Bushidō is a Japanese collective term for the many codes of honour and ideals that dictated the samurai way of life, loosely analogous to the European concept of chivalry. The "way" originates from the samurai moral values, most stressing some combination of sincerity, loyalty, martial arts mastery, honour until death. Born from Neo-Confucianism during times of peace in the Edo period and following Confucian texts, while being influenced by Shinto and Zen Buddhism, allowing the violent existence of the samurai to be tempered by wisdom and serenity. Bushidō developed between the 16th and 20th centuries, debated by pundits who believed they were building on a legacy dating back to the 10th century, although some scholars have noted that the term bushidō itself is "rarely attested in pre-modern literature". Under the Tokugawa shogunate, some aspects of warrior values became formalized into Japanese feudal law; the word bushidō was first used in Japan during the 17th century in Kōyō Gunkan, but did not come into common usage until after the 1899 publication of Nitobe Inazō's Bushido: The Soul of Japan.
In Bushido, Nitobe wrote: Bushidō is the code of moral principles which the samurai were required or instructed to observe... More it is a code unuttered and unwritten... It was an organic growth of centuries of military career. In order to become a samurai this code has to be mastered. Nitobe was the first to document Japanese chivalry in this way. In Feudal and Modern Japan, historian Arthur May Knapp wrote: The samurai of thirty years ago had behind him a thousand years of training in the law of honor, obedience and self-sacrifice... It was not needed to establish them; as a child he had but to be instructed, as indeed he was from his earliest years, in the etiquette of self-immolation. Many early literary works of Japan talk of warriors, but the term bushidō does not appear in text until the Edo period. From the literature of the 13th to 16th centuries, there exists an abundance of references to military ideals, although none of these should be viewed as early versions of bushidō per se. Carl Steenstrup noted that 13th- and 14th-century writings "portrayed the bushi in their natural element, eulogizing such virtues as reckless bravery, fierce family pride, selfless, at times senseless devotion of master and man".
Compiled over the course of three centuries, beginning in the 1180s, the Heike Monogatari depicts a fictionalized and idealized story of a struggle between two warrior clans, the Minamoto and the Taira, at the end of the 12th century—a conflict known as the Genpei War. Depicted throughout the epic is the ideal of the cultivated warrior; the warriors in the Heike Monogatari served as role models for the educated warriors of generations, although the ideals depicted by them were assumed to be beyond reach. During the early modern era, these ideals were vigorously pursued in the upper echelons of warrior society and recommended as the proper form of the Japanese man of arms; the influence of Shinto, Buddhism and Confucianism in the Bushido's early development instilled among those who live by the code a religious respect for it. Yamaga-Soko, the Japanese philosopher given credit for establishing Bushido, said that "the first and surest means to enter into communion with the Divine is by sincerity."The sayings of Sengoku-period retainers and warlords such as Katō Kiyomasa and Nabeshima Naoshige were recorded or passed down to posterity around the turn of the 16th century when Japan had entered a period of relative peace.
In a handbook addressed to "all samurai, regardless of rank", Katō states: "If a man does not investigate into the matter of bushidō daily, it will be difficult for him to die a brave and manly death. Thus, it is essential to engrave this business of the warrior into one's mind well."Katō was a ferocious warrior who banned recitation of poetry, stating: "One should put forth great effort in matters of learning. One should read books concerning military matters, direct his attention to the virtues of loyalty and filial piety.... Having been born into the house of a warrior, one's intentions should be to grasp the long and the short swords and to die."Naoshige says that it is shameful for any man to die without having risked his life in battle, regardless of rank, that "bushidō is in being crazy to die. Fifty or more could not kill one such a man". However, Naoshige suggests that "everyone should know exertion as it is known in the lower classes". Japan enjoyed a period of relative peace from 1600 to the mid-19th century.
