The pilaster is an architectural element in classical architecture used to give the appearance of a supporting column and to articulate an extent of wall, with only an ornamental function. It consists of a flat surface raised from the main wall surface treated as though it were a column, with a capital at the top, plinth at the bottom, the various other elements. In contrast to a pilaster, an engaged column or buttress can support the structure of a wall and roof above. In discussing Leon Battista Alberti's use of pilasters, which Alberti reintroduced into wall-architecture, Rudolf Wittkower wrote, "The pilaster is the logical transformation of the column for the decoration of a wall, it may be defined as a flattened column which has lost its three-dimensional and tactile value."A pilaster appears with a capital. And entablature in "low-relief" or flattened against the wall. A pilaster repeats all parts and proportions of an order column. Pilasters appear on the sides of a door frame or window opening on the facade of a building, are sometimes paired with columns or pillars set directly in front of them at some distance away from the wall, which support a roof structure above, such as a portico.
These vertical elements can be used to support a recessed archivolt around a doorway. The pilaster can be replaced by ornamental brackets supporting the entablature or a balcony over a doorway; when a pilaster appears at the corner intersection of two walls it is known as a canton. As with a column, a pilaster can have a plain or fluted surface to its profile and can be represented in the mode of any architectural style. During the Renaissance and Baroque architects used a range of pilaster forms. In the giant order pilasters appear as two storeys tall; the fashion of using this element from ancient Greek and Roman architecture was adopted in the Italian Renaissance, gained wide popularity with Greek Revival architecture, continues to be seen in some modern architecture. Pilaster is also referred to as a non-ornamental, load-bearing architectural element in non-classical architecture where a structural load must be carried by a wall or column next to a wall and the wall thickens to accommodate the structural requirements of the wall.
Archivolt Buttress Classical architecture Engaged column Ionic order Lesene List of classical architecture terms Post and lintel Lewis and Gillian Darley, Dictionary of Ornament NY: Pantheon
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings or any other structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are identified with their surviving architectural achievements. Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architecture can mean: A general term to describe other physical structures; the art and science of designing buildings and nonbuilding structures. The style of design and method of construction of buildings and other physical structures. A unifying or coherent form or structure. Knowledge of art, science and humanity; the design activity of the architect, from the macro-level to the micro-level. The practice of the architect, where architecture means offering or rendering professional services in connection with the design and construction of buildings, or built environments.
The earliest surviving written work on the subject of architecture is De architectura, by the Roman architect Vitruvius in the early 1st century AD. According to Vitruvius, a good building should satisfy the three principles of firmitas, venustas known by the original translation – firmness and delight. An equivalent in modern English would be: Durability – a building should stand up robustly and remain in good condition. Utility – it should be suitable for the purposes for which it is used. Beauty – it should be aesthetically pleasing. According to Vitruvius, the architect should strive to fulfill each of these three attributes as well as possible. Leon Battista Alberti, who elaborates on the ideas of Vitruvius in his treatise, De Re Aedificatoria, saw beauty as a matter of proportion, although ornament played a part. For Alberti, the rules of proportion were those that governed the idealised human figure, the Golden mean; the most important aspect of beauty was, therefore, an inherent part of an object, rather than something applied superficially, was based on universal, recognisable truths.
The notion of style in the arts was not developed until the 16th century, with the writing of Vasari: by the 18th century, his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters and Architects had been translated into Italian, French and English. In the early 19th century, Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin wrote Contrasts that, as the titled suggested, contrasted the modern, industrial world, which he disparaged, with an idealized image of neo-medieval world. Gothic architecture, Pugin believed, was the only "true Christian form of architecture." The 19th-century English art critic, John Ruskin, in his Seven Lamps of Architecture, published 1849, was much narrower in his view of what constituted architecture. Architecture was the "art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by men... that the sight of them" contributes "to his mental health and pleasure". For Ruskin, the aesthetic was of overriding significance, his work goes on to state that a building is not a work of architecture unless it is in some way "adorned".
