Henry III of England
Henry III, known as Henry of Winchester, was King of England, Lord of Ireland and Duke of Aquitaine from 1216 until his death. The son of King John and Isabella of Angoulême, Henry assumed the throne when he was nine in the middle of the First Barons War. Cardinal Guala declared the war against the barons to be a religious crusade and Henrys forces, led by William Marshal, defeated the rebels at the battles of Lincoln. Henry promised to abide by the Great Charter of 1225, which limited royal power and his early rule was dominated first by Hubert de Burgh and Peter des Roches, who re-established royal authority after the war. In 1230 the King attempted to reconquer the provinces of France that had belonged to his father. A revolt led by William Marshals son, broke out in 1232, following the revolt, Henry ruled England personally, rather than governing through senior ministers. He travelled less than previous monarchs, investing heavily in a handful of his palaces and castles. He married Eleanor of Provence, with whom he had five children, in a fresh attempt to reclaim his familys lands in France, he invaded Poitou in 1242, leading to the disastrous Battle of Taillebourg.
After this, Henry relied on diplomacy, cultivating an alliance with Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. Henry supported his brother Richard in his bid to become King of the Romans in 1256 and he planned to go on crusade to the Levant, but was prevented from doing so by rebellions in Gascony. The baronial regime collapsed but Henry was unable to reform a stable government, in 1263 one of the more radical barons, Simon de Montfort, seized power, resulting in the Second Barons War. Henry persuaded Louis to support his cause and mobilised an army, the Battle of Lewes occurred in 1264, where Henry was defeated and taken prisoner. Henrys eldest son, escaped captivity to defeat de Montfort at the Battle of Evesham the following year. Henry initially enacted a harsh revenge on the rebels, but was persuaded by the Church to mollify his policies through the Dictum of Kenilworth. Reconstruction was slow and Henry had to acquiesce to various measures, including suppression of the Jews, to maintain baronial.
Henry died in 1272, leaving Edward as his successor and he was buried in Westminster Abbey, which he had rebuilt in the second half of his reign, and was moved to his current tomb in 1290. Some miracles were declared after his death but he was not canonised, Henry was born in Winchester Castle on 1 October 1207. He was the eldest son of King John and Isabella of Angoulême, little is known of Henrys early life
Edmund Spenser was an English poet best known for The Faerie Queene, an epic poem and fantastical allegory celebrating the Tudor dynasty and Elizabeth I. He is recognized as one of the craftsmen of nascent Modern English verse. He was deeply affected by Irish faerie mythology, which he knew from his home at Kilcolman and his genocidal tracts against Gaelic culture were war propaganda. His house was burned to the ground during the war, causing him to flee Ireland, Edmund Spenser was born in East Smithfield, around the year 1552, though there is some ambiguity as to the exact date of his birth. As a young boy, he was educated in London at the Merchant Taylors School, while at Cambridge he became a friend of Gabriel Harvey and consulted him, despite their differing views on poetry. In 1578, he became for a time secretary to John Young. In 1579, he published The Shepheardes Calender and around the time married his first wife. They had two children and Katherine, in July 1580, Spenser went to Ireland in service of the newly appointed Lord Deputy, Arthur Grey, 14th Baron Grey de Wilton.
Spenser served under Lord Gray with Walter Raleigh at the Siege of Smerwick massacre, when Lord Grey was recalled to England, Spenser stayed on in Ireland, having acquired other official posts and lands in the Munster Plantation. Raleigh acquired other nearby Munster estates confiscated in the Second Desmond Rebellion, some time between 1587 and 1589, Spenser acquired his main estate at Kilcolman, near Doneraile in North Cork. He bought a second holding to the south, at Rennie and its ruins are still visible today. A short distance away grew a tree, locally known as Spensers Oak until it was destroyed in a strike in the 1960s. Local legend has it that he penned some of The Faerie Queene under this tree. In 1590, Spenser brought out the first three books of his most famous work, The Faerie Queene, having travelled to London to publish and promote the work and he was successful enough to obtain a life pension of £50 a year from the Queen. By 1594, Spensers first wife had died, and in that year he married Elizabeth Boyle, the marriage itself was celebrated in Epithalamion.
