Elk Hills Oil Field
The Elk Hills Oil Field is a large oil field in northwestern Kern County, in the Elk Hills of the San Joaquin Valley, California in the United States, about 20 miles west of Bakersfield. Discovered in 1911, having a cumulative production of close to 1.3 billion barrels of oil at the end of 2006, it is the fifth-largest oil field in California, the seventh-most productive field in the United States. Its estimated remaining reserves, as of the end of 2006, were around 107 million barrels, it had 2,387 active oil-producing wells, it is by an order of magnitude the largest natural gas-producing oil field in California, having produced over 2 trillion cubic feet of gas since its discovery, retaining over 700 billion cubic feet in reserve, making it larger than the Rio Vista Gas Field, the largest non-associated natural gas field in the state. The principal operator of the field is California Resources Corporation, a November 2014 spinoff from Occidental Petroleum; the oil field underlies the Elk Hills, a range of low hills trending west to east with a high elevation of 1,551 feet.
To the north and southeast are the agricultural fields of the San Joaquin Valley, to the southwest is the Buena Vista Valley. Across that valley is the town of Taft, the enormous Midway-Sunset Oil Field, the largest in California. West of the Elk Hills is the large McKittrick Oil Field, northwest is the larger Cymric Oil Field. Although the Elk Hills is only one field of many in a region of oil fields, it is geographically distinct because its boundaries correspond with the shape of the hills that give it its name. Skyline Road, closed to public entry, follows the long axis of the field, it goes east, following the crest of the hills. Perpendicular to this road, about halfway down its length, is Elk Hills Road, which connects the town of Taft to the south with Buttonwillow to the north. Two guarded gates to the California Resources Corporation operations, 3 and 4, make up the intersection with Skyline Road on the summit of the range. Overall, the oil field is 14 miles long following the crestline of the hills, 4 miles across at the widest point.
It encompasses 21,170 acres considered productive, or about 33 square miles. The Elk Hills Oil Field has a complex stratigraphy compared to other nearby fields, many of which are a single large pool in a simple structural trap. Thirteen separate oil pools have been identified so far in the Elk Hills Field, in rock units ranging in age from Oligocene to Pleistocene; the shallowest formation, the Tulare, was the first in which oil was found, at 1,120 feet below ground surface, the deepest, the Oligocene portion of the Temblor containing the Agua Pool at a depth of 9,500 feet, was not found until 1977. Associated Oil Company discovered the field in June 1911, with the drilling of their "Well No. 1," to a depth of 4,030 feet. The official "discovery" well, was drilled by the Standard Oil Company in January, 1919. By 1912 the field's capacity was considered to be significant enough that President William Howard Taft, concerned about the long-term availability of petroleum for the U. S. Navy, designated the region as the nation's first Naval Petroleum Reserve.
The dusty Elk Hills have a prominent role in U. S. political history, for it was the lease of this land by Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall, to Pan American Petroleum in 1922 in return for personal loans at no interest, that brought on the Teapot Dome scandal which ruined the reputation of the administration of Warren G. Harding, now considered to be one of the most corrupt in U. S. history. In 1927 the U. S. Supreme Court invalidated the lease, returned the Elk Hills to the U. S. government. The oil field went untapped, held as a reserve, until the mid-1970s, when Congress passed the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act in response to the 1973-1974 Arab Oil Embargo. In 1976 the Ford Administration opened the lands for production again. NPR-1, operated by Williams Brothers Engineering Company, reached peak production in 1981, pumping 42 million barrels of oil out of the Stevens Pool in that year alone. A drive to privatize some government lands during the mid-1990s succeeded in 1997 with the sale of the reserve to Occidental Petroleum, the highest bidder.
Occidental has been the principal operator since then. Current reserves are claimed to be either 106.554 million barrels of oil or 484 million barrels of oil equivalent, according to Occidental Petroleum. Occidental Petroleum announced in 2009 that it had made a major discovery of oil and natural gas in Kern County, calling it the largest onshore California oil and gas discovery in 35 years. Although Occidental declined to divulge the location, state records show that Occidental has been drilling wells to depths of 10 to 12 thousand feet at the northwest end of Elk Hills Field, between Elk Hills and Railroad Gap Field. Occidental estimated the new find to contain 150 million barrels of oil equivalent, of which about one-third is oil. California Resources Corporation, a spinoff from Occidental Petroleum, acquired Elk Hills Oil Field as its largest acquisition in April 2018, acquired the remaining surface and mineral rights to the field from Chevron; the oil neststraw, a rare flowering plant endemic to the Elk Hills area, wa
Motel 6 is an American privately-owned hospitality company with a chain of budget motels in the United States and Canada. Motel 6 operates Studio 6, a chain of extended-stay hotels; the hotel brand is owned by The Blackstone Group, which established G6 Hospitality as the management company for Motel 6 and Studio 6. Motel 6 was founded in Santa Barbara, California, in 1962, by two local building contractors, William Becker and Paul Greene; the partners developed a plan to build motels with rooms at bargain rates. They decided on a $6.00 room rate per night that would cover building costs, land leases, janitorial supplies. Becker and Greene had specialized in building low-cost housing developments, they wanted to provide an alternative to other major hotel chains, such as Holiday Inn, whose locations were becoming upscale in quality and price in the 1960s, after starting out with a budget-oriented concept. Becker and Greene spent two years formulating their business model and searched for ways to cut costs as much as possible.
