Buzz Aldrin is an American engineer, former astronaut and fighter pilot. Aldrin made three spacewalks as pilot of the 1966 Gemini 12 mission, as the lunar module pilot on the 1969 Apollo 11 mission, he and mission commander Neil Armstrong were the first two humans to land on the Moon. Born in Glen Ridge, New Jersey, Aldrin graduated third in the class of 1951 from the United States Military Academy at West Point, with a degree in mechanical engineering, he was commissioned into the United States Air Force, served as a jet fighter pilot during the Korean War. He shot down two MiG-15 aircraft. After earning a Sc. D. degree in astronautics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Aldrin was selected as a member of NASA's Astronaut Group 3, making him the first astronaut with a doctoral degree. His doctoral thesis was Line-of-Sight Guidance Techniques for Manned Orbital Rendezvous, earning him the nickname "Dr. Rendezvous" from fellow astronauts, his first space flight was in 1966 on Gemini 12 during which he spent over five hours on extravehicular activity.
Three years Aldrin set foot on the Moon at 03:15:16 on July 21, 1969, nineteen minutes after Armstrong first touched the surface, while command module pilot Michael Collins remained in lunar orbit. A Presbyterian elder, Aldrin became the first person to hold a religious ceremony on the Moon when he took communion. Upon leaving NASA in 1971, Aldrin became Commandant of the U. S. Air Force Test Pilot School, he retired from the Air Force after 21 years of service. His autobiographies Return to Earth, Magnificent Desolation, recount his struggles with clinical depression and alcoholism in the years after leaving NASA, he continued to advocate for space exploration a human mission to Mars, developed the Aldrin cycler, a special spacecraft trajectory that makes travel to Mars more efficient in regard to time and propellant. He has been accorded numerous honors, including the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1969, is listed in several Halls of Fame. Edwin Eugene Aldrin Jr. was born on January 20, 1930, at Mountainside Hospital in Glen Ridge, New Jersey.
His parents, Edwin Eugene Aldrin Sr. and Marion Aldrin, lived in neighboring Montclair. His father was an Army aviator during World War I and the assistant commandant of the Army's test pilot school at McCook Field, from 1919 to 1922, but left the Army in 1928 and became an executive at Standard Oil. Aldrin had two siblings, both sisters: Madeleine, four years older, Fay Ann, a year and a half older, his nickname, which became his legal first name in 1988, arose as a result of Fay's mispronouncing "brother" as "buzzer", shortened to "Buzz". He was a Boy Scout. Aldrin did well in school, he played football and was the starting center for Montclair High School's undefeated 1946 state champion team. His father wanted him to go to the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis and enrolled him at nearby Severn School, a preparatory school for Annapolis and secured him an appointment from Albert W. Hawkes, one of the United States Senators from New Jersey. Aldrin had other ideas about his future career.
He suffered from considered ships a distraction from flying airplanes. He faced down his father and told him to ask Hawkes to change the nomination to the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York. Aldrin entered West Point in 1947, he did well academically. He was a member of the academy field team. In 1950, he traveled with a group of West Point cadets to Japan and the Philippines to study the military government policies of Douglas MacArthur. During his trip, the Korean War broke out. On June 5, 1951, he graduated third in the class of 1951 with a Bachelor of Science degree in mechanical engineering; as one of the highest-ranking members of the class, Aldrin had his choice of assignments. He chose the United States Air Force, which had become a separate service in 1947 while Aldrin was still at West Point and did not yet have its own academy, he was commissioned as a second lieutenant, underwent basic flight training in T-6 Texans at Bartow Air Base in Florida. His classmates included Sam Johnson, who became a prisoner of war in Vietnam.
At one point, Aldrin suffered a grayout. He recovered in time averting what would have been a fatal crash; when Aldrin was deciding what sort of aircraft he should fly, his father advised him to choose bombers, because command of a bomber crew gave an opportunity to learn and hone leadership skills, which could open up better prospects for career advancement. Aldrin chose instead to fly fighters, he moved to Nellis Air Force Base in Las Vegas, where he learned to fly the F-80 Shooting Star and the F-86 Sabre. Like most jet fighter pilots of the era, he preferred the latter. In December 1952, Aldrin was assigned to the 16th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron, part of the 51st Fighter-Interceptor Wing. At the time it was based at Suwon Air Base, about 20 miles south of Seoul, was engaged in combat operations as part of the Korean War. During an acclimatization flight his main fuel system froze at 100 percent power, which would have soon used up all his fuel, he was able to override the setting manually, but this required holding a button down, which in turn made it impossible to use his radio.