They had a son named Peregrine, in 1596, Spenser wrote a prose pamphlet titled A View of the Present State of Ireland. This piece, in the form of a dialogue, circulated in manuscript and it is probable that it was kept out of print during the authors lifetime because of its inflammatory content. The pamphlet argued that Ireland would never be totally pacified by the English until its indigenous language and customs had been destroyed, in 1598, during the Nine Years War, Spenser was driven from his home by the native Irish forces of Aodh Ó Néill
Castletownroche is a townland and civil parish in the barony of Fermoy, County Cork, Ireland. It is located on the N72 National secondary road, in ancient times, it was known in Irish as Dún Chruadha, meaning Cruadhas Fort. Castletownroche is located on the River Awbeg in the Blackwater Valley about eight miles from Mallow, the first historical record about Castletownroche is from the late 13th century when the Anglo-Norman family of de la Roche established a fortress here. They were descendants of Richard FitzGodebert who came with Strongbow to Ireland and their family had a castle in Pembrokeshire that was built upon an outcrop of stone and they became known as FitzGodebert de la Roch. From that, their Hiberno-Norman descendants were known as de la Roch and finally and it is from this element, and the castle they built here in County Cork, that Castletownroche gets its name. After centuries of conflict, the Roches were routed from their castle. In 1666 Lieutenant Colonel John Widenham, who had lived in County Clare, in 1666 Lieutenant Colonel John Widenham, who had lived in County Clare, and whose conduct in the defence of Cork had been doubtful to say the least, got the castle as reward.
The extraordinary thing is that the patent was dated 1666 after the restoration and was in respect of arrears due and he died in 1679 and the estate passed to his brother Thomas. The Widenhams rebuilt the Roches medieval castle in its present form, in time it passed to the Widenham-Creaghs, and by marriage to H. Mitchell Smyth, one of the Smyths of Ballinatray. The Nordstrom family of Germany, the owners since 1991 of what is now what they call Blackwater Castle are unrelated to this line, the property has recently been restored to accommodate commercial guests. The direct line of Widenham’s still live in Éire, with the patriarchs Richard Charles Widenham Smyth and his wife Brigid Sidney Lowry Smyth living in Leap, while the Garda were deciding what to do with him, he was left in the care of the Barrack Orderly. William Mannix, the son of officer, wrote the following account, I was a very young boy at the time. Oskar Metzke was sitting quietly by the fireplace, when he asked Garda Mannix if he could eat some of his bread, on receiving permission, he walked over to the table where it lay.
He started to eat his meal, turned his back on the Garda. Within a matter of minutes Metzke was dead. the subsequent inquest Coroner Nagle of Buttevant revealed that Oskar Metzke had taken a deadly poison, cyanide of potassium. Some days later, the funeral of Oskar Metzke took place to the old churchyard of St Marys, many people from the village attended the simple ceremony. Some years his body was exhumed and subsequently buried in a German cemetery at Glencree in County Wicklow and it has since been confirmed that the Nazis had several secret plans involving Ireland, such as Operation Osprey. However, the identity and motives of the man calling himself Oskar Metzke
Cahirmee Horse Fair
Cahirmee Horse Fair is an event frequented by the travelling community held on 12 July every year in the town of Buttevant, County Cork, Ireland. The ancient horse fair was held at the Fair Field of Cahirmee. In 1921 it was transferred into the town and is held in the month of July each year. It is an occasion like no other, many of the horse traded on the day go on to countries of varied locations. M. P. Linehan in My Heart Remembers How notes the following, Cahirmee fair has a history and it was part of the ancient parish of Cahirduggan in the still more ancient Barony of Fermuighe. I have pointed out that a few miles to the north-east is Rossach, was Cahirmee the stone fort of these same kings and is mee in Cahirmee the same word as moy in Fermoy. Duggan is supposed to have been a descendant of Mogh Ruith. ODuggan held that kingship until he was ousted from it by the Eoganacht OKeeffes, did Cahirmee Fair begin in the halcyon day when the victims of the bloody contest of Cnocanaar were laid to rest on the brow overlooking the valley of the Awbeg.