During the chain's early years, Motel 6 emphasized itself as a "no-frills" lodging chain with rooms featuring coin-operated black-and-white television receivers instead of the free color televisions found in the more expensive motels, along with functional interior decor, to reduce the time it took to clean the rooms. The first location in Santa Barbara had no restaurant on-site, a notable difference from other hotels of the era; as the 1960s progressed, the Motel 6 idea became popular in the lodging industry, other chains began to imitate the concept, as Motel 6 was beginning to take a small share of the market away from the traditional hotels. In 1965 Motel 6 opened its 15th property, first location outside California, in downtown Salt Lake City, Utah. Realizing the need to move Becker and Green set out on an ambitious expansion program and had opened its 25th location in Gilroy, California, by 1966; the occupancy rate by was about 85 percent, well above the industry average, as a result of their success, Motel 6 became an attractive acquisition target.
Becker and Greene sold the chain to an investment group in 1968. In the early 1970s Motel 6 opened Motel 6 Tropicana, in Las Vegas, Nevada. Additionally, the chain moved east and opened a location in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, in 1972. By 1980 Motel 6 had reached 300 locations, it was sold to Kohlberg Kravis Roberts in 1985, who moved the chain away from its "no frills" approach and began including amenities such as telephones and color television. Market share declined throughout the 1980s, in part because of increased competition from other budget hotels. During this time, it bought out the Sixpence Inn chain in the western U. S. and Envoy Inn in the Midwestern United States and Pennsylvania. Regal 8 Motels were acquired in 1991. In 1990, the company was bought by the French-based Accor. In 1993, it opened its first high-rise location -- Motel 6 LAX in California. Unlike the majority of hotel chains, Motel 6 directly operates most of its locations. However, to expand more outside its traditional Western United States base, the chain started franchising in 1994.
Accor management took over motels, franchised by other chains. Motel 6 began to renovate all bedrooms, sold under-performing locations, upgraded door locks and other security measures. Newer properties, as well as acquisitions, have interior corridors, its competitors include America's Best Value Inn, Days Inn, Econo Lodge, Super 8 Motels. In 1999, Motel 6 launched Studio 6 Extended Stay, hotels with suites that are designed for longer stays and feature kitchenettes. In 2000 Motel 6 went international by opening its first location outside the U. S. in Burlington, Canada. In 2002 Motel 6 celebrated its 40th anniversary at its first location in Santa Barbara, California. In 2006, Accor and Motel 6 invested more than $6 million in properties to help rebuild New Orleans and Gulfport following Hurricane Katrina. One of the Motel 6 co-founders, William Becker, died of a heart attack at the age of 85 the next year. In October 2012, Accor Hotels concluded the sale of the Motel 6 chain to The Blackstone Group for $1.9 billion.
In September 2017, immigration attorneys accused Motel 6 desk clerks at two locations in the area of Phoenix, Arizona of notifying U. S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement when guests checked in with identification from Mexico; the attorneys said that court records showed that federal immigration agents arrested at least 20 people the Motel 6 locations over the course of seven months in 2017. Motel 6 said that the practice was "implemented at the local level without the knowledge of senior management" and every location had been given a directive that they were "prohibited from voluntarily providing daily guest lists to ICE." Additionally, Washington state filed a lawsuit in January 2018 against Motel 6 for giving the names of thousands of motel guests to U. S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement officers. On April 24, 2018 the American Customer Satisfaction Index published a study of America's most popular hotel chains, placing G6 Hospitality's Motel 6 at the bottom of the category for the second year in a row.