He managed to make it back under enforced radio silence. He flew 66 combat missions in F-86 Sabres in Korea and shot
One Fine Day is a 1996 American romantic comedy film directed by Michael Hoffman, starring Michelle Pfeiffer and George Clooney as two single working parents, with Alex D. Linz and Mae Whitman as their children; the title comes from the 1963 song "One Fine Day" by The Chiffons, heard in the film. Michelle Pfeiffer served as an executive producer on the film, made in association with her company Via Rosa Productions; the film was nominated for an Oscar for Best Original Song. Melanie Parker divorced mother to her son, Sammy, her day gets off to a bad start when she is late to drop him off at school, due to the forgetfulness of fellow divorced father Jack Taylor, a New York Daily News reporter whose daughter, Maggie, is thrust into his care that morning by his ex-wife. The children arrive just a moment too late to go on a school field trip, their parents are forced to accept that, on top of hectically busy schedules, they must work together that day to supervise each other's child. In their confusion of sharing a taxi, they accidentally switch cell phones, causing each of them, all morning, to receive calls intended for the other one, which they have to relay to the right person.
Melanie must make an architectural design presentation to an important client. Jack has to find a source for a scoop on the New York mayor's mob connections. Sammy causes havoc at Melanie's office with toy cars, causing her to trip and break her scale model display. In frustration, she takes him to a day care center, where she coincidentally comes across Jack trying to convince Maggie to stay and behave herself, they create impromptu costumes for the children, using her resourcefulness. She takes her model to a shop to get it repaired. Having left for a meeting, she panics when she receives a phone call from Sammy about another child having a psychedelic drug, she asks him to pick up the children. He agrees, on the condition that she take over their care at 3:15 while he chases down a potential news source. While in Melanie's care, Maggie goes missing from a store, wanders some distance down a crowded midtown sidewalk. Melanie breaks down in despair at the police station, files a missing child report, goes to a mayoral press conference to find Jack.
He is notified by the police that Maggie has been found, makes it to the press conference just in time to confront the mayor with his scoop about corruption. He had earlier tracked down its source. Although they have been antagonistic and Jack work together to get the children, by taxi, to a soccer game, she insists that she will have time first to do her presentation to the new clients, despite him protesting that it will make them late for the game. She begins her pitch over drinks at the 21 Club lounge, but upon seeing Sammy in high spirits, she realizes that she cares more about him than her job. Bravely insisting that she must leave to be with him, she expects to be fired, yet the clients are impressed. At the game, Melanie meets her ex-husband, a musician and who admits that he lied to Sammy about taking him fishing in the summer and that he will be going on tour as a drummer with Bruce Springsteen instead; that evening, Jack wants a reason to visit Melanie's apartment, so he takes Maggie to buy goldfish to replace the ones that were eaten earlier in the day by a cat.
At Melanie's apartment, the children watch TV. She goes to the bathroom to freshen up, she joins him and they fall asleep together, with the children observing. Clooney's character did not exist in the script's original draft. Producer Lynda Obst explained the change: "We were being sexist. There are plenty of divorced, single working fathers going through the exact same thing." The studios wanted Kevin Costner or Tom Cruise to portray Jack Taylor but they passed and Clooney received the part. The film was shot in 44 Manhattan locations. Rotten Tomatoes gave the film a rating of 50% based on reviews from 34 critics, indicating a mixed critical reception, it was considered a commercial disappointment by Twentieth Century Fox. Janet Maslin in The New York Times wrote: "A 50's romp with a few glaring 90's touches, One Fine Day makes for sunny, pleasant fluff. Both stars are enjoyably breezy, there's enough chemistry to deflect attention from the story's endless contrivances... he's such a natural as a movie star that he hardly needs false flattery.
Ms Pfeiffer, shows a flair for physical comedy."Roger Ebert in the Chicago Sun-Times wrote: "'Cinema is the history of boys photographing girls.' Or so Jean-Luc Godard is claimed to have said. I thought of his words while watching One Fine Day, an uninspired formula movie with another fine performance by Michelle Pfeiffer, she does everything in this movie that a much better movie would have required from her, but the screenplay lets her down... Pfeiffer looks and sounds wonderful throughout all of this, George Clooney is serviceable as a romantic lead, sort of a Mel Gibson lite. I liked them. I wanted them to get together. I wanted them to live ever after; the sooner the better."Rita Kempley in The Washington Post wrote: "Director Michael Hoffman, whose idiosyncratic portfolio includes the period comedy Restoration and the spoof Soapdish, sets a mellow pace and alternates old-fashioned split screen with crosscutting to enliven the many phone scenes. If the stars don't click, of course, nothing else matters.
