Craft in Japan has a long tradition and history. Included are handicraft by an individual or a group, a craft is work produced by independent studio artists, working with traditional craft materials and/or processes. According to the Japanese Ministry of Education and Culture, the crafts are divided into eight categories: pottery, lacquerware, dollmaking and woodworking, miscellaneous; the categories are further divided into a number of more specific subcategories. The Japan Kōgei Association concurs with these definitions, the many variations are recognized and protected by the government; those working in crafts are eligible – either individually or as part of a group – for inclusion in the list of Living National Treasures of Japan. Some crafts enjoy status as meibutsu, or regional specialties. In order for an object to be recognized as traditional Japanese craft, it must meet all five of these requirements: The item must be practical enough for regular use; the item must predominantly be handmade.
The item must be crafted using traditional techniques. The item must be crafted using traditional materials; the item must be crafted at its place of origin. Each craft demands a set of specialized skills. Japanese craft works serve a functional or utilitarian purpose, though they may be handled and exhibited similar to visual art objects. Japanese craft dates back. Handicrafting has its roots in the rural crafts – the material-goods necessities – of ancient times. Handicrafters used natural, indigenous materials, which continues to be emphasised today for the most part. Traditionally, objects were created to be used and not just to be displayed and thus, the border between craft and art was not always clear. Crafts were needed by all strata of society and became sophisticated in their design and execution. Craft had close ties to folk art, but developed into fine art as well as the concept of wabi-sabi aesthetics. Craftsmen and women therefore became artisans with increasing sophistication; however wares were not just produced for domestic consumption, but at some point items such as ceramics made by studio craft were produced for export and became an important pillar of the economy.
Family affiliations or bloodlines are of special importance to the aristocracy and the transmission of religious beliefs in various Buddhist schools. In Buddhism, the use of the term "bloodlines" relates to a liquid metaphor used in the sutras: the decantation of teachings from one "dharma vessel" to another, describing the full and correct transference of doctrine from master to disciple. In the art world, the process of passing down knowledge and experience formed the basis of familial lineages. For ceramic, metal and bamboo craftsmen, this acquisition of knowledge involved a lengthy apprenticeship with the master of the workshop the father of the young disciple, from one generation to the next. In this system called Dentō, traditions were passed down within a teacher-student relationship, it encompassed strict rules that had to be observed in order to enable learning and teaching of a way. The wisdom could be taught either orally, or in writing. Living in the master's household and participating in household duties, apprentices observed the master, senior students, workshop before beginning any actual training.
In the stages of an apprenticeship it was common for a disciple to learn only through conscientious observation. Apprenticeship required hard work from the pupil every day in exchange for little or no pay, it was quite common that the mastery in certain crafts were passed down within the family from one generation to the next, establishing veritable dynasties. In that case the established master's name was assumed instead of the personal one. Should there be an absence of a male heir, a relative or a student could be adopted in order to continue the line and assume the prestigious name. With the end of the Edo period and the advent of the modern Meiji era, industrial production was introduced. On the fine art level, patrons such as feudal daimyō lords were unable to support local artisans as much as they had done in the past. Although handmade Japanese craft was once the dominant source of objects used in daily life, modern era industrial production as well as importation from abroad sidelined it in the economy.
Traditional craft began to wane, disappeared in many areas, as tastes and production methods changed. Forms such as swordmaking became obsolete. Japanese scholar Okakura Kakuzō wrote against the fashionable primacy of western art and founded the periodical Kokka to draw attention to the issue. Specific crafts, practiced for centuries were under threat, while others that were more recent developments introduced from the west, such as glassmaking, saw a rise. Although these objects were designated as National Treasures – placing them under the protection of the imperial government – it took some time for their intangible cultural value to be recognized. In order to further protect traditional craft and arts, the government, in 1890, instituted the guild of Imperial Household Artists, who were specially appointed to create works of art for the Tokyo Imperial Palace and other imperial residences; these artists were considered most famous and prestigious and worked in the areas such as painting and lacquerware.