On November 2, 2018, Plaintiffs sued Motel 6 for unlawfully providing guest information to ICE settled a proposed class action against Motel 6 for $7.6 million. In April 2019, Motel 6 agreed to pay $12 million to settle the lawsuit. Many Motel 6 locations charge customers for wireless internet access $3 per night for basic access and $5 per night for premium high bandwidth service suitable f
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Bakersfield is a city in and the county seat of Kern County, United States. It covers about 151 sq mi near the southern end of the San Joaquin Valley and the Central Valley region. Bakersfield's population is around 380,000, making it the 9th-most populous city in California and the 52nd-most populous city in the nation; the Bakersfield–Delano Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Kern County, had a 2010 census population of 839,631, making it the 62nd-largest metropolitan area in the United States. The more built-up urban area that includes Bakersfield and areas around the city, such as East Bakersfield and Rosedale, has a population of over 520,000. Bakersfield is a charter city; the city is a significant hub for both oil production. Kern County is the most productive oil-producing county and the fourth-most productive agricultural county in the United States. Industries include natural gas and other energy extraction, mining, petroleum refining, distribution, food processing, corporate regional offices.
The city is the birthplace of the country music genre known as the Bakersfield sound. Archaeological evidence indicates the presence of Native American settlements dating back thousands of years; the Yokuts lived in lodges along the branches of the Kern River delta and hunted antelope, tule elk, bear and game birds. In 1776, Spanish missionary Father Francisco Garcés became the first European to explore the area. Owing to the remoteness and inaccessibility of the region, the Yokuts remained isolated until after the Mexican War of Independence, when Mexican settlers began to migrate to the area. Following the discovery of gold in California in 1848, settlers flooded into the San Joaquin Valley. In 1851, gold was discovered along the Kern River in the southern Sierra Nevada, in 1865, oil was discovered in the valley; the Bakersfield area, once a tule reed-covered marshland, was first known as Kern Island to the handful of pioneers, who built log cabins there in 1860. The area was subject to periodic flooding from the Kern River, which occupied what is now the downtown area, experienced outbreaks of malaria.
In 1862, disastrous floods swept away the original settlement founded in 1860 by the German-born Christian Bohna. Among those attracted to the area by the California gold rush was Thomas Baker, a lawyer and former colonel in the militia of Ohio, his home state. Baker moved to the banks of the Kern River in 1863, at what became known as Baker's Field, which became a stopover for travelers. By 1870, with a population of 600, what is now known as Bakersfield was becoming the principal town in Kern County. In 1873, Bakersfield was incorporated as a city, by 1874, it replaced the dying town of Havilah as the county seat. Alexander Mills was hired as the city marshal, a man one historian would describe as "... an old man by the time he became Marshal of Bakersfield, he walked with a cane. But he was a Kentuckian, a handy man with a gun, not lacking in initiative and resource when the mood moved him." Businessmen and others began to resent Mills, cantankerous and high-handed in his treatment of them.
Wanting to fire him but fearing reprisals, they came up with a scheme to disincorporate leaving him without an employer. According to local historian Gilbert Gia the city was failing to collect the taxes it needed for services. In 1876, the city voted to disincorporate. For the next 22 years, a citizen's council managed the community. By 1880, the town had a population of 801, by 1890, it had a population of 2,626. Migration from Texas, Louisiana and Southern California brought new residents, who were employed by the oil industry; the city reincorporated on January 11, 1898. On July 21, 1952, an earthquake struck at 4:52 am Pacific Daylight Time; the earthquake, which measured 7.5 on the moment magnitude scale and was felt from San Francisco to the Mexican border, destroyed the nearby communities of Tehachapi and Arvin. The earthquake's destructive force bent cotton fields into U shapes, slid a shoulder of the Tehachapi Mountains across all four lanes of the Ridge Route, collapsed a water tower creating a flash flood, destroyed the railroad tunnels in the mountain chain.