Ronald Weitzer is a sociologist specializing in criminology and a professor at George Washington University, known for his publications on police-minority relations and on the sex industry. Weitzer has authored a number of papers on the sex industry, with a focus on laws and policies regarding prostitution and sex trafficking, he published a 1999 article evaluating US policies as well as a 2009 study of prostitution in Western Australia, whose state legislature voted to legalize brothel and escort prostitution in 2008. In 2012 he published a book on legal prostitution systems, Legalizing Prostitution: From Illicit Vice to Lawful Business; the book is based on Weitzer's review of studies of legal prostitution in various nations as well as his own research on Belgium and the Netherlands. Weitzer notes that the notion of "legal prostitution" is not monolithic: it varies from place to place. First, nations differ in the kinds of prostitution; some allow brothels only, others restrict it to escort services, while others allow only independent operators.
A few societies, such as New Zealand, permit all types of consensual adult prostitution, but most continue to criminalize street prostitution because it is considered more risky and more of a public nuisance than indoor prostitution. In addition, in places where the trade has been decriminalized, at least some types of participants remain illegal. For example, minors are not allowed to work exploitative pimping and trafficking are outlawed, some societies prohibit migrants or persons infected with HIV from working legally. So where prostitution has been decriminalized and is now government-regulated, some types of participants are excluded from the legal regime. Second, nations differ in the kinds of regulations imposed on legal actors; some restrict it to designated parts of the city. Some mandate regular health examinations to check for STDs; some require condom use, while others encourage it. Some require sex workers to be registered with the authorities, although this is opposed by the workers, who fear that this information may become publicly available.
Most require business owners to be licensed, the authorities conduct periodic site visits to ensure that the regulations are being followed. Where such licensing exists, officials screen applicants to make sure that they have no criminal record nor connections to organized crime. Legalizing Prostitution examines a wide variety of regulations. One of Weitzer's objectives is to assess which kinds of regulations are most sensible, most to win public support, best suited to reducing risks and harms, most to preserve public order. There is much room for debate here, each nation that has legalized prostitution has had to grapple with these difficult questions. Weitzer's book advocates about 30 "best practices" that he thinks should be taken into account by any nation considering legalization; the first step, he writes, is that "consensual adult prostitution be recognized as work and that participants be accorded the rights and protections available to those involved in other occupations". The book evaluates existing legal systems.
While no system is problem-free, Weitzer finds that several have registered a good measure of success. New Zealand scores well, as does Queensland, where a 2004 government assessment concluded that its legal brothels "provide a sustainable model for a healthy, crime-free, safe legal licensed brothel industry" and are a "state of the art model for the sex industry in Australia." While positive outcomes are by no means automatic or guaranteed, Weitzer finds that legal, well-regulated prostitution can be superior to blanket criminalization. Blanket decriminalization and government regulation of prostitution is not possible in the United States. Given this, Weitzer advocates what he calls a "two-track" policy toward enforcement of prostitution laws. One track involves intensified law enforcement of street prostitution, arguing that street prostitution victimizes host communities and leaves the prostitutes themselves open to victimization; the second track involves what he calls "de facto decriminalization" of indoor prostitution, that is, the non-enforcement by police departments of laws against various forms of indoor prostitution, such as escort services, massage parlors, brothels while such laws stay on the books.
Weitzer holds that these kinds of activities have little effect on the surrounding community and that enforcing laws against such practices involves time-consuming sting operations that waste police resources. Weitzer argues that this two track approach reflects public preferences regarding the proper focus of law enforcement, is a more efficient use of law enforcement resources, is guided by the principle of harm reduction. Indoor prostitution is quite different from street prostitution. Weitzer views street prostitution as a serious social problem. Many streetwalkers are underage or runaways or homeless or economically distressed—selling sex out of desperation and for reasons of survival, they are at high risk of drug abuse and victimization and street prostitution has a negative impact on surrounding communities. The push factors that lead individuals into street prostitution will not be alleviated if street prostitution is decriminalized. At the same time