Butte is the county seat of Silver Bow County, United States. In 1977, the city and county governments consolidated to form the sole entity of Butte-Silver Bow; the city covers 718 square miles, according to the 2010 census, has a population of 33,503, making it Montana's fifth largest city. It is served by Bert Mooney Airport with airport code BTM. Established in 1864 as a mining camp in the northern Rocky Mountains on the Continental Divide, Butte experienced rapid development in the late-nineteenth century, was Montana's first major industrial city. In its heyday between the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, it was one of the largest copper boomtowns in the American West. Employment opportunities in the mines attracted surges of Asian and European immigrants the Irish. Butte was the site of various historical events involving its mining industry and active labor unions and Socialist politics, the most famous of, the labor riot of 1914. Despite the dominance of the Anaconda Copper Mining Company, Butte was never a company town.
Other major events in the city's history include the 1917 Speculator Mine disaster, the largest hard rock mining disaster in world history. Over the course of its history, Butte's mining and smelting operations generated an excess of $48 billion worth of ore, but resulted in numerous environmental implications for the city: The upper Clark Fork River, with headwaters at Butte, is the largest Superfund site in the United States, the city is home to the Berkeley Pit. In the late-twentieth century, cleanup efforts from the EPA were instated, the Butte Citizens Technical Environmental Committee was established in 1984. In the 21st century, efforts at interpreting and preserving Butte's heritage are addressing both the town's historical significance and the continuing importance of mining to its economy and culture; the city's Uptown Historic District, on the National Register of Historic Places, is one of the largest National Historic Landmark Districts in the United States, containing nearly 6,000 contributing properties.
The city is home to Montana Tech, a public engineering and technical university. Prior to Butte's formal establishment in 1864, the area consisted of a mining camp that had developed in the early 1860s; the city is located in the Silver Bow Creek Valley, a natural bowl sitting high in the Rockies straddling the Continental Divide, positioned on the southwestern side of a large mass of granite known as the Boulder Batholith, which dates to the Cretaceous era. In 1874, William L. Farlin founded the Asteroid Mine; the mines attracted workers from Cornwall, Wales, Canada, Austria, China, Montenegro and more. In the ethnic neighborhoods, young men formed gangs to protect their territory and socialize into adult life, including the Irish of Dublin Gulch, the Eastern Europeans of the McQueen Addition, the Italians of Meaderville. Among the migrants, many Chinese workers moved in, amongst them set up businesses that led to the creation of a Chinatown in Butte; the Chinese migrations stopped in 1882 with the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act.
There was anti-Chinese sentiment in the 1870s and onwards due to racism on the part of the white settlers, exacerbated by economic depression, in 1895, the chamber of commerce and labor unions started a boycott of Chinese owned businesses. The business owners fought back by winning; the history of the Chinese migrants in Butte is documented in the Mai Wah Museum. The influx of miners gave Butte a reputation as a wide-open town; the city's saloon and red-light district, called the "Line" or "The Copper Block", was centered on Mercury Street, where the elegant bordellos included the famous Dumas Brothel. Behind the brothel was the famous Venus Alley, where women plied their trade in small cubicles called "cribs." The red-light district brought miners and other men from all over the region and remained open until 1982 after the closure of the Dumas Brothel. Commercial breweries first opened in Butte in the 1870s, were a large staple of the city's early economy; the breweries were always staffed by union workers.
Most ethnic groups in Butte, from Germans and Irish to Italians and various Eastern Europeans, including children, enjoyed the locally brewed lagers and other types of beer. In the late nineteenth century, copper was in great demand because of new technologies such as electric power that required the use of copper. Four industrial magnates fought for control of Butte's mining wealth; these four "Copper Kings" were William A. Clark, Marcus Daly, F. Augustus Heinze, James A. Murray; the Anaconda Copper Mining Company began in 1881 when Marcus Daly bought a small mine named the Anaconda. He was a part-owner, mine manager and engineer of the Alice, a silver mine in Walkerville, a suburb of Butte. While working in the Alice, he noticed significant quantities of high grade copper ore. Daly obtained permission to inspect nearby workings. After Daly's employers, the Walker Brothers, refused to buy the Anaconda, Daly sold his interest in the Alice and bought it himself. Daly asked San Francisco mining magnate, for additional support.