Japanese Buddhist architecture
Japanese Buddhist architecture is the architecture of Buddhist temples in Japan, consisting of locally developed variants of architectural styles born in China. After Buddhism arrived the continent via Three Kingdoms of Korea in the 6th century, an effort was made to reproduce original buildings as faithfully as possible, but local versions of continental styles were developed both to meet Japanese tastes and to solve problems posed by local weather, more rainy and humid than in China; the first Buddhist sects were Nara's six Nanto Rokushū, followed during the Heian period by Kyoto's Shingon and Tendai. During the Kamakura period, in Kamakura were born the Jōdo and the native Japanese sect Nichiren-shū. At the same time Zen Buddhism arrived from China influencing all other sects in many ways, including architecture; the social composition of Buddhism's followers changed radically with time. In the beginning it was the elite's religion, but it spread from the noble to warriors, merchants and to the population at large.
On the technical side, new woodworking tools like the framed pit saw and the plane allowed new architectonic solutions. Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines share their basic characteristics and differ only in details that the non-specialist may not notice; this similarity is because the sharp division between Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines is recent, dating to the Meiji period's policy of separation of Buddhism and Shinto of 1868. Before the Meiji Restoration it was common for a Buddhist temple to be built inside or next to a shrine, or for a shrine to include Buddhist sub-temples. If a shrine housed a Buddhist temple, it was called a jingū-ji. Analogously, temples all over Japan used to adopt tutelary kami (chinju and built shrines within their precincts to house them. After the forcible separation of temples and shrines ordered by the new government, the connection between the two religions was severed, but continued nonetheless in practice and is still visible today. Buddhist architecture in Japan during the country's whole history has absorbed much of the best available natural and human resources.
Between the 8th and the 16th centuries, it led the development of new structural and ornamental features. For these reasons, its history is vital to the understanding of not only Buddhist architecture itself, but of Japanese art in general. Buddhist architecture in Japan is not native, but was imported from China and other Asian cultures over the centuries with such constancy that the building styles of all Six Dynasties are represented, its history is as a consequence dominated by Chinese and other Asian techniques and styles on one side, by Japanese original variations on those themes on the other. Due to the variety of climates in Japan and the millennium encompassed between the first cultural import and the last, the result is heterogeneous, but several universal features can nonetheless be found. First of all is the choice of materials, always wood in various forms for all structures. Unlike both Western and some Chinese architecture, the use of stone is avoided except for certain specific uses, for example temple podia and pagoda foundations.
The general structure is always the same: columns and lintels support a large and curved roof, while the walls are paper-thin movable and in any case non-carrying. Arches and barrel roofs are absent. Gable and eave curves are gentler than in columnar entasis limited; the roof is the most visually impressive component constituting half the size of the whole edifice. The curved eaves extend far beyond the walls, covering verandas, their weight must therefore be supported by complex bracket systems called tokyō; these oversize eaves give the interior a characteristic dimness, which contributes to the temple's atmosphere. The interior of the building consists of a single room at the center called moya, from which sometimes depart other less important spaces, for example corridors called hisashi. Inner space divisions are fluid, room size can be modified through the use of screens or movable paper walls; the large, single space offered by the main hall can therefore be altered according to the need.
The separation between inside and outside is itself in some measure not absolute as entire walls can be removed, opening the temple to visitors. Verandas appear to be part of the building to an outsider, but part of the external world to those in the temple. Structures are therefore made to a certain extent part of their environment; the use of construction modules keeps proportions between different parts of the edifice constant, preserving its overall harmony. In cases as that of Nikkō Tōshō-gū, where every available space is decorated, ornamentation tends to follow, therefore emphasize rather than hide, basic structures. Being shared by both sacred and profane architecture, these architectonic features made it easy converting a lay building into a temple; this happened for example at Hōryū-ji, where a noblewoman's mansion was transformed into a religious building. Buddhism is not a Japanese native religion, its architecture arrived from the continent via Korea together with the first Buddhists in the 6th century.