For Ruskin, a well-constructed, well-proportioned, functional building needed string courses or rustication, at the least. On the difference between the ideals of architecture and mere construction, the renowned 20th-century architect Le Corbusier wrote: "You employ stone and concrete, with these materials you build houses and palaces:, construction. Ingenuity is at work, but you touch my heart, you do me good. I am happy and I say: This is beautiful; that is Architecture". Le Corbusier's contemporary Ludwig Mies van der Rohe said "Architecture starts when you put two bricks together. There it begins." The notable 19th-century architect of skyscrapers, Louis Sullivan, promoted an overriding precept to architectural design: "Form follows function". While the notion that structural and aesthetic considerations should be subject to functionality was met with both popularity and skepticism, it had the effect of introducing the concept of "function" in place of Vitruvius' "utility". "Function" came to be seen as encompassing all criteria of the use and enjoyment of a building, not only practical but aesthetic and cultural.
Nunzia Rondanini stated, "Through its aesthetic dimension architecture goes beyond the functional aspects that it has in common with other human sciences. Through its own particular way of expressing values, architecture can stimulate and influence social life without presuming that, in and of itself, it will promote social development.' To restrict the meaning of formalism to art for art's sake is not only reactionary. Among the philosophies that have influenced modern architects and their approach to building design are rationalism, structuralism, poststructuralism, phenomenology. In the late 20th century a new concept was added to those included in the compass of both structure and function, the consideration of sustainability, hence sustainable architecture. To satisfy the contemporary ethos a building should be constructed in a manner, environmentally friendly in terms of the production of its materials, its impact upon the natural and built environment of its surrounding area and the demands that it makes upon non-sustainable power sources for heating, cooling and waste management and lighting
Centralia mine fire
The Centralia mine fire is a coal seam fire, burning underneath the borough of Centralia, United States, since at least May 27, 1962. The fire is suspected to be from deliberate burning of trash in a former strip mine, igniting a coal seam; the fire is burning in underground coal mines at depths of up to 300 feet over an 8-mile stretch of 3,700 acres. At its current rate, it could continue to burn for over 250 years; the fire caused most of the town to be abandoned. The population dwindled from around 1,400 at the time the fire started to 10 in 2017, most of the buildings have been levelled. On May 7, 1962, the Centralia Council met to discuss the approaching Memorial Day and how the town would go about cleaning up the Centralia landfill, introduced earlier that year; the 300-foot-wide, 75-foot-long pit was made up of a 50-foot-deep strip mine, cleared by Edward Whitney in 1935, came close to the northeast corner of Odd Fellows Cemetery. There were eight illegal dumps spread about Centralia, the council's intention in creating the landfill was to stop the illegal dumping, as new state regulations had forced the town to close an earlier dump west of St. Ignatius Cemetery.
Trustees at the cemetery were opposed to the landfill's proximity to the cemetery, but recognized the illegal dumping elsewhere as a serious issue and envisioned that the new pit would resolve it. Pennsylvania had passed a precautionary law in 1956 to regulate landfill use in strip mines, as landfills were known to cause destructive mine fires; the law required a permit and regular inspection for a municipality to use such a pit. George Segaritus, a regional landfill inspector who worked for the Department of Mines and Mineral Industries, became concerned about the pit when he noticed holes in the walls and floor, as such mines cut through older mines underneath. Segaritus informed Joseph Tighe, a Centralia councilman, that the pit would require filling with an incombustible material; this was a world where no human could live, hotter than the planet Mercury, its atmosphere as poisonous as Saturn's. At the heart of the fire, temperatures exceeded 1,000 degrees Fahrenheit. Lethal clouds of carbon monoxide and other gases swirled through the rock chambers.
The town council arranged for cleanup of the strip mine dump, but council minutes do not describe the proposed procedure. It is speculated that the process—setting it on fire—was not specified because state law prohibited dump fires. Nonetheless, the Centralia council set a date and hired five members of the volunteer firefighter company to clean up the landfill. A fire was ignited to clean the dump on May 27, 1962, water was used to douse the visible flames that night. However, flames were seen once more on May 29. Using hoses hooked up from Locust Avenue, another attempt was made to douse the fire that night. Another flare-up in the following week caused the Centralia Fire Company to once again douse it with hoses. A bulldozer stirred up the garbage so that firemen could douse concealed layers of the burning waste. A few days a hole as wide as 15 feet and several feet high was found in the base of the north wall of the pit. Garbage had prevented it from being filled with incombustible material.
