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Business jet

A business jet, private jet, or bizjet is a jet aircraft designed for transporting small groups of people. Business jets may be adapted for other roles, such as the evacuation of casualties or express parcel deliveries, some are used by public bodies, government officials or the armed forces; the Lockheed JetStar, seating ten passengers and two crew, first flew on 4 September 1957. A total of 204 aircraft were produced from 1957 to 1978 powered by several different engines; the smaller, 17,760 pounds MTOW North American Sabreliner first flew on 16 September 1958. Powered by two Pratt & Whitney JT12 turbojet engines Garrett TFE731s, more than 800 were produced from 1959 to 1982; the 25,000 pounds MTOW British Aerospace 125 first flew on 13 August 1962 as the de Havilland DH.125, powered by two 3,000 pounds-force Armstrong Siddeley Viper turbojets. Its engines were replaced by Garrett TFE731s Pratt & Whitney Canada PW300 turbofans. 1,700 aircraft of all variants, including the Hawker 800, were produced between 1962 and 2013.

The Aero Commander 1121 Jet Commander, which became the IAI Westwind, first flew on 27 January 1963, powered by two General Electric CJ610 turbojets Garrett TFE731s. Production of Jet Commanders and Westwinds from 1965 to 1987 came to 442 aircraft; the 29,000 pounds MOTW Dassault Falcon 20 first flew on 4 May 1963, powered by two General Electric CF700s Garrett ATF3 turbofans and Garrett TFE731s. A total of 508 were built from 1963 to 1988, it is the basis of the Dassault Falcon family; the first light jet first flew on 7 October 1963: the Learjet 23. Powered by two 2,850 pounds-force General Electric CJ610s, its 12,500 pounds MTOW complies with FAR Part 23 regulations; the first member of the Learjet family, 104 were built between 1962 and 1966. The forward wing sweep, 20,280 pounds MOTW Hamburger Flugzeugbau HFB 320 Hansa Jet first flew on 21 April 1964, powered by two General Electric CJ610s; the joint Piaggo-Douglas, 18,000 pounds MOTW Piaggio PD.808 first flew on 29 August 1964, powered by two Armstrong Siddeley Vipers, 24 were built for the Italian Air Force.

On 2 October 1966 the first large business jet first flew, the 65,500 pounds MTOW Grumman Gulfstream II, powered by two 11,400 pounds-force Rolls-Royce Spey turbofans. From 1967 to the late 70s, 258 were built and it led to the ongoing Gulfstream Aerospace long range family; the 11,850 pounds MTOW Cessna Citation I first flew on 15 September 1969, powered by two 2,200 pounds-force Pratt & Whitney Canada JT15D turbofans. Produced between 1969 and 1985 for a total of 689 examples, it is the first of the Cessna Citation family; the trijet Dassault Falcon 50 made its first flight on 7 November 1976. The 40,000 pounds MTOW airplane is powered by three 3,700 pounds-force TFE731 engines. With the cross-section of the Falcon 20, it is the basis of the larger Falcon 900. On 8 November 1978, the prototype Canadair Challenger took off; the 43,000–48,000 pounds MTOW craft powered by two 9,200 pounds-force General Electric CF34s, formed the basis of the long range Bombardier Global Express family and of the Bombardier CRJ regional airliners.

The 1000th Challenger entered service in 2015. On 30 May 1979 the clean-sheet 22,000 pounds MTOW Cessna Citation III took off for the first time, powered by two 3,650 pounds-force TFE731s; the Mitsubishi MU-300 Diamond made its first flight on 29 August 1978. The 16,100 pounds MTOW jet was powered by two 2,900 pounds-force JT15D; the design was sold and was renamed Beechjet 400 Hawker 400, with a total of 950 produced of all variants. The 1980s only saw the introduction of no major new designs. There was an advent of fractional ownership in the late 1980s for business jets; the first flight of the clean-sheet Learjet 45 was on 7 October 1995. All of the 642 aircraft built since have been powered by two 3,500 pounds-force TFE731 engines. Powered by two 2,300 pounds-force Williams FJ44s, the 12,500 pounds Beechcraft Premier I light jet made its first flight on 22 December 1998. Nearly 300 had been made before production stopped in 2013. In the opposite way compared to Bombardier, which developed airliners from a business jet, Embraer derived the Legacy 600 from the Embraer ERJ family of regional jet airliners.

Powered by two 8,800 pounds-force Rolls-Royce AE 3007s, the first flight of the 50,000 pounds aircraft was on 31 March 2001. On 14 August 2001, the Bombardier Challenger 300 made its first flight; the 38,850 pounds aircraft is powered by two 6,825 pounds-force HTF7000s. The 500th example was delivered in 2015; the first light jet, the 5,950 pounds MTOW Eclipse 500, took off for the first time on 26 August 2002, powered by two 900 pounds-force Pratt & Whitney Canada PW600s. Between and the end of production in 2008, 260 were produced, it was followed by the 8,645 pounds MTOW Cessna Citation Mustang on 23 April 2005, powered by two 1,460 pounds-force Pratt & Whitney Canada PW600s and with more than 450 produced. The Embraer Phenom 100 made its maiden flight on 26 July 2007; the 10,500 pounds MTOW airplane is powered by two 1,600 pounds-force Whitney Canada PW600s. With its Phenom 300 development, nearly 600 have been built; the first flight of the midsize, fly-by-wire, 7,000 lbf Honeywell HTF700

Catocala praeclara

Catocala praeclara, the praeclara underwing, is a moth of the family Erebidae. It is found from Nova Scotia west to south-eastern Alberta, south to Florida and Kansas; the wingspan is 38–50 mm. Adults are on wing from August to September in one generation depending on the location; the larvae feed on Amelanchier, Crataegus species, Photinia species. Catocala praeclara praeclara Catocala praeclara manitoba Beutenmüller, 1908 Catocala praeclara charlottae Brou, 1988 Anweiler, G. G.. Entomology Collection. University of Alberta E. H. Strickland Entomological Museum. Retrieved February 19, 2019. Species info

Lago di Doberdò

Lake Doberdò is the name of a sinkhole in the Province of Gorizia, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy. It is located on the westernmost edge of the Karst plateau, close to the border with Slovenia, it is named after the village of Doberdò. It has an area of 0.36 km², depending on the time of year, it is located around 2 km southwest of the village of Doberdò, not far from the Adriatic coast. The water is filtered through various ponors, it is connected with the springs feeding the Timavo River, which are located a few kilometers southeast; the depth varies from 5 to 10 m. The lake is largest in autumn, when it is 1.2 km long and 350 m wide. During the frequent drought periods, the lake completely disappears, becoming a marsh-like area