Bakersfield was spared. A large aftershock occurred on July 29, did minor architectural damage, but raised fears that the flow of the Friant-Kern Canal could be dangerously altered flooding the city and surrounding areas. Aftershocks, for the next month, had become normal to Bakersfield residents until, on August 22 at 3:42 pm, a 5.8 earthquake struck directly under the town's center in the most densely populated area of the southern San Joaquin Valley. Four people died in the aftershock, some of the town's historic structures sustained heavy damage. Between 1970 and 2010, Bakersfield grew 400%, making it one of the fastest-growing cities in California. Bakersfield's close proximity to mountain passes the Tejon Pass on Interstate 5 between the Los Angeles metropolis and the central San Joaquin Valley, has made the city a regional transportation hub. In 1990, Bakersfield was one of 10 U. S. communities to receive the All-America City Award from the National Civic League. In 2010, the Bakersfield MSA had a gross metropolitan product of $29.466 billion, making it the 73rd-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Bakersfield lies near the southern "horseshoe" end of the San Joaquin Valley, with the southern tip of the Sierra Nevada just to the east. The city limits extend to the Sequoia National Forest, at the foot of the Greenhorn Mountain Range and at the en
California Historical Landmark
California Historical Landmarks are buildings, sites, or places in the U. S. state of California that have been determined to have statewide historical landmark significance. Historical significance is determined by meeting at least one of the criteria listed below: The first, only, or most significant of its type in the state or within a large geographic region. California Historical Landmarks of number 770 and above are automatically listed in the California Register of Historical Resources. By contrast, a site, feature, or event, of local significance may be designated as a California Point of Historical Interest. List of California Historical Landmarks by county National Historic Sites National Register of Historic Places listings in California Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument List of San Francisco Designated Landmarks Johnson, Marael. Why Stop? A Guide to California Roadside Historical Markers. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Company. P. 213. ISBN 9780884159230. OCLC 32168093. Official OHP—California Office of Historic Preservation website OHP: California Historical Sites searchpage — links to lists by county
Electric power transmission
Electric power transmission is the bulk movement of electrical energy from a generating site, such as a power plant, to an electrical substation. The interconnected lines which facilitate this movement are known as a transmission network; this is distinct from the local wiring between high-voltage substations and customers, referred to as electric power distribution. The combined transmission and distribution network is known as the "power grid" in North America, or just "the grid". In the United Kingdom, Myanmar and New Zealand, the network is known as the "National Grid". A wide area synchronous grid known as an "interconnection" in North America, directly connects a large number of generators delivering AC power with the same relative frequency to a large number of consumers. For example, there are four major interconnections in North America. In Europe one large grid connects most of continental Europe. Transmission and distribution lines were owned by the same company, but starting in the 1990s, many countries have liberalized the regulation of the electricity market in ways that have led to the separation of the electricity transmission business from the distribution business.
Most transmission lines are high-voltage three-phase alternating current, although single phase AC is sometimes used in railway electrification systems. High-voltage direct-current technology is used for greater efficiency over long distances. HVDC technology is used in submarine power cables, in the interchange of power between grids that are not mutually synchronized. HVDC links are used to stabilize large power distribution networks where sudden new loads, or blackouts, in one part of a network can result in synchronization problems and cascading failures. Electricity is transmitted at high voltages to reduce the energy loss which occurs in long-distance transmission. Power is transmitted through overhead power lines. Underground power transmission has a higher installation cost and greater operational limitations, but reduced maintenance costs. Underground transmission is sometimes used in environmentally sensitive locations. A lack of electrical energy storage facilities in transmission systems leads to a key limitation.
Electrical energy must be generated at the same rate. A sophisticated control system is required to ensure that the power generation closely matches the demand. If the demand for power exceeds supply, the imbalance can cause generation plant and transmission equipment to automatically disconnect or shut down to prevent damage. In the worst case, this may lead to a cascading series of a major regional blackout. Examples include the US Northeast blackouts of 1965, 1977, 2003, major blackouts in other US regions in 1996 and 2011. Electric transmission networks are interconnected into regional and continent wide networks to reduce the risk of such a failure by providing multiple redundant, alternative routes for power to flow should such shut downs occur. Transmission companies determine the maximum reliable capacity of each line to ensure that spare capacity is available in the event of a failure in another part of the network. High-voltage overhead conductors are not covered by insulation; the conductor material is nearly always an aluminum alloy, made into several strands and reinforced with steel strands.
Copper was sometimes used for overhead transmission, but aluminum is lighter, yields only marginally reduced performance and costs much less. Overhead conductors are a commodity supplied by several companies worldwide. Improved conductor material and shapes are used to allow increased capacity and modernize transmission circuits. Conductor sizes range from 12 mm2 with varying resistance and current-carrying capacity. For normal AC lines thicker wires would lead to a small increase in capacity due to the skin effect; because of this current limitation, multiple parallel cables are used when higher capacity is needed. Bundle conductors are used at high voltages to reduce energy loss caused by corona discharge. Today, transmission-level voltages are considered to be 110 kV and above. Lower voltages, such as 66 kV and 33 kV, are considered subtransmission voltages, but are used on long lines with light loads. Voltages less than 33 kV are used for distribution. Voltages above 765 kV are considered extra high voltage and require different designs compared to equipment used at lower voltages.
