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Butter

Butter is a dairy product made from the fat and protein components of milk or cream. It is a semi-solid emulsion at room temperature, consisting of 80% butterfat, it is used at room temperature as a spread, melted as a condiment, used as an ingredient in baking, sauce making, pan frying, other cooking procedures. Most made from cow's milk, butter can be manufactured from the milk of other mammals, including sheep, goats and yaks, it is made by churning cream to separate the fat globules from the buttermilk. Salt and food colorings are sometimes added to butter. Rendering butter, removing the water and milk solids, produces clarified butter or ghee, entirely butterfat. Butter is a water-in-oil emulsion resulting from an inversion of the cream, where the milk proteins are the emulsifiers. Butter remains a firm solid when refrigerated, but softens to a spreadable consistency at room temperature, melts to a thin liquid consistency at 32 to 35 °C; the density of butter is 911 grams per litre. It has a pale yellow color, but varies from deep yellow to nearly white.

Its natural, unmodified color is dependent on the source animal's feed and genetics, but the commercial manufacturing process manipulates the color with food colorings like annatto or carotene. The word butter derives from the Latin butyrum, the latinisation of the Greek βούτυρον; this may be a compound of βοῦς, "ox, cow" + τυρός, "cheese", "cow-cheese". The word turos is attested in Mycenaean Greek; the unlatinized form is found in the name butyric acid, a compound found in rancid butter and dairy products such as Parmesan cheese. In general use, the term "butter" refers to the spread dairy product when unqualified by other descriptors; the word is used to describe puréed vegetable or seed and nut products such as peanut butter and almond butter. It is applied to spread fruit products such as apple butter. Fats such as cocoa butter and shea butter that remain solid at room temperature are known as "butters". Non-dairy items that have a dairy-butter consistency may use "butter" to call that consistency to mind, including food items such as maple butter and witch's butter and nonfood items such as baby bottom butter, hyena butter, rock butter.

Unhomogenized milk and cream contain butterfat in microscopic globules. These globules are surrounded by membranes made of phospholipids and proteins, which prevent the fat in milk from pooling together into a single mass. Butter is produced by agitating cream, which damages these membranes and allows the milk fats to conjoin, separating from the other parts of the cream. Variations in the production method will create butters with different consistencies due to the butterfat composition in the finished product. Butter contains fat in three separate forms: free butterfat, butterfat crystals, undamaged fat globules. In the finished product, different proportions of these forms result in different consistencies within the butter. Churning produces small butter grains floating in the water-based portion of the cream; this watery liquid is called buttermilk—although the buttermilk most common today is instead a directly fermented skimmed milk. The buttermilk is drained off; the grains are "worked": pressed and kneaded together.

When prepared manually, this is done using wooden boards called scotch hands. This consolidates the butter into a solid mass and breaks up embedded pockets of buttermilk or water into tiny droplets. Commercial butter is about 15 % water. Butterfat is a mixture of triglyceride, a triester derived from glycerol and three of any of several fatty acid groups. Butter becomes rancid when these chains break down into smaller components, like butyric acid and diacetyl; the density of butter is about the same as ice. In some countries, butter is given a grade before commercial distribution. Before modern factory butter making, cream was collected from several milkings and was therefore several days old and somewhat fermented by the time it was made into butter. Butter made from a fermented cream is known as cultured butter. During fermentation, the cream sours as bacteria convert milk sugars into lactic acid; the fermentation process produces additional aroma compounds, including diacetyl, which makes for a fuller-flavored and more "buttery" tasting product.

Today, cultured butter is made from pasteurized cream whose fermentation is produced by the introduction of Lactococcus and Leuconostoc bacteria. Another method for producing cultured butter, developed in the early 1970s, is to produce butter from fresh cream and incorporate bacterial cultures and lactic acid. Using this method, the cultured butter flavor grows. For manufacturers, this method is more efficient, since aging the cream used to make butter takes more space than storing the finished butter product. A method to make an artificial simulation of cultured butter is to add lactic acid and flavor compounds directly to the fresh-cream butter. Dairy products are pasteurized during production to kill pathogenic bacteria and other microbes. Butter made from pasteurized fresh cream is called sweet cream butter. Production of sweet cream butter first became com

Federal University of Southern Bahia

The Federal University of Southern Bahia is a public institution of higher education in Brazil. UFSB was created by law 12.818/2013, signed by the president of Brazil, Dilma Rousseff. It started academic activities in September 2014. UFSB has 1610 students enrroled. UFSB has three campuses: Itabuna - Jorge Amado Campus Porto Seguro - Sosígenes Costa Campus Teixeira de Freitas - Paulo Freire Campus The curricular organization in Cycles considers steps and stages of learning and development; the Cycle System offers forms to students to gain more independence on their course, with diversity and autonomy on their own curriculum. The Cycles ensures a better preparation, in function of a progressive conception of learning. In addition, the Cycles architecture puts UFSB in compatibility with organization forms used worldwide; the formation cycle at UFSB is configured this manner: First Cycle: Interdisciplinary Bachelors and Interdisciplinary Licenciate. Second Cycle: Professional and academic graduation.