During this period, the samurai class played a central role in the policing and administration of the country. The bushidō literature of this time contains much thought relevant to a warrior class seeking more general application of martial principles and experience in peacetime, as well as reflection on the land's long history of war; the literature of this time includes: Budo Shōshinshu by Taira Shigesuke, Daidōji Yūzan Hagakure as related by Yamamoto Tsunetomo to Tsuramoto Tashiro. Bugei Juhappan A Book of Five Rings by Miyamoto MusashiThe Hagakure contains many sayings attributed to Sengoku-period retainer Nabeshima Naoshige regarding bushidō related philosophy early in the 18th century by Yamamoto Tsunetomo, a former retainer to Naoshige's grandson, Nabeshima Mitsushige; the Hagakure was compiled in the early 18th century, but was kept as a kind of "secret teaching" of the Nabeshima clan until the end of the Tokugawa bakufu. His saying, "I have found the way of the warrior is death", was a summation of the focus on hono
Federação Portuguesa de Atletismo, is the governing body for the sport of athletics in Portugal. The Federação Portuguesa de Atletismo was founded on 5 November 1921, under the name "Federação Portuguesa de Sports Atléticos", it is headquartered in Oeiras. It's an independent sports governing body, of public interest, non-profit, ruled by their own code; the Federação Portuguesa de Atletismo organizes the Portuguese Indoor and Outdoor Athletics Championships. It has 21 regional associations and directing the practice of athletics, in men's and women's. In according with the International Association of Athletics Federations in, a member, it organizes doping tests in official competitions, as outside them, so it can detect doping in athletics. In the Olympic Games, Portugal has won 10 medals at Athletics, including the country's only 4 gold medals. Portugal's kits are supplied by Adidas. IAAF Competitions European Athletics Championships European Athletics Indoor Championships European U23 Championships European Junior Championships European Cross Country Championships European Mountain Running Championships Portuguese records in athletics Portuguese Outdoor Men's Athletics Championship Portuguese Indoor Men's Athletics Championship Portuguese Outdoor Women's Athletics Championship Portuguese Indoor Women's Athletics Championship Federação Portuguesa de Atletismo Associação de Atletismo do Algarve Associação de Atletismo de Aveiro Associação de Atletismo de Beja Associação de Atletismo de Braga Associação de Atletismo de Bragança Associação de Atletismo de Castelo Branco Associação de Atletismo de Coimbra Associação de Atletismo de Évora Associação de Atletismo do Faial Associação de Atletismo da Guarda Associação de Atletismo de Lisboa Associação de Atletismo de Leiria Associação de Atletismo da Madeira Associação de Atletismo de Portalegre Associação de Atletismo do Porto Associação de Atletismo de Santarém Associação de Atletismo de São Miguel Associação de Atletismo de Setúbal Associação de Atletismo de Viana de Castelo Associação de Atletismo de Viseu
Charles Hunt Porter was an American businessman and politician who served as the first mayor of Quincy, Massachusetts. Porter was born on April 1843 in Weymouth, Massachusetts; when he was six weeks old his family moved to Quincy, where he resided for the remainder of his life. He attended grammar and high school in Quincy and engaged in the insurance business until July 1, 1862, when he enlisted in the Union Army. Porter served in the 39th Massachusetts Regiment for three years during the American Civil War, he mustered out as a captain, but was given an honorary commission as a lieutenant colonel. Upon his return from the war, Porter returned to the insurance business with W. Co.. He became a partner of the firm, he served as a director of the Quincy Mutual Fire Insurance Co. a trustee of the Quincy Savings Bank, director/president of the Quincy Water Co. Porter was the president of the Boston Red Stockings of the National League from 1873 through 1874. During his tenure as president, the club made a tour of England.
In 1900, Porter was part of a group that attempted to secure a Boston franchise in the new American League. Porter negotiated a deal for the club to play in Charles River Park in Cambridge and had selected a person to manage the affairs of the team, but his group backed out after the league's backers met with a rival group. Boston would join the American League in 1901 when Cleveland businessman Charles Somers formed what would become the Boston Red Sox. Porter was a member of the Adams Academy's board of management from the school's organization in 1871 until 1888. Porter was a member of the Quincy board of selectmen from 1879 to 1880. From 1881 to 1882 he represented Weymouth in the Massachusetts House of Representatives. In 1888, Porter was elected Mayor of Quincy in the city's first mayoral election. Porter served on Quincy's school committee for seven years and was a member of the inaugural Quincy's park commission. Porter served a member of the state board of health during the governorships of Roger Wolcott and Curtis Guild Jr.