Since overhead transmission wires depend on air for insulation, the design of these lines requires minimum clearances to be observed to maintain safety. Adverse weather conditions, such as high wind and low temperatures, can lead to power outages. Wind speeds as low as 23 knots can permit conductors to encroach operating clearances, resulting in a flashover and loss of supply. Oscillatory motion of the physical line can be termed gallop or flutter depending on the frequency and amplitude of oscillation. Electric power can be transmitted by underground power cables instead of overhead power lines. Underground cables take up less right-of-way than overhead lines, have lower visibility, are less affected by bad weather. However, costs of insulated cable and excavation are much higher
Subway is an American held fast food restaurant franchise that sells submarine sandwiches and salads. Subway is one of the fastest-growing franchises in the world and, as of June 2017, had 42,000 stores located in more than 100 countries. More than half of the stores are located in the United States, it is the largest single-brand restaurant chain, the largest restaurant operator, in the world. As of 2017, the Subway Group of companies was organized as follows: Subway IP Inc. is the owner of the intellectual property for the restaurant system. Franchise World Headquarters, LLC leads franchising operations. FWH Technologies, LLC licenses Subway's point of sale software. Franchisors include Doctor's Associates Inc. in the U. S.. V.. Advertising affiliates include Subway Franchisee Advertising Fund Trust, Ltd.. V.. Subway's international headquarters are in Milford, with five regional centers supporting the company's international operations; the regional offices for European franchises are located in Amsterdam.
In 1965, Fred DeLuca borrowed $1,000 from friend Peter Buck to start "Pete's Super Submarines" in Bridgeport, in the following year, they formed Doctor's Associates Inc. to oversee operations of the restaurants as the franchise expanded. The holding company derives its name from DeLuca's goal to earn enough from the business to pay tuition for medical school, as well as Buck's having a doctorate in physics. Doctor's Associates is not affiliated with, any medical organization. In 1968, the sandwich shop was renamed "Subway"; the first Subway on the West Coast was opened in Fresno, California, in 1978. The first Subway outside of North America opened in Bahrain in December 1984; the first Subway in the United Kingdom was opened in Brighton in 1996. In 2004, Subway began opening stores in Walmart supercenters and surpassed the number of McDonald's locations inside U. S. Walmart stores in 2007. Since 2007, Subway has ranked in Entrepreneur magazine's Top 500 Franchises list. In 2015, it ranked #3 on the "Top Global Franchises" list and #1 as the "Fastest Growing Franchise".
At the end of 2010, Subway became the largest fast food chain worldwide, with 33,749 restaurants – 1,012 more than McDonald's. In January 2015, Suzanne Greco became president and CEO after her brother Fred DeLuca, the company’s first CEO, died of leukemia in September 2015 after being ill for two years. In 2016, Subway closed hundreds of restaurants in the U. S. experiencing a net loss in locations for the first time. However, with 26,744 locations, it remained the most ubiquitous restaurant chain in the U. S.. In 2016, Subway announced a new logo for the franchise, to be implemented in 2017. On July 17, 2017, Subway unveiled redesigned restaurants, dubbed "Fresh Forward." Features include self-order kiosks. The company is piloting the changes at 12 locations across the United States and the United Kingdom, with many features expected to be implemented into stores worldwide by the end of 2017. In 2017, the chain closed more than 800 of its U. S. locations. In April 2018, the chain announced. According Abha Bhattarai of The Washington Post, this is a result of three consecutive years of falling profits, foot traffic in Subway stores reduced by 25 percent since 2012.
Franchisees complained that the company's deep promotions further ate away at profits. Industry analysts like Bob Phibbs, chief executive of the New York-based consulting firm Retail Doctor, say changing tastes on the part of consumers, who more prefer locally sourced produce and hormone-free meat served by regional start-ups like Sweetgreen in metropolitan areas, are the cause of the drop in Subway's sales, as well as loss of market share to competitors; these include fast-casual eateries and sandwich shops like Panera Bread, Au Bon Pain and Firehouse Subs, as well as food trucks, grocery stores that offer freshly made meals at competitive prices. In January 2018, Subway invested $25 million in a re-branding campaign targeted at young consumers in order to revitalize its image and boost sales; as of June 2017, Subway had 44,000 stores worldwide, all independently owned. Located in 112 countries; these locations are concentrated in North America, with about 26,400 in the United States, as many U.
S. locations as McDonald’s and Starbucks combined. Outside North America, the countries with the most locations are Australia and the United Kingdom. Subway's core product is the submarine sandwich. In addition to these, the chain sells wraps, salad and baked goods. Subway's best-selling sandwich, the B. M. T. Contains pepperoni and ham; the name stood for Brooklyn Manhattan Transit, but now stands for "Biggest, Tastiest". Subway sells breakfast sandwiches, English muffins, flatbread. In 2006, "personal pizzas" debuted in some US markets; these are heated for 85 seconds. Breakfast and pizza items are only available in some stores. In November 2009