It is possible that this hole led to the mine fire, as it provided a pathway to the labyrinth of old mines under the borough. Evidence indicates; the Centralia council still allowed the dumping of garbage into the pit. A member of the council contacted Clarence "Mooch" Kashner, the president of the Independent Miners and Truckers union, to inspect the situation in Centralia. Kashner called Gordon Smith, an engineer of the DMMI office in Pottsville. Smith told the town that he could dig out the smoldering material using a steam shovel for $175. A call was placed to Art Joyce, a mine inspector from Mount Carmel, who brought gas detection equipment for use on the swirling wisps of smoke now emanating from fissures in the north wall of the landfill pit. Tests concluded that the gases seeping from the large hole in the pit wall and from cracks in the north wall contained carbon monoxide concentrations typical of coal-mine fires. A letter was sent to the Lehigh Valley Coal Company as formal notice of the fire.
The town council decided that hiding the true origin of the fire would serve better than alerting the LVCC of the truth, which would most end in receiving no help from them. In the letter, the borough described the starting of a fire "of unknown origin... during a period of unusually hot weather."Preceding an August 6 meeting at the fire site which would include officials from the LVCC and the Susquehanna Coal Company, Deputy Secretary of Mines James Shober Sr. expected that the representatives would inform him they could not afford mounting a project that would stop the mine fire. Therefore, Shober announced that he expected the state to finance the cost of digging out the fire, at that time around $30,000. Another offer was made at the meeting, proposed by Centralia strip mine operator Alonzo Sanchez, who told members of council that he would dig out the mine fire free of charge as long as he could claim any coal he recovered without paying royalties to the Lehigh Valley Coal Company. Part of Sanchez's plan was to do exploratory drilling to estimate the scope of the mine fire, most why Sanchez's offer was rejected at the meeting
Our Saviour's Chapel, Żejtun
Our Saviour's formally known as The Church of the Transfiguration of Jesus, popularly known in Maltese as Is-Salvatur is a Roman Catholic church located in the village of Żejtun, in Malta. During the middle ages, Żejtun was divided in various small hamlets. Our Saviour's was located in what was known as Bisqallin; as the parish church of St Catherine was located at a much further distance, these small hamlets had small chapels which they could use to avoid walking the long distance to the parish church. Bisqallin had two chapels, one dedicated to the Visitation and the other to Our Saviour both built around 1500 and both built beside each other. Both chapels are mentioned in Bishop Pietro Dusina's report of 1575; however Dusina reports that Our Saviour's lacked all items to use for religious services. He mentions that the chapel did not have a door, he ordered that a door be installed. During the 18th century, Our Saviour's was in need of great renovation and thus it was decided to combine both chapels into one.
Our Saviour's was demolished and a new one built combining with the medieval chapel of the Visitation, turned into the sacristy. Thus Our Saviour's has a medieval back side; the chapel's facade was rebuilt in the 20th century in a neo-gothic style. The chapel has a stone altar and a painting depicting the Transfiguration of Jesus, the work of Toussaints Busuttil. Other paintings depict the Visitation of Mary to her cousin Elizabeth and another depicting Saint Anne, the former commemorating the medieval chapel of the Visitation. Culture of Malta History of Malta List of Churches in Malta Religion in Malta
Żejtun is a city in the South Eastern Region of Malta, with a population of 11,218 at end 2016. Żejtun holds the title of Città Beland, conferred by the grandmaster of the Order of the Knights of Malta, Ferdinand von Hompesch zu Bolheim in 1797. Before that, the village was known as Casale Santa Caterina, named after its patron saint and parish titular; the old urban cores, called Bisqallin and Ħal Bisbut retain their narrow medieval streets and ancient boundaries. Since at least the 19th century, the name Żejtun, or Casale Zeitoun, has referred to the settlement which developed around these two core villages. Together with a number of small hamlets in the vicinity, the bulk of the conurbation forms the city of Żejtun, administered by the mayor and the Żejtun Local Council. Over successive centuries, Żejtun lost a number of villages and hamlets that used to form part of its territory, which covered most of the south eastern part of Malta; the city experienced extensive urbanisation over the seventies and eighties, with the completion of numerous infrastructural and urban projects designed to relieve housing pressure in the neighbouring Cottonera area.