It would be plausible to give an affirmative answer, perhaps that answer will be verified some day when our archaeologists will dig into and examine Mees Cahir. It would be interesting, if one could, to trace the history of many of the young colts, one at least of them has achieved immortality, for he served as the throne from which a great captain-general brought a continent to his feet. He is the white charger Marengo, which Napoleon is shown as riding in Meissoniers masterpiece The Retreat from Moscow, the Duke of Wellingtons horse at the Battle of Waterloo, an Irish black named Copenhagen, was purchased at Cahirmee. The tradition of excellence continues in the person of Vincent OBrien olim of Clashganiv, Churchtown. Denis A. Cronin, Irish Fairs and Markets, Studies in Local History, Four Courts Press, Dublin 2001
Glanworth is a village on the R512 regional road,8 km northwest of the town of Fermoy in County Cork, Ireland. It lies approximately 40 km northeast of the city of Cork, the administrative centre. The combined population of Glanworth East and Glanworth West in 2006 was 1,316, Glanworth has a Roman Catholic church, a school, several shops, and ten pubs. The village is known as The Harbour. This stems from the ninth century invasion of Vikings, who sailed inland as far as the monastery in Glanworth, the village was sacked and some of the women were taken back to Scandinavia as saltwives. A cry of come on the harbour is often heard at sporting events. The 13th-century Glanworth Castle was built beside the River Funcheon by the Condon family, the keep and the castle wall remain. The castle is now used mainly as a public walk, Glanworth Abbey was built in the 13th century next to the castle by the Dominican order, the priory was desecrated in the 16th century. The priorys gable tracery window, now restored, was part of the Protestant church.
Glanworth mill is located along the banks of the River Funcheon, built during the 1840 as part of a famine relief scheme it is the last remaining reverse undershot water wheel in Ireland. The Labbacallee wedge tomb is located 1.5 miles from Glanworth and is the largest wedge tomb in Ireland, built in the mid-17th century, Glanworth Bridge is a narrow 13-arch bridge, and one of the oldest remaining examples in the region. Glanworth railway station opened on 23 March 1891, closed for passenger and goods traffic on 27 January 1947, Glanworth is still accessible by road and because of its historical status as a town it is the convergence point of many minor roads. The town has mens and womens GAA Gaelic Athletic Association teams with a tradition in Gaelic football, in November 2009 they won the Cork Junior A football championship for the third time in their history, defeating Ballygarvan. In 2011 and 2012 they won the under 21A North Cork Football Championship and it has the 105th Scouting Troop, and a soccer club with two teams, Glanworth United and Glanworth Celtic.
Several scenes from the 1999 Bob Hoskins film Felicias Journey were shot on location in Glanworth, List of towns and villages in Ireland List of abbeys and priories in Ireland
Munster is one of the provinces of Ireland situated in the south of Ireland. In early Ireland, it was one of the fifths ruled by a king of over-kings Irish, following the Norman invasion of Ireland, the ancient kingdoms were shired into counties for administrative and judicial purposes. In centuries, local government legislation has seen further sub-division of the historic counties, Munster has no official function for local government purposes. For the purposes of the ISO, the province is listed as one of the provincial sub-divisions of the State, Munster covers a total area of 24,675 km2 and has a population of 1,246,088 with the most populated city being Cork. Other significant urban centres in the province include Limerick and Waterford, in the early centuries AD, Munster was the domain of the Iverni peoples and the Clanna Dedad familial line, led by Cú Roí and to whom the king Conaire Mór belonged. In the 5th century, Saint Patrick spent several years in the area and founded Christian churches, during the Early Middle Ages, most of the area was part of the Kingdom of Munster, ruled by the Eóganachta dynasty.
