection was made by the defendant to wearing prison clothes his appeal for retrial was denied. In Turner v. Louisiana, the appeal allowed the defendant, Turner, to have the decision reversed and remanded. During Turner's three-day trial for murder, the two deputy sheriffs who had custody of the jury and interacted with them during this time were the two main witnesses in his case.

The appeal on a writ of habeas corpus was upheld on the basis that Turner's fourteenth amendment rights were violated because of his right to an impartial jury under due process. The accused Williams went to his former residence to visit a female friend. While there he got into a confrontation with his former landlord in respect to his failed payments. Williams ended up stabbing the landlord multiple times in the abdomen, he was brought up on charges of assault with intent to murder with malice. Williams was unable to post bail and stayed in jail until his court date on October 7, 1975. Williams requested his civilian clothes from a jail guard, he was tried in Harris County and the jury found him guilty. After, he sought for a writ of habeas corpus for being forced to stand trial in prison clothing; the District Court denied relief but the Court of Appeals took up his case, brought in front of the Supreme Court. The Court ruled. While the Court concluded that no person could be compelled to stand trial in prison garb without their consent, wearing jail clothes could be a strategy to obtain sympathy from a jury.

Accordingly, in the absence of a timely objection, there is no error in having a trial where the defendant appears in prison attire. Justice Stevens took no part in the decision of this particular case. Justice Powell said, “‘Courts have required an accused to object to being tried in jail garments, just as he must invoke or abandon other rights.’ Here, ‘he record is clear that no objection was made to the trial judge concerning the jail attire either before or at any time during the trial. This omission plainly did not result from any lack of appreciation of the issue, for respondent had raised the question with the jail attendant prior to trial. At trial, defense counsel expressly referred to respondent’s attire during voir dire; the trial judge was thus informed that respondent’s counsel was conscious of the situation’”. The Court ruled 6-2 that Williams wearing his prison clothes was considered harmless because of a failure to make a timely objection. Williams’ appeal was rejected and a retrial was denied due to his lack of an objection to the judge despite being aware of his appearance.

Justices Powell and Stewart agreed that Williams’ attorney made “an inexcusable procedural default” or “tactical choice” which allowed for Williams’ appearance and therefore was liable on his own accord despite

Rueben Randle

Rueben Jacob Randle is a former American football wide receiver. He was drafted by the New York Giants in the second round of the 2012 NFL Draft, he played college football at Louisiana State University. He has spent time with the Philadelphia Eagles, Chicago Bears and Winnipeg Blue Bombers. Randle attended Bastrop High School in Bastrop, where he played both wide receiver and quarterback in his senior year due to the graduation of quarterback Randall Mackey; that year, Randle connected on 166 of 274 passes for 2,442 yards and 20 touchdowns, while rushing for a team-high 680 yards and 12 more scores. His sophomore year, when Bastrop won the state championship, Randle had 14 catches for 433 yards and seven touchdowns; as a junior, Randle had 55 receptions for 1,058 yards and 11 touchdowns, earning him a Class 4A All-Louisiana designation. Randle earned All-American honors by Parade, USA Today, SuperPrep, was a participant in the 2009 U. S. Army All-American Bowl. In addition to football, Randle participated in basketball and track at Bastrop.

As one of the top-rated prospects in the nation, Randle was a consensus five-star prospect by all major recruiting services. Randle was considered a five-star recruit by, as well as the No. 1 wide receiver prospect and the No. 2 overall prospect in the nation. Randle had numerous scholarship offers, but on February 4, 2009, he committed to Louisiana State University via letter of intent, he considered Alabama, Oklahoma State and Miami. In three seasons at LSU, Randle caught 97 passes for 13 touchdowns; as a junior, he was a first-team All-Southeastern Conference selection by SEC coaches, earned second-team honors from the Associated Press. Following LSU's loss in the 2011 National Championship game vs. Alabama, Randle announced his intention to enter the upcoming NFL draft. On April 27, 2012, Randle was drafted by the New York Giants in the 2nd round of the 2012 NFL Draft. On May 11, Randle signed his rookie contract with the Giants, he totaled 188 receptions for 20 touchdowns in his four-year tenure with the Giants.

On March 23, 2016, Randle signed a one-year contract worth $3 million with the Philadelphia Eagles. He was released on August 28. On January 10, 2017, Randle signed a reserve/future contract with the Chicago Bears. On August 13, 2017, Randle was placed on injured reserve with a hamstring injury, he was released on September 12, 2017. On May 22, 2018 the Winnipeg Blue Bombers of the Canadian Football League announced they had signed Randle to a contract, he was released on June 9. NFL Combine bio LSU Tigers bio

Trochus intextus

Trochus intextus is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Trochidae, the top snails. The size of the shell varies between 30 mm; the thick, solid shell is falsely umbilicate. The outlines of the nearly rectilinear spire are nearly straight with an acute apex; the shell contains about eight whorls. The body whorl is obtusely angulated at the periphery; the sutures are scarcely impressed. The color of the upper surface grayish or corneous white, broadly longitudinally striped with red or purplish, the red sometimes covering the whole surface, sometimes reduced to small maculations or narrow lines; the base of the shell contains narrow zigzag radiating red stripes. The sculpture of the upper surface consists of spiral series of regular separated rounded granules or beads, five or six rows on each whorl. On the periphery and base the granules are smaller. On the base of the shell the rows are more separated, sometimes have minute intercalated beaded lirae. In the interstices.