Adopted in the wake of the Battle of Shigisan in 587, after that date Buddhist temples began to be constructed. Because of the hostility of supporters of local kami beliefs towards Buddhism, no temple of that period survives, so we don't know what they were like
Japanese art covers a wide range of art styles and media, including ancient pottery, ink painting and calligraphy on silk and paper, ukiyo-e paintings and woodblock prints, ceramics and more manga, modern Japanese cartoons and comics along with a myriad of other types. It has a long history, ranging from the beginnings of human habitation in Japan, sometime in the 10th millennium BC, to the present-day country. Japan has been subject to sudden invasions of new ideas followed by long periods of minimal contact with the outside world. Over time the Japanese developed the ability to absorb and assimilate those elements of foreign culture that complemented their aesthetic preferences; the earliest complex art in Japan was produced in the 7th and 8th centuries in connection with Buddhism. In the 9th century, as the Japanese began to turn away from China and develop indigenous forms of expression, the secular arts became important. After the Ōnin War, Japan entered a period of political and economic disruption that lasted for over a century.
In the state that emerged under the leadership of the Tokugawa shogunate, organized religion played a much less important role in people's lives, the arts that survived were secular. Painting is the preferred artistic expression in Japan, practiced by amateurs and professionals alike; until modern times, the Japanese wrote with a brush rather than a pen, their familiarity with brush techniques has made them sensitive to the values and aesthetics of painting. With the rise of popular culture in the Edo period, a style of woodblock prints became a major form and its techniques were fine tuned to produce colorful prints; the Japanese, in this period, found sculpture a much less sympathetic medium for artistic expression. Japanese ceramics are among the finest in the world and include the earliest known artifacts of their culture. In architecture, Japanese preferences for natural materials and an interaction of interior and exterior space are expressed; the first settlers of Japan, the Jōmon people, named for the cord markings that decorated the surfaces of their clay vessels, were nomadic hunter-gatherers who practiced organized farming and built cities with populations of hundreds if not thousands.
They built simple houses of wood and thatch set into shallow earthen pits to provide warmth from the soil. They crafted lavishly decorated pottery storage vessels, clay figurines called dogū, crystal jewels. During the Early Jōmon Period, villages started to be discovered and ordinary everyday objects were found such as ceramic ports purposed for boiling water; the pots that were found during this time had flat bottoms and had elaborate designs made out of materials such as bamboo. In addition, another important find was the early Jōmon figurines which might have been used as fertility objects due to the breasts and swelling hips that they exhibited; the Middle Jōmon Period, contrasted from the Early Jōmon Period in many ways. These people began to settle in villages, they created tools that were able to process the food that they gathered and hunted which made living easier for them. Through the numerous aesthetically pleasing ceramics that were found during this time period, it is evident that these people had a stable economy and more leisure time to establish beautiful pieces.
In addition, the people of the Middle Jōmon period differed from their preceding ancestors because they developed vessels according to their function, for example, they produced pots in order to store items. The decorations on these vessels started to become more realistic looking as opposed to the early Jōmon ceramics. Overall, the production of works not only increased during this period, but these individuals made them more decorative and naturalistic. During the Late and Final Jōmon period, the weather started to get colder, therefore forcing them to move away from the mountains; the main food source during this time was fish, which made them improve their fishing supplies and tools. This advancement was a important achievement during this time. In addition, the numbers of vessels increased which could conclude that each house had their own figurine displayed in them. Although various vessels were found during the Late and Final Jōmon Period, these pieces were found damaged which might indicate that they used them for rituals.