Prior to this, the area was ruled by the Dáirine and Corcu Loígde overlords from the early 7th century onwards, rulers from the Eóganachta who would dominate a greater part of Ireland were Cathal mac Finguine and Feidlimid mac Cremthanin. Notable regional kingdoms and lordships of Early Medieval Munster were Iarmuman, Osraige, Uí Liatháin, Uí Fidgenti, Éile, Múscraige, Ciarraige Luachra, Corcu Duibne, Corcu Baiscinn, around this period Ossory broke away from Munster. The 10th century saw the rise of the Dalcassian clan, who had earlier annexed Thomond and their leaders were the ancestors of the OBrien dynasty and spawned Brian Boru, perhaps the most noted High King of Ireland, and several of whose descendants were High Kings. By 1118 Munster had fractured into the Kingdom of Thomond under the OBriens, the Kingdom of Desmond under the MacCarthy dynasty, the three crowns of the flag of Munster represent these three late kingdoms. The OBrien of Thomond and MacCarthy of Desmond surrendered and regranted sovereignty to the Tudors in 1543 and 1565, the impactful Desmond Rebellions, led by the FitzGeralds, soon followed.
By the mid-19th century much of the area was hit hard in the Great Famine, the province was affected by events in the Irish War of Independence in the early 20th century, and there was a brief Munster Republic during the Irish Civil War. The Irish leaders Michael Collins and earlier Daniel OConnell came from families of the old Gaelic Munster gentry, noted for its traditions in Irish folk music, and with many ancient castles and monasteries in the province, Munster is a tourist destination. During the fifth century, St. Patrick spent seven years founding churches and ordaining priests in Munster, but a fifth century bishop named Ailbe is the patron saint of Munster. In Irish mythology, a number of goddesses are associated with the province including Anann, Áine, Grian, Clíodhna, Aimend, Mór Muman, Bébinn, Aibell. Each is historically associated with certain septs of the nobility, the druid-god of Munster is Mug Ruith. The province has long had trading and cultural links with continental Europe, the tribe of Corcu Loígde had a trading fleet active along the French Atlantic coast, as far south as Gascony, importing wine to Munster.
The Eóganachta had ecclesiastical ties with Germany, which show in the architecture of their capital at the Rock of Cashel
De Barry family
The de Barry family is a noble family of Cambro-Norman origins which held extensive land holdings in Wales and Ireland. The founder of the family was a Norman Knight, Odo, as reward for his military services, Odo was granted estates in Pembrokeshire and around Barry, including Barry Island just off the coast and named after the 6th century Saint Baruc. From hence a noble family, of the parts of South Wales, who owned this island. Many family members assisted in the Norman invasion of Ireland. Odo de Barry was the grantee of the manor of Manorbier in Pembrokeshire. He built the first motte-and-bailey at Manorbier and his son, William FitzOdo de Barry, is the common ancestor of the Barry family in Ireland. He rebuilt Manorbier Castle in stone and the family retained the lordship of Manorbier until the 15th century and he had sons, Philip and Gerald by Angharad daughter of Gerald de Windsor and Nest ferch Rhys. After Geralds death, Nests sons married her to Stephen, her husbands constable of Cardigan Castle, Robert de Barry accompanied his half-uncle Robert Fitz-Stephen in the Norman invasion of Ireland.
He took part in the Siege of Wexford and was killed at the battle of Lismore in 1185, the latter cantred, variously called Muscry-donnegan or ODonegans country or Múscraighe Tri Maighe, was a rural deanery in the Diocese of Cloyne. It is now identified as the barony of Orrery and Kilmore, the name Olethan is an anglicisation of the Gaelic Uí Liatháin which refers to the early medieval kingdom of the Uí Liatháin. This petty kingdom encompassed most of the present Barony of Barrymore, the name Killyde survives in Killeady Hills, the name of the hill country south of the city of Cork. These cantreds or baronies had been expropriated by another first cousin, Ralph Fitz-Stephen, Robert Fitz-Stephen eventually ceded these territories to Philip de Barry, his half-nephew. In 1181, King Henry II of England ennobled Robert de Barry as Baron Barry of Olethan, in 1267, King Henry II of England appointed Lord David de Barry as Chief Justice of Ireland. In 1385, King Richard II of England raised John Barry to the viscountcy as Viscount Buttevant, in 1627, King Charles I of England elevated David Barry as Earl of Barrymore.