Hearst agreed to buy one-fourth of the new company's stock without visiting the site. Whi
Lindenwold Castle known at the Mattison Estate, is the former personal estate in Ambler, United States of asbestos magnate Richard Van Zeelust Mattison of the Keasbey and Mattison Company. It was designed by Milton Bean and built in 1890; the estate was once 400 acres. In 1912, it sustained a partial remodel to resemble Windsor Castle, with Mattison commissioning Italian stonemasons and German craftsmen to create its regal iron gates. Mattison lived in the castle with his second wife, for more than 20 years; when the Great Depression hit in 1929, Mattison was forced to sell the property and move into smaller accommodations. The transaction took place in 1936 upon Mattison's death. By the once-400-acre estate had been reduced to 50 acres. In 1966, the estate was used for exterior shots for the movie The Trouble With Angels, which starred Rosalind Russell and Hayley Mills; as of 2012, the castle retained original elements such as s stairwell bordered by stained glass, gilded wallpapered ceilings, carved marble fireplaces.
As of November 2013, the estate was still being used by the Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth to care for "85 abused and neglected youths between the ages of 13 and 18, who receive residential care and special education along with an outpatient program for mental health services." However, an "agreement of sale" was in the works with a realty business owner named Leonard Poncia. Ponica subsequently sold off the its two gatehouses; the buyer, Peter Monaghann leased one of the houses to a tenant and began renovating the second. Groups of concerned citizens began social media updates forming the Facebook groups "The Concerned Neighbors of the St. Mary's Villa – Ambler, PA," and "Residents for Open Space at Lindenwold Estate," whose respective missions are to "keep neighbors and interested parties informed of the on-going land development process for the St. Mary's Villa, a.k.a Lindenwold Castle, in Ambler, PA" and "to prevent the loss of open space and historic resources at Lindenwold Estate for the benefit of the community and future generations."
On November 7, 2014, the United States Department of Interior issue a letter which determined the property eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. Plans, began to emerge about a mixed-use development on the property, which began raising concerns about many issues, including increased, unwanted traffic to the area and the degradation of the area's open space; some parties expressed interest in preserving the property as open space park land and using the building as an art gallery or events space. As of November 2017, the site was still being discussed as part of a mixed-use development that would preserve parts of the historical property while infringing on other attributes of it, like a two-acre lake that will be reduced in size, it came to light that the Upper Dublin Planning Commission "gave the green light for a large portion of the estate to be developed by the Goldenberg Group which partnered with Guidi Homes to build 104 new carriage house and villa-inspired homes" on the property.
Leonard Ponica "sold another portion of the property to a joint venture of South Bay Partners Inc. Lamb Properties LLC, Sage Senior Living to build a luxury senior living complex with over 250 units." The senior living complex was proposed to include "independent living, assisted living, a memory unit" with "an indoor pool, fitness center, yoga studio, two movie theaters, a dog wash and dog run, art studio, multiple indoor and outdoor dining venues and lounges, barbecue grills, fire pits, a putting green."On January 16, 2019, made effective January 25, 2019, the Lindenwold Residential Associates LLC, a limited liability company became bound to uphold the terms of a deed of preservation easement granted to the Preservation Alliance for Greater Philadelphia, a not-for-profit "qualified conservation organization," which would be, in effect, the body charged with stewardship over the historic property. Citizens continued to raise concerns about the property's fate, from those about increased traffic to those about the degradation of the historic estate's landscaping.
The Goldenberg Group "promis to plant 1,600 new trees. The same month, more details emerged about the new construction, including that the senior living facility would include "156 independent living units, 62 assisted living units and 32 memory care units."
Stretch is the ninth studio album by the American solo artist Scott Walker. It was unsuccessful on the music charts. No singles were released from the album, it was Walker's first solo album for CBS/Columbia records after departing from Philips Records. The majority of the songs recorded for the album were covers of old songs, some of which were by songwriters Walker had covered before such as Randy Newman and Jimmy Webb; the one new song "Someone Who Cared" was written by Del Newman. The album was recorded in 1973 at Marble Arch, London. Receiving negative reviews from critics the album was released as an LP in November 1973; the album was reissued and released on CD in 1997 by BGO Records coupled with Walker's tenth studio album 1974's We Had It All. Stretch received negative reviews from the majority of critics