In 1899 he was appointed to the state civil service commission. In 1910 he was appointed by Governor Eben Sumner Draper to serve on a commission that investigated and reported on the care of tuberculosis patients. Porter underwent an operation in the spring of 1910, his health declined afterwards and he died on August 10, 1911 at his home in Quincy
The Ontario Minor Hockey Association is a minor ice hockey governing body in Ontario. The OMHA is sanctioned by the Ontario Hockey Hockey Canada; the OMHA was founded on November 30, 1940, after a merger of the Ontario Juvenile Hockey Association and the Ontario Midget and Bantam Hockey Association, arranged by Jack Roxburgh. The new league began its first season with eight teams, signed an affiliation agreement with the Ontario Hockey Association. There are two "AAA" leagues, the Eastern AAA Hockey League and the South-Central Triple A Hockey League as well as four "AA" leagues in the York-Simcoe AA League, Tri-County AA League, Lakeshore League and the Bluewater League; the OMHA has six "A" leagues in the Bluewater League, Niagara District League, Tri-County A League, York-Simcoe A League and the Lakeshore League. The OMHA has several representative leagues from the BB-E representative classifications such as the Shamrock League, Georgian Bay-Muskoka League, Southern Counties League, Western Ontario Athletic Association, Victoria Durham League and the Eastern Ontario League.
Suzanne M. Bianchi was an American sociologist. Suzanne M. Bianchi was born in Iowa to Rita and Pesho Bianchi, her mother was a housewife and her father was a meat packing plant employee. Bianchi is the oldest of six children, she and her husband had three children. After graduating valedictorian from her high school, Bianchi was the first in her family to go to college and earned her B. A. in Sociology from Creighton University, her M. A. from University of Notre Dame, her Ph. D from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, she began her career as a demographer for the U. S. Census Bureau, where she remained until 1994 she joined the faculty at the University of Maryland, where she chaired the university’s sociology department and directed the Maryland Population Research Center. In 2000 she served as President of the Population Association of America. In 2009 she moved to UCLA. Among her main fields of study she focused on working mothers and analyzing changes in American family life during the last decades.
She researched women's employment, how husbands and wives divide housework and time with children, how women take care of their children and parents. Bianchi died from pancreatic cancer on November 4, 2013, aged 61, her daughter Jennifer said of her mother, "She was much aware of the constraints of juggling career and motherhood. She lived as well as researched it." Bianchi made many major contributions with her use of "time diaries". She was the co-author of many books. One of her co-authors, Judith Selzer, said of her, "She always identified puzzles in the social world and tried to solve them by rigorous empirical studies." Feminization of poverty Occupational segregation Time-use research Work–family balance in the United States "List of books by Suzanne M. Bianchi". Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved April 7, 2015
The Hans India is an English-language daily newspaper being published from Hyderabad, Telangana. It has presence in the Indian States of Andhra Pradesh; the newspaper was founded in 2011 and belongs to Hyderabad Media House, which owns Telugu-language news channel HMTV. The editor of the daily is V Ramu Sarma The columnists include some leading journalists Madabhushi Sridhar, IYR Krishna Rao, Dr Bharat Jhunjhunwala, Krishnasaagar Rao, Mohan Kanda, Nilotpal Basu, Dr Suman Kumar Kasturi, Prof Viyyanna Rao, Dr Padmaja Shaw, Pallavi Ghosh; the news paper publishes editions from Delhi, Warangal, Nizamabad in Telangana and Visakhapatnam, Rajahmundry and Tirupati from Andhra Pradesh. The Hans India is an English daily newspaper, one of the largest circulated English newspaper in Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, India. According to a readership survey in 2013-2014, The Hans India ranks No. 4 among the English dailies in Telangana and AP states with a total readership of 150,000. Official site Epaper