Barryscourt Castle near Carrigtwohill was the seat of the Barry family from the 12th century until 1617 when they removed to Barrymore Castle in Castlelyons, in 1771, the 7th Earl saw Barrymore Castle burn to the ground. The family fortunes were subsequently dissipatated by his issue, the 7th and 8th Earls, the name of the town of Buttevant is believed to derive from the familys battle cry - Boutez-en-Avant, roughly translating as Kick your way through. The most prominent Gaelic neighbours of the de Barrys were the MacCarthy Reagh dynasty, for the most part, with not a great many exceptions, the two families kept on good terms, and regularly intermarried. The de Barrys are descended from several of the MacCarthy Reagh princes through their daughters, likewise the Barrys intermarried with the powerful MacCarthys of Muskerry
Annals of the Four Masters
The Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland or the Annals of the Four Masters are chronicles of medieval Irish history. The entries span from the Deluge, dated as 2,242 years after creation to AD1616, due to the criticisms of Tuileagna Ó Maol Chonaire, the text was not published in the lifetime of any of the participants. The annals are mainly a compilation of annals, although there is some original work. They were compiled between 1632 and 1636 at a Franciscan friary near the Drowes river, now in County Leitrim, the patron of the project was Fearghal Ó Gadhra, M. P. a Gaelic lord in Coolavin, County Sligo. Although only one of the authors, Mícheál Ó Cléirigh, was a Franciscan friar, they known as The Four Friars or in the original Irish. The Anglicized version of this was The Four Masters, the name became associated with the annals themselves. The annals are written in Irish, the several manuscript copies are held at Trinity College Dublin, the Royal Irish Academy, University College Dublin and the National Library of Ireland.
The first substantial English translation was published by Owen Connellan in 1846, the Connellan translation included the annals from the eleventh to the seventeenth centuries. The only version to have a frontispiece, it included a large folding map showing the location of families in Ireland. This edition, neglected for over 150 years, was republished in the early twenty-first century, the original Connellan translation was followed several years by a full translation by the historian John ODonovan. The translation was funded by a government grant of £1,000 obtained by the notable mathematician Sir William Rowan Hamilton while he was president of the Royal Irish Academy, the Annals are one of the principal Irish-language sources for Irish history up to 1616. While many of the chapters are essentially a list of names and dates. Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland by the Four Masters, from the earliest period to the year 1616, edited from MSS in the Library of the Royal Irish Academy and of Trinity College Dublin with a translation and copious notes.
The Annals are available from CELT in Irish and in English translation, the Annals of the Four Masters, Irish History and Society in the Early Seventeenth Century. Cunningham, Bernadette, ed. ODonnell Histories and the Annals of the Four Masters, Rathmullan & District Local Historical Society. The Irish Annals, Their Genesis and History, the autograph manuscripts of the Annals of the Four Masters. The Slane manuscript of the Annals of the Four Masters, ríocht na Mídhe, Journal of the County Meath Historical Society. Irish Script On Screen — The ISOS project at the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies has high-resolution digital images of the Royal Irish Academys copy of the Annals
Limerick is a city in county Limerick, Ireland. It is located in the Mid-West Region and is part of the province of Munster. Limerick City and County Council is the authority for the city. The city lies on the River Shannon, with the core of the city located on Kings Island, which is bounded by the Shannon. Limerick is located at the head of the Shannon Estuary where the river widens before it flows into the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 95,854, Limerick is the third most populous area in the state. There are 102,161 people living in the Limerick City Metropolitan District, on 1 June 2014 following the merger of Limerick City and County Council a new Metropolitan District of Limerick was formed within the united council which extended the city area. The Metropolitan District includes the city area and extends outwards towards Patrickswell in the west. The City Metropolitan Area however excludes city suburbs located within County Clare, when included this increases the overall city and metropolitan area by a further 5,000 with a combined total population of 107,161.