The aperture is small lirate inside the outer lip. The dentate basal margin is thick; the parietal wall is callous lirate, deep crimson colored. The columella is irregularly 3 or 4 dentate; the umbilical tract contains a heavy white callus inside and is obsoletely spirally bi- or tri-plicate. This marine species occurs off Hawaii. Kiener, Spec. gen. Trochus, t. 87, f. 2. 1850 Kay, E. A. Hawaiian marine shells. Reef and shore fauna of Hawaii. Section 4: Mollusca. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Special Publications, 64, xviii + 1–653. Page: 52 "Trochus intextus". Retrieved 16 January 2019

Ratna Kapur

Ratna Kapur is a law professor and former Director of the Centre for Feminist Legal Research in New Delhi, India. She has a B. A. and M. A. from Cambridge University and an LLM. from Harvard Law School. Professor Kapur is working as a Visiting Professor of Law at the Queen Mary University of London. Prior to this, she was a Professor at Jindal Global Law School in India, she is a Senior Faculty member at the International Global Law and Policy Institute at Harvard Law School. She has worked as a practising lawyer in India and been a visiting Professor at a number of universities around the world, including Yale Law School, NYU School of Law, Georgetown University Law Centre, UN Peace University and the National Law School of India, Bangalore, she has been a visiting fellow at Cambridge University and Harvard University. Ratna Kapur has worked with the United Nations, having served as the Gender Adviser at the United Nations Mission in Nepal, the Organization's special political mission to support Nepal's peace process following a decade-long internal armed conflict.

She has taught and published extensively on human rights, international law, postcolonial theory, legal theory. Kapur serves on the international advisory boards of the academic journals Legal Studies and Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society. Ratna Kapur is a global legal scholar, she has lectured and published on issues of human rights, international law, constitutional law, in particular on secularism, freedom of expression and gender equality and sexual rights around the world. She has written on issues such as Triple Talaq, the right to die, sex work, same-sex marriage, marital rape, sexual harassment, etc. An edited collection entitled Feminist Terrains in Legal Domains: Interdisciplinary Essays on Women and Law She has co-authored Subversive Sites: Feminist Engagements with Law with Brenda Cossman. Erotic Justice: Law and the New Politics of Postcolonialism Makeshift Migrants and Law: Gender and Postcolonial Anxieties Gender and Human Rights: Freedom in a Fishbowl "The -Possibility of Queering International Law", in Dianne Otto, ed. Queering International Human Rights The Colonial Debris of Bandung: Equality and Facilitating the Rise of the Hindu Right" in Luis Eslava, Michael Fakhri and Vasuki Nesiah, eds.

Bandung, Global History and International Law: Critical Pasts and Pending Futures Book Reviews: On Wendy Doniger and Martha Nussbaum, eds. Pluralism and Democracy in India" 31 Journal of Religion and Law 406 Book Review: On Ben Golder and the Politics of Rights,39 University of New South Wales Law Journal 1472 "Precarious Desires and Ungrievable Lives: Human Rights and Postcolonial Critiques of Legal Justice" 3 London Review of International Law 267 "The "Ayodhya" Case: Hindu Majoritarianism and the Right to Religious Liberty" 29 Maryland Journal of International Law 305 "In the Aftermath of Critique We are not in Epistemic Free Fall: Human Rights, the Subaltern Subject, the Non-Liberal Search for Freedom and Happiness" 25 Law and Critique 25–45 "A Leap of Faith: The Construction of Hindu Majoritarianism through Secular Law" 113 South Atlantic Quarterly 109–128. "Brutalized Bodies and Sexy Dressing on the Indian Street" 40 SIGNS: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 1 "Gender and the Rise of a Sexual Security Regime in International Law and Postcolonial India", 14 Melbourne Journal of International Law 1-26 "Hecklers to Power?

The Waning of Liberal Rights and Challenges to Feminism in South Asia" in Ania Loomba and Ritty Lukose, eds. South Asian Feminisms, 333–355 "Emancipatory Feminist Theory in Postcolonial India" in Aakash Rathore Singh and Silika Mohapatra Indian Political Thought: A Reader, 257–268 "De-Radicalizing the Rights Claims of Sexual Subalterns Through'Tolerance'" in Kim Brooks and Robert Leckey, eds. Queer Empire: Comparative Theory, 37–52 "Normalizing Violence: Transnational Justice and the Gujarat Riots" 15:3 Columbia Journal of Gender and Human Rights 885–927 "Human Rights in the 21st Century: Taking a Walk on the Dark Side", 28:4 Sydney Law Review 665–687 "The Tragedy of Victimization: Implications for International Women's Rights and Post-Colonial Feminist Legal Politics", 15 Harvard Human Rights Journal, 1 "The Right to Freedom of Religion and Secularism in the Indian Constitution" in Mark Tushnet and Vicki Jackson, Defining the Field of Comparative Constitutional Law, 199–213 "Secularism's Last Sigh?

Democracy, the Hindu Right and Law in India" 38:1 Harvard International Law Journal