In addition, figurines were found and were characterized by their fleshy bodies and goggle like eyes. The next wave of immigrants was the Yayoi people, named for the district in Tokyo where remnants of their settlements first were found; these people, arriving in Japan about 300 BC, brought their knowledge of wetland rice cultivation, the manufacture of copper weapons and bronze bells, wheel-thrown, kiln-fired ceramics. The third stage in Japanese prehistory, the Kofun period, represents a modification of Yayoi culture, attributable either to internal development or external force; the period is named for the large number of kofun megalithic tombs created during this period. In this period, diverse groups of people coalesced into a nation. Typical artifacts are bronze mirrors, symbols of political alliances, clay sculptures called haniwa which were erected outside tombs. During the Asuka and Nara periods, so named because the seat of Japanese government was located in the Asuka Valley from 542 to 645 and in the city of Nara until 7
East Asian hip-and-gable roof
In East Asian architecture, the hip-and-gable roof consists of a hip roof that slopes down on all four sides and integrates a gable on two opposing sides. It is constructed with two large sloping roof sections in the front and back while each of the two sides is constructed with a smaller roof section; the style has spread across East Asia. The original style and similar styles are found in the traditional architecture of Japan, Vietnam, Tibet, Sri Lanka and Kalmykia, it influenced the style of the bahay na bato of the Philippines. It is known as xiēshān in Chinese, irimoya in Japanese, paljakjibung in Korean. Irimoya arrived from China to Japan in the 6th century; the style was used in the main and lecture halls of a Buddhist temple compound. It started to be used for the honden at shrines during the Japanese Middle Ages, its gable is right above the moya, or core, while the hip covers the hisashi, a veranda-like aisle surrounding the core on one or more sides. It is still in wide use in Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines in Japan, in palaces and folk dwellings.
In the last case, it is called moya-zukuri. In Sri Lanka, a style known as the Kandyan roof bears many similarities to the original East Asian hip-and-gable roof; the Kandyan roof is used for religious, royal buildings. Its roots however lie in the traditions of the "Sri Lankan village". Gablet roof
Calligraphy is a visual art related to writing. It is the design and execution of lettering with a broad tip instrument, brush, or other writing instruments. A contemporary calligraphic practice can be defined as "the art of giving form to signs in an expressive and skillful manner". Modern calligraphy ranges from functional inscriptions and designs to fine-art pieces where the letters may or may not be readable. Classical calligraphy differs from typography and non-classical hand-lettering, though a calligrapher may practice both. Calligraphy continues to flourish in the forms of wedding invitations and event invitations, font design and typography, original hand-lettered logo design, religious art, graphic design and commissioned calligraphic art, cut stone inscriptions, memorial documents, it is used for props and moving images for film and television, for testimonials and death certificates and other written works. The principal tools for a calligrapher are the brush. Calligraphy pens round, or pointed.
For some decorative purposes, multi-nibbed pens—steel brushes—can be used. However, works have been created with felt-tip and ballpoint pens, although these works do not employ angled lines. There are some styles such as Gothic script, that require a stub nib pen. Writing ink is water-based and is much less viscous than the oil-based inks used in printing. High quality paper, which has good consistency of absorption, enables cleaner lines, although parchment or vellum is used, as a knife can be used to erase imperfections and a light-box is not needed to allow lines to pass through it. Light boxes and templates are used to achieve straight lines without pencil markings detracting from the work. Ruled paper, either for a light box or direct use, is most ruled every quarter or half inch, although inch spaces are used; this is the case with litterea unciales, college-ruled paper acts as a guideline well. Common calligraphy pens and brushes are: Quill Dip pen Ink brush Qalam Fountain pen Western calligraphy is recognizable by the use of the Latin script.
The Latin alphabet appeared about 600 BC, in Rome, by the first century developed into Roman imperial capitals carved on stones, Rustic capitals painted on walls, Roman cursive for daily use. In the second and third centuries the uncial lettering style developed; as writing withdrew to monasteries, uncial script was found more suitable for copying the Bible and other religious texts. It was the monasteries which preserved calligraphic traditions during the fourth and fifth centuries, when the Roman Empire fell and Europe entered the Dark Ages. At the height of the Empire, its power reached as far as Great Britain; the Semi-uncial generated the small Anglo-Saxon. Each region developed its own standards following the main monastery of the region, which are cursive and hardly readable. Christian churches promoted the development of writing through the prolific copying of the Bible, the Breviary, other sacred texts. Two distinct styles of writing known as uncial and half-uncial developed from a variety of Roman bookhands.