Limerick is one of the constituent cities of the Cork–Limerick–Galway corridor which has a population of 1 million people and it is located at a strategic position on the River Shannon with four main crossing points near the city centre. To the south of the city is the Golden Vale, an area of rich pastureland, much of the citys industry was based on this rich agricultural hinterland and it is particularly noted for Limerick Ham. Luimneach originally referred to the area along the banks of the Shannon Estuary known as Loch Luimnigh. The earliest settlement in the city, Inis Sibhtonn, was the name for Kings Island during the pre-Viking and Viking eras. This island was called Inis an Ghaill Duibh, The Dark- Foreigners Island, the name is recorded in Viking sources as Hlymrekr. Antiquitys map-maker, produced in 150 the earliest map of Ireland, history records an important battle involving Cormac mac Airt in 221 and a visit by St. Patrick in 434 to baptise an Eóganachta king, Carthann the Fair. Saint Munchin, the first bishop of Limerick died in 652, in 812 the Vikings sailed up the Shannon and pillaged the city, burned the monastery of Mungret but were forced to flee when the Irish attacked and killed many of their number.
The Normans redesigned the city in the 12th century and added much of the most notable architecture, such as King Johns Castle, one of the kingdoms most notable kings was Brian Boru, ancestor of the OBrien Clan of Dalcassians. The word Thomond is synonymous with the region and is retained in place such as Thomondgate
County Cork is the largest and southernmost county of Ireland. It lies in the province of Munster and is named after the city of Cork, Cork County Council is the local authority for the county. Its largest settlements are Cork City and Carrigaline, in 2016, the countys population was 542,196, making it the third most populous county in Ireland. There are two local authorities whose remit collectively encompasses the area of the county and city of Cork. The county, excluding Cork city, is administered by Cork County Council, both city and county are part of the South-West Region. For standardized European statistical purposes both Cork County Council and Cork City Council rank equally as first-level local administrative units of the NUTS3 South-West Region, there are 34 such LAU1 entities in the Republic of Ireland. For elections to Dáil Éireann, the county is divided into five constituencies—Cork East, Cork North–Central, Cork North–West, Cork South–Central, together they return 19 deputies to the Dáil.
The county is part of the South constituency for the purposes of European elections, for purposes other than local government, such as the formation of sporting teams, the term County Cork is often taken to include both city and county. County Cork is located in the province of Munster and it borders four other counties, Kerry to the west, Limerick to the north, Tipperary to the north-east and Waterford to the east. Cork is the largest county in the state by land area and it is the largest of Munsters 6 counties by both population and area. The population of Cork city stood at 125,622 in 2016, the population of the entire county is 542,196 making it the states second most populous county and the third most populous county on the island of Ireland. The remit of Cork County Council includes some suburbs of the city not within the area of Cork City Council, there are 24 historic baronies in the county—the most of any county in Ireland. While baronies continue to be officially defined units, they are no longer used for administrative purposes.
Their official status is illustrated by Placenames Orders made since 2003, there are 253 civil parishes in the county. Townlands are the smallest officially defined geographical divisions in Ireland, there are approximately 5447 townlands in the county, the Shehy Mountains are on the border with Kerry and may be accessed from the area known as Priests Leap, near the village of Coomhola. The Galtee Mountains are located across parts of Tipperary, the upland areas of the Ballyhoura, Boggeragh and the Mullaghareirk Mountain ranges add to the range of habitats found in the county. Important habitats in the uplands include blanket bog, glacial lakes, Cork has the 13th highest county peak in Ireland. The three great rivers, the Bandon, the Blackwater and the Lee, and their valleys dominate central Cork, habitats of the valleys and floodplains include woodlands, marshes and species-rich limestone grasslands
James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormond
Following the failure of the senior line of the Butler family, he was the second of the Kilcash branch to inherit the earldom. His friend, the 1st Earl of Strafford, caused him to be appointed the commander of the Cavalier forces in Ireland, from 1641 to 1647, he led the fighting against the Irish Catholic Confederation. From 1649 to 1650 he was the commander of the Royalist forces in the fight against the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland. In the 1650s he lived in exile in Europe with King Charles II of England, upon the restoration of Charles to the throne in 1660, Ormonde became a major figure in English and Irish politics, holding many high government offices. James Butler was the eldest son of Thomas Butler, Viscount Thurles and of Elizabeth, Lady Thurles and his sister Elizabeth married Nicholas Purcell, 13th Baron of Loughmoe. Jamess paternal grandfather was Walter Butler, 11th Earl of Ormond and he was born at Clerkenwell, London,19 October 1610, in the house of his maternal grandfather, Sir John Poyntz.