Żejtun is a major centre on the islands, with a significant contribution to the islands' history and commerce. One of the country's principal industrial estates, can be found on the city's borders. Żejtun contains a number of important heritage sites, such as St Catherine's Parish Church, St Catherine's Old Church - known as St Gregory's, numerous votive chapels, the remains of a Roman villa. The parish of Żejtun is one of the oldest on the islands and existed in 1436; the original parish church was built in the twelfth century, rebuilt in 1492. The current mayor is Doris Abela; the archpriest is Fr Nicholas Pace. The etymology of Żejtun has been studied over the ages, it takes its name from the Sicilian Arabic for olive – zaytun – one of the ancient agronomic industries on Malta. This was confirmed by Ciantar, who stated that "...the town was pleasant, due to the great quantity of olive groves, from whence it got and still retains the name Zeitun, which means olive. While the Sicilian Arabic word zaytun refers to the fruit of the tree, the olive tree itself is called zabbūğ/zanbūğ.
The Arabic origin of the town's name was again recorded in the first Maltese language dictionary as "Żejtun, in the eastern part of the island of Malta, there is a large and thriving town with this name, which incorporates another area called Bisqallin, the village of Bisbut. In the Saracen era, there must have been olive groves here, for the area to retain its true name."In his commentary on Maltese history, Gio. Francesco Abela claimed that the eastern half of Malta, from the old city to the coast was times divided into two further halves. To the east, all the land was called Zeitun, while to the other side - that is, from Marsamxett to all the old territory of the Birkirkara parish - the land was called Araar. Abela claims to have seen this notation in plans drawn by Girolamo Cassar, that these two contrade were covered with the two respective trees. Over the centuries, Żejtun was identified by several names. Casale Santa Caterina, iż-Żejtun, Ħal Bisbut, Ħal Ġwann, Bisqallin were used interchangeably to refer to both specific areas, or to the whole settlement.
The name Bisqallin, the name of the lower part of the city, means "the scions of Sicily", deriving from Sicilian settlers who inhabited this part of the island after landing at Marsascala. Over time, the name was corrupted into the Italian Casal Pasqualino. Żejtun shares its name with a number of settlements and areas in Greece, North Africa and the Near East. Today, Bisqallin is known as ir-raħal t'isfel, the'lower village', while Ħal Bisbut is referred to as ir-raħal ta' fuq, the'upper village.' The historic motto of the city of Żejtun is Palladis clara munera, indicating the town's position on a hill gifted it with clear and commanding views over the south-eastern part of Malta. The motto according to the Żejtun local council is Frott iż-Żebbuġ ismi, meaning that the city derives its name from the fruit of the olive tree; the core of Żejtun is located on a hill. The promontory is marked to the north by Wied iz-Ziju, which separates Żejtun from Tarxien and the outlying high ground; this valley is obscured by the Bulebel industrial zone, an old road which links Tarxien to Żejtun, as well as by the widened arterial road of Tal-Barrani.