The 7th–9th centuries in northern Europe were the heyday of Celtic illuminated manuscripts, such as the Book of Durrow, Lindisfarne Gospels and the Book of Kells. Charlemagne's devotion to improved scholarship resulted in the recruiting of "a crowd of scribes", according to Alcuin, the Abbot of York. Alcuin developed the style known as the Carolingian minuscule; the first manuscript in this hand was the Godescalc Evangelistary —a Gospel book written by the scribe Godescalc. Carolingian remains the one progenitor hand. In the eleventh century, the Caroline evolved into the Gothic script, more compact and made it possible to fit more text on a page; the Gothic calligraphy styles became dominant throughout Europe. In the 15th century, the rediscovery of old Carolingian texts encouraged the creation of the humanist minuscule or littera antiqua; the 17th century saw the Batarde script from France, the 18th century saw the English script spread across Europe and world through their books. In the mid-1600s French officials, flooded with documents written in various hands and varied levels of skill, complained that many such documents were beyond their ability to decipher.
The Office of the Financier thereupon restricted all legal documents to three hands, namely the Coulee, the Rhonde, a Speed Hand sometimes called the Bastarda. While there were many great French masters at the time, the most influential in proposing these hands was Louis Barbedor, who published Les Ecritures Financière Et Italienne Bastarde Dans Leur Naturel circa 1650. With the destruction of the Camera Apostolica during the sack of Rome, the capitol for writing masters moved to Southern France. By 1600, the Italic Cursiva began to be replaced by a technological refinement, the Italic Chancery Circumflessa, which in turn fathered the Rhonde and English Roundhand. In England and Banson popularized the Round Hand while Snell is noted for his reaction to them, warnings of restraint and proportionality. Still Edward Crocker began publishing his copybooks 40 years before the aforementioned. Sacred Western calligraphy has some special features
Kanō Sanraku was a Japanese painter known as Kimura Heizō, Shūri, Sanraku. Sanraku's works combine the forceful quality of Momoyama work with the tranquil depiction of nature, they have a more refined use of color typical of the Edo period, his father was the painter Kimura Nagamitsu who flourished circa 1570, he was born in Shiga Prefecture and died in Kyoto. Sanraku worked as a page in the service of the "second unifier of Japan", Toyotomi Hideyoshi, in the 1570s. While in Hideyoshi's service, Sanraku's talent shined through and led to Hideyoshi introducing the young boy to the famed Kano artist school head artist of the time, Kanō Eitoku. Eitoku was so impressed by the young boy's skills that he adopted Sanraku, making him a part of the Kanō school. Named Kanō Mitsuyori, he changed his name to avoid political persecution after the fall of the Toyotomi clan, he went on to train and work with Kanō Sansetsu having Sansetsu marry his daughter and, after the loss of Sanraku's eldest son, making him Sanraku's heir by adopting him.
After Eitoku's death, Sanraku became head of the Kanō school and remained busy taking commissions from Hideyoshi and his son, Toyotomi Hideyori, from 1590 to 1615. During this time the Toyotomi clan was focused on rebuilding Kyoto to its former splendor, before the Genpei Wars; this meant commissions from the Toyotomi clan were focused within their family castle, reconstruction of Imperial imagery, paintings for Buddhist temples and Shinto Shrines all around Kyoto. Though many of his primary commissions were in Kyoto at the time, most of the Kanō artists moved to Edo, but he continued to adhere to the brightly coloured style of the Momoyama period, his grandson, Kanō Einō, painted in the same style, but is better known for a biographical history of Japanese painting, which gave the Kanō school pride of place. In 1615, the Tokugawa clan Tokugawa Ieyasu, solidified their domination over the Toyotomi clan in the Siege of Osaka; the murdering of his main patron, burning of works in Momoyama Castle, general political turnover made Sanraku remove himself from Kyoto's artistic and social circles and took the tonsure, changing his name from Mitsuyori to the priestly Sanraku.