Shortly after his birth, his parents returned to Ireland, the Butlers of Ormonde were an Old English dynasty who had dominated the southeast of Ireland since the Middle Ages. Upon the shipwreck and death of his father in 1619, the lad was by courtesy styled Viscount Thurles. It was not long before James I of England, anxious that the heir of the Butlers should be brought up a Protestant, placed him at Lambeth, under the care of George Abbot, archbishop of Canterbury. The Ormond estates being under sequestration the young Lord had but £40 a year for his own and his servants clothing and he appears to have been entirely neglected by the Archbishop — he was not instructed even in humanity, nor so much as taught to understand Latin. When fifteen he went to live with his grandfather at Drury-lane who through length of his confinement and his age, was grown very infirm. This was very important for Butlers future life, as it meant that, unlike almost all his relatives in the Butler dynasty, having now more means at command, he entered into all the gaieties of the court and town.
It was during his London residence that he set himself to learn Irish, Charles I gave his consent by letters patent, on 8 September 1629. At Christmas 1629, they married putting an end to the quarrel between the families and united their estates. In 1634, on the death of his grandfather, he succeeded to the earldom, ormonds active career began in 1633 with the appointment as head of government in Ireland of Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford, by whom Ormonde was treated with great favour. Writing to Charles I, Wentworth described Ormonde as young, but take it from me, Ormonde became Wentworths chief friend and supporter. Wentworth planned large scale confiscations of Catholic-owned land, both to money for the crown and to break the political power of the Irish Catholic gentry. Yet, it infuriated his relatives, and drove many of them into opposition to Wentworth, in 1640, with Wentworth having been recalled to attend to the Second Bishops War in England, Ormonde was made commander-in-chief of the forces in Ireland
Peadar Ua Laoghaire
He was born in the parish of Clondrohid, County Cork, and grew up speaking Munster Irish in the Muskerry Gaeltacht. He was a descendant of the Carrignacurra branch of the Ó Laoire of the ancient Corcu Loígde and he attended St Patricks College and was ordained a priest of the Roman Catholic Church in 1867. He became a parish priest in Castlelyons in 1891, and it was there that he wrote his most famous story, Séadna, Séadna was the first major literary work of the emerging Gaelic revival. It was serialised in the Gaelic Journal from 1894, and published in form in 1904. The plot of the story concerns a deal that the shoemaker Séadna struck with the Dark Man, although the story is rooted in the folklore the writer heard from shanachies by the fire during his youth, it is closely related to the German legend of Faust. It was first published as a serial in various Irish-language magazines, apart from Séadna, Ua Laoghaoire wrote an autobiography called Mo Sgéal Féin, published by Norma Borthwicks Irish Book Company.
Peadar Ua Laoghaire became known for his support for caint na ndaoine, – but little things that come repeatedly into conversation. A taut mode of expression, as against one that is lax, makes for finish in speech, in the same manner, a lax mode of expression as against the taut, makes for speech that is deficient. Besides, the taut speech possesses a force and a vigour that cannot be contained in speech that is falling apart. The loose mode of expression is prominent in Gaelic today and English is nothing else. Accordingly, he strongly promoted Cork Irish as what he saw as the best Irish for propagation among the Irish people and he died in Castlelyons at the age of 80. The following is a partial list of his works, cómhairle ár leasa, articles published in the Leader Mo shlighe chun Dé, leabhar urnaighthe An article listing 487 of Ua Laoghaires articles and works was published in Celtica in 1954. This page includes material translated from the article at the Irish Wikipedia as of 2007-10-07