Third Cycle: including medical residency and doctorate degrees, among other credits. UFSB website

Sense & Sensitivity

"Sense & Sensitivity" is episode 6 of season 1 in the television show Angel. Written by Tim Minear and directed by James A. Contner, it was broadcast on November 9, 1999 on the WB network. In this episode, Kate arrests mobster and murder suspect, Little Tony Papazian, whose Wolfram & Hart lawyer coerces Kate's department into attending sensitivity training; this causes the entire precinct to become unglued, allowing Papazian and the other inmates to escape from their cells. When Little Tony attempts to kill Kate, Angel – rendered overly sensitive by the curse – comes to her rescue. Detective Kate Lockley struggles unsuccessfully to locate mob boss Anthony Papazian known as "Little Tony." She offers Angel the job of finding Little Tony. He agrees, she instructs him to withdraw to safety after he calls her with Little Tony's location because she doesn't want to get him killed. Kate’s father, Trevor Lockley, comes to the police station; this is a surprise to Kate. Both uncomfortable, she tells him she'll say a few words at his retirement party his friends are throwing at The Blue Bar in a few days.

Angel's phone call interrupts their conversation. Though Kate told him to get out of there, Angel sees a yacht coming to pick up Little Tony and takes matters into his own hands, he pretends to be a tourist who thinks the boat is going to Catalina takes out Little Tony's two goons just in time for the police to arrive and catch Little Tony before he takes off. Kate lectures Angel for not leaving when she told him to though Papazian was getting away. Papazian's Wolfram & Hart lawyer, Lee Mercer, comes to the station and petitions to have Little Tony transferred to another facility, claiming that his client was mistreated and abused by the police and by an "as yet unnamed assailant" working with Kate. Meanwhile, at Angel Investigations, Cordelia congratulates Angel on completing such a straightforward job, but Angel thinks Little Tony is planning something. Doyle reports. Kate heads to The Blue Bar after work, where a number of fellow officers and her father congratulate her on apprehending Little Tony.

Not long after, her co-worker Harlan comes by their table to show her a memo about a mandatory "sensitivity training" seminar that they are all required to attend because of the way she treated Little Tony. The next day at the station, the seminar begins. Allen Lloyd meets with Lee Mercer and reports their plan will yield results after just one more session. Meanwhile, Angel interrogates Allen. Running into the precinct, Kate calls forlornly for her father, no longer there stares around at her coworkers, all pacing, shouting, weeping. Kind-hearted Heath, wishing to establish parity among the inmates, lets them all loose. Cops all around are demonstrating signs of their newfound sensitivity with muggers, fender benders, more. Cordelia and Doyle meet Angel outside the precinct when, sensing their distress about the situation, Angel smiles a big smile, holds open his arms and sing-songs, "O-ka-ay, I think someone needs a hu-ug," and embraces them both. Having been cursed by the talking stick when Allen hit him with it, he refuses to follow Cordelia's order to "get all vampy" to rescue Kate because he knows it makes them uncomfortable.

As the three of them try to get into the locked station, Kate waits for a response to the messages she's left on her father’s answering machine, begging him to talk to her. Out of his cell, Little Tony breaks into the precinct armory. Just as he finds Kate, the AI team arrives. While Angel and Kate try to "reach" Little Tony and Doyle urge Angel to stop talking and fight. Little Tony calls Mercer, who tells him that the Senior Partners will no longer represent his interests due to "more pressing matters" that the firm must attend to. While they talk, Mercer views a precinct surveillance tape and freezes it on Angel, unmistakable in his black leather coat. At the precinct the next morning, the cops resume their taciturnity with a vengeance. Angel checks in with Kate, they both say that they don't remember much about events of the night before. Trevor walks away and Kate sits in her chair, holding herself stiffly against the pain; this is the second episode written by Tim Minear - his first script, "Somnambulist," went into production in the season.

Minear says his original idea was of cops who become so sensitive that they were unable to perform their jobs, but after discussing the idea with creator Joss Whedon, it became "something far more interesting than what I had pitched," Minear says. "Instead of just super sensitive cops, you have people whose emotions are on the surface."The final scene, in which Kate and her father meet, Minear wrote as a "big TV ending where they hug." Whedon suggested. "If it had gone the other way," Minear says, "I think. That’s Joss knowing best." Writer Tim Minear regrets the actor they cast in the role of mobster Little Tony, saying although John Capodice was "very good", the character was "clichéd...a Sopranos knock off." This episode is the first appearance of Kate's father, Trever Lockley Doyle's growing attraction to Cordelia comes out in the open between them when Kate singsongs, "Someone's got a cru-ush." Despite her instant defensive remark, "We just joke around," Cordelia appears to consider Doyle and his feelings for the first time.

Lee Mercer's