During this time he spent secluded in remote country temples, but found his way back to Kyoto in 1619 at work on a commission form the shōgun Tokugawa Hidetada for fusuma panels to be used in the latest refurbishment of the imperial palace in preparation for the marriage of his daughter Tokugawa Kazuko to the emperor Emperor Go-Mizunoo. Sanraku continued to paint for the Tokugawa family for 15 years until his death in 1634. Considered one of the most talented artists of the Kanō school, he continued to champion the dramatic style of his mentor, Eitoku. Though he retreated from the dynamic imagery, substituting first a naturalism of expression and a quality of elegant ornamentation, he skill pushed the revitalization of yamato-e through the gold-and-blue technique. However, like most Kanō artists of the period, he was still a master of painting in a variety of styles ranging from large works for decorating castles to smaller monochrome kara-e derived from Chinese ink-wash painting, he mastered a true fusion of both kara-e and yamato-e, thus allowing him to align the Kano school with the second phase of painting within the Edo period.
This phase of painting represented a more intellectual approach to pictorial content on the part of the artist—and commissioner—whether it be reworking traditional yamato-e theme or interpreting complex and unfamiliar subjects from Chinese literature. This helped to reshape Japanese's artistic identity after being shaken during the war ridden Medieval Periods. Carriage Fight Scene from Hollyhock Chapter of the Tales of Genji. Early 17th century. Color and ink on paper, 68 1⁄8 by 145 1⁄2 inches. Tokyo National Museum Frolicking Birds in Plum and Willow Trees in Jokanninoma room of Tenkyuin Temple. 17th Century. Four walls with eight doors and 18 panels and washi on paper and laid with gold leaf, http://global.canon/en/tsuzuri/works/30.html Tigers and Storms pair of screens Tigers in a Bamboo Forest on fusuma in Tenkyuin. 17th century. Four walls with twenty sliding doors. Tokyo National Museum. Associated Images Paine, Robert Treat, in: Paine, R. T. & Soper A, The Art and Architecture of Japan, Pelican History of Art, 3rd ed 1981, Penguin, ISBN 0140561080 Watson, The Great Japan Exhibition: Art of the Edo Period 1600–1868, 1981, Royal Academy of Arts/Weidenfeld & Nicolson Momoyama, Japanese Art in the Age of Grandeur, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Kanō Sanraku
Château de Domecy-sur-le-Vault
The Château de Domecy-sur-le-Vault is a château located in Domecy-sur-le-Vault close to Sermizelles in the Yonne department in Burgundy, north-central France. Chateau de Domecy-sur-le-Vault is first mentioned in texts dating back to 1316. At that time, the stronghold was in the hands of the family d'Ostun, in whose possession it remained for over a century. In 1440, the lordship and castle passed by marriage to Edme de Salins, in 1478, to his son Jean; the son owned a house in Avallon in front of the church of Saint Lazarus, known as hôtel des Sires de Domecy. In 1507 Domecy was sold to Louis de Robert. Claude Longueville, Lord of Santigny, brought Domecy into his family in 1537, when he married Philiberte de Robert. In 1569, the fortified house was burned down by troops of Frederick Louis, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken; the land was sold in 1748 to Michel-Auguste de Denesvre, whose family occupied the first ranks of society in Avallon. They undertook the reconstruction of the south wing of the castle to give it the current appearance.
Baron Robert de Domecy commissioned the artist Odilon Redon in 1899 to create 17 decorative panels for the dining room. He commissioned Redon to do portraits of his wife and their daughter Jeanne, two of which are in the collections of the Musée d'Orsay and the Getty Museum in California. Most of the paintings remained in the family collection until the 1960s. Fifteen of the panels are located today in the Musée d'Orsay, which entered the museum in 1988. Redon created large decorative works for private residences in the past; the panels he painted for the château de Domecy in 1900–1901 were his most radical compositions. They mark the transition from the ornamental to abstract painting; the landscape details do not show a specific space. Only details of trees, twigs with leaves, budding flowers in an endless horizon can be seen; the colours used are yellow, grey and light blue. Some of the panels are up to 2.5 metres high. Château de Domecy-sur-Cure Françoise Vignier. Dictionnaire des Châteaux de France, Bourgogne et Nivernais.
Historical image of the château de Domecy-sur-le-Vault Images of the château de Domecy-sur-le-Vault