The valley meanders. To the south, the Żejtun promontory is bounded by a gentle slope which forms the greater port area of Marsaxlokk; the higher ridge of Żejtun is marked by the late medieval chapel of Saint Catherine of Alexandria, known as Saint Gregory's Church, the important crossroads of Bir id-Deheb. Żejtun is strategically located between three important ancient harbours, that of Marsa to the north, those of Marsaxlokk and Marsascala to the south. The area was occupied since prehistory. Late Neolithic remains were found near the megaliths of Ħal Ġinwi, as well as the megalithic remains at Tas-Silġ, found on a hillock between Żejtun and Marsaxlokk. Remains of the temple at Ħal Ġinwi were found in the vicinity of San Niklaw chapel, between Żejtun and the Tas-Silġ temple; the site is today represented by a few ashlar blocks still visible in a field wall. More remains may survive beneath the soil; these sites remained in use during the Bronze Age, as well as during historical periods. Pottery shards
A wall is a structure that defines an area, carries a load, or provides shelter or security. There are many kinds of walls, including: Defensive walls in fortifications Walls in buildings that form a fundamental part of the superstructure or separate interior rooms, sometimes for fire safety Retaining walls, which hold back dirt, water, or noise sound Walls that protect from oceans or rivers Permanent, solid fences Border barriers between countries Brick wall Precast wall Stone wall Glass wall Doors are mobile walls on hinges which open to form a gateway Wall comes from Latin vallum meaning "...an earthen wall or rampart set with palisades, a row or line of stakes, a wall, a rampart, fortification..." while the Latin word murus means a defensive stone wall. English uses the same word to mean an external wall and the internal sides of a room, but this is not universal. Many languages distinguish between the two. In German, some of this distinction can be seen between Wand and Mauer, in Spanish between pared and muro.
The word wall referred to defensive walls and ramparts. The purposes of the walls in buildings are to support roofs and ceilings. In addition, the wall may house various types of utilities such as electrical plumbing. Wall construction falls into two basic categories: framed mass-walls. In framed walls the load is transferred to the foundation through columns or studs. Framed walls most have three or more separate components: the structural elements and finish elements or surfaces. Mass-walls are of a solid material including masonry, concrete including slipform stonemasonry, log building, cordwood construction, rammed earth, earthbag construction, tin cans, straw-bale construction, ice. There are three basic methods walls control water intrusion: moisture storage, drained cladding, or face-sealed cladding. Moisture storage is typical of stone and brick mass-wall buildings where moisture is absorbed and released by the walls of the structure itself. Drained cladding known as screened walls acknowledges moisture will penetrate the cladding so a moisture barrier such as housewrap or felt paper inside the cladding provides a second line of defense and sometimes a drainage plane or air gap allows a path for the moisture to drain down through and exit the wall.
Sometimes ventilation is provided in addition to the drainage plane such as in rainscreen construction. Face-sealed called barrier wall or perfect barrier cladding relies on maintaining a leak-free surface of the cladding. Examples of face sealed cladding are the early exterior insulation finishing systems, structural glazing, metal clad panels, corrugated metal. Building walls become works of art and internally, such as when featuring mosaic work or when murals are painted on them. In architecture and civil engineering, curtain wall refers to a building facade, not load-bearing but provides decoration, front, face, or historical preservation. Precast walls are walls which have been preassembled in a factory, shipped to where it is needed, ready to install, it is faster to install compared to brick and other walls, may have a lower cost compared to other types of wall. Mullion walls are a structural system that carries the load of the floor slab on prefabricated panels around the perimeter. A partition wall is a thin wall, used to separate or divide a room a pre-existing one.
Partition walls are not load-bearing, can be constructed out of many materials, including steel panels, cloth, plasterboard, blocks of clay, terra-cotta and glass. Some partition walls are made of sheet glass. Glass partition walls are a series of individual toughened glass panels mounted in wood or metal framing, they may slide along a robust aluminium ceiling track. The system does not require the use of a floor guide, which allows easy operation and an uninterrupted threshold. A timber partition consists of a wooden framework, supported on the floor or by side walls. Metal lath and plaster, properly laid, forms a reinforced partition wall. Partition walls constructed from fibre cement backer board are popular as bases for tiling in kitchens or in wet areas like bathrooms. Galvanized sheet fixed to wooden or steel members are adopted in works of temporary character. Plain or reinforced partition walls may be constructed from concrete, including pre-cast concrete blocks. Metal framed partitioning is available.
This partition consists of track and studs. Internal wall partitions known as office partitioning, are made of plasterboard or varieties of glass. Toughened glass is a common option, as low-iron glass increases solar heat transmission. Wall partitions are constructed using beads and tracking, either hung from the ceiling or fixed into the ground; the panels are fixed. Some wall partition variations specify their fire resistance and acoustic performance rating. Movable partitions are walls; these include: Sliding—a series of panels that slide in tracks fixed to the floor and ceiling, similar sliding doors Sliding and
In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object. A force can cause an object with mass i.e. to accelerate. Force can be described intuitively as a push or a pull. A force has both direction, making it a vector quantity, it is measured in the SI unit of newtons and represented by the symbol F. The original form of Newton's second law states that the net force acting upon an object is equal to the rate at which its momentum changes with time. If the mass of the object is constant, this law implies that the acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on the object, is in the direction of the net force, is inversely proportional to the mass of the object. Concepts related to force include: thrust. In an extended body, each part applies forces on the adjacent parts; such internal mechanical stresses cause no acceleration of that body as the forces balance one another. Pressure, the distribution of many small forces applied over an area of a body, is a simple type of stress that if unbalanced can cause the body to accelerate.
Stress causes deformation of solid materials, or flow in fluids. Philosophers in antiquity used the concept of force in the study of stationary and moving objects and simple machines, but thinkers such as Aristotle and Archimedes retained fundamental errors in understanding force. In part this was due to an incomplete understanding of the sometimes non-obvious force of friction, a inadequate view of the nature of natural motion. A fundamental error was the belief that a force is required to maintain motion at a constant velocity. Most of the previous misunderstandings about motion and force were corrected by Galileo Galilei and Sir Isaac Newton. With his mathematical insight, Sir Isaac Newton formulated laws of motion that were not improved for nearly three hundred years. By the early 20th century, Einstein developed a theory of relativity that predicted the action of forces on objects with increasing momenta near the speed of light, provided insight into the forces produced by gravitation and inertia.
With modern insights into quantum mechanics and technology that can accelerate particles close to the speed of light, particle physics has devised a Standard Model to describe forces between particles smaller than atoms. The Standard Model predicts that exchanged particles called gauge bosons are the fundamental means by which forces are emitted and absorbed. Only four main interactions are known: in order of decreasing strength, they are: strong, electromagnetic and gravitational. High-energy particle physics observations made during the 1970s and 1980s confirmed that the weak and electromagnetic forces are expressions of a more fundamental electroweak interaction. Since antiquity the concept of force has been recognized as integral to the functioning of each of the simple machines; the mechanical advantage given by a simple machine allowed for less force to be used in exchange for that force acting over a greater distance for the same amount of work. Analysis of the characteristics of forces culminated in the work of Archimedes, famous for formulating a treatment of buoyant forces inherent in fluids.
Aristotle provided a philosophical discussion of the concept of a force as an integral part of Aristotelian cosmology. In Aristotle's view, the terrestrial sphere contained four elements that come to rest at different "natural places" therein. Aristotle believed that motionless objects on Earth, those composed of the elements earth and water, to be in their natural place on the ground and that they will stay that way if left alone, he distinguished between the innate tendency of objects to find their "natural place", which led to "natural motion", unnatural or forced motion, which required continued application of a force. This theory, based on the everyday experience of how objects move, such as the constant application of a force needed to keep a cart moving, had conceptual trouble accounting for the behavior of projectiles, such as the flight of arrows; the place where the archer moves the projectile was at the start of the flight, while the projectile sailed through the air, no discernible efficient cause acts on it.
Aristotle was aware of this problem and proposed that the air displaced through the projectile's path carries the projectile to its target. This explanation demands a continuum like air for change of place in general. Aristotelian physics began facing criticism in medieval science, first by John Philoponus in the 6th century; the shortcomings of Aristotelian physics would not be corrected until the 17th century work of Galileo Galilei, influenced by the late medieval idea that objects in forced motion carried an innate force of impetus. Galileo constructed an experiment in which stones and cannonballs were both rolled down an incline to disprove the Aristotelian theory of motion, he showed that the bodies were accelerated by gravity to an extent, independent of their mass and argued that objects retain their velocity unless acted on by a force, for example friction. Sir Isaac Newton described the motion of all objects using the concepts of inertia and force, in doing so he found they obey certain conservation laws.
In 1687, Newton published his thesis Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. In this work Newton set out three laws of motion that to this day are t