A by-election spelled bye-election, is an election used to fill an office that has become vacant between general elections. In most cases these elections occur after the incumbent dies or resigns, but they occur when the incumbent becomes ineligible to continue in office. Less these elections have been called when a constituency election is invalidated by voting irregularities; the procedure for filling a vacant seat in the House of Commons of England was developed during the Reformation Parliament of the 16th century by Thomas Cromwell. Cromwell devised a new election; this made it a simple matter to ensure the seat rewarded an ally of the crown. During the Parliaments of Charles II, which reached up to 18 years in length, by-elections were the primary means by which new members entered the House of Commons. By-elections are held in most nations that elect their parliaments through single-member constituencies, whether with or without a runoff round; this includes most Commonwealth countries, such as the United Kingdom and Pakistan, as well as non-Commonwealth countries such as France.

In the UK a writ for a by-election must be issued within three months of a vacancy arising. In the United States, these contests have been called "special elections" because they do not always occur on Election Day like regular congressional elections. Special elections are held when a seat in the House of Representatives, state legislature, or local legislature becomes vacant. At the federal level, the U. S. Constitution requires that vacancies in the House of Representatives be filled with a special election. In most cases where a vacancy is filled through a special election, a primary will be held to determine which candidates will represent the major parties; when one seat in a proportional representation constituency becomes vacant, the consequences vary. For example, a by-election may be held to fill just the vacancy or all the seats in the constituency could be contested in the by-election. Scotland and New Zealand still hold by-elections, despite having adopted the mixed-member proportional representation system, in which some members are chosen by party lists.

In both countries, by-elections where voters elect their preferred candidate are only used to fill a vacancy in a constituency seat. For example, the death of Donald Dewar resulted in a by-election for the constituency of Glasgow Anniesland. If a vacancy arises from the death or resignation of a party list member, the next unelected candidate on the party list is offered the seat. If that candidate has died or declines the seat, it is offered to subsequent candidates on the list until one accepts the seat. For example, on the resignation of Darren Hughes in March 2011, Louisa Wall was elected after all the five candidates above her on the New Zealand Labour Party's list declined the seat; the Republic of Ireland holds by-elections despite electing members in multi-member constituencies by the single transferable vote. Alternatives to holding a by-election include: choosing from those losing candidates at the previous election who choose to contest the recount to fill the vacancy, as in Tasmania or the Australian Capital Territory, keeping the seat vacant until the next general election.

This occurs if a vacancy arises shortly before a planned general election. Nominating another candidate with the same affiliation as the former member – in list systems, the next candidate on the party list. For the Australian Senate, the State Parliament appoints a replacement; those Australian states with an Upper House elected by PR-STV copy the federal Senate model, except for Western Australia, which holds a recount of ballots, with sitting members retaining their seats. By-elections can be crucial. In parliamentary systems, party discipline is so strong that the governing party can only lose a vote of no confidence after losing enough by-elections for it to become a minority government. Examples are the Labour government of James Callaghan 1976–1979 and Conservative government of John Major 1992–1997. In the United States Senate, Scott Brown's election in 2010 ended the filibuster-proof supermajority enjoyed by Democrats. By-elections can be important if a minority party needs to gain one or more seats in order to gain official party status or the balance of power in a minority or coalition situation.

For example, Andrea Horwath's win in an Ontario provincial by-election in 2004 allowed the Ontario New Democratic Party to regain official party status with important results in terms of parliamentary privileges and funding. Political scientists caution against overinterpreting by-election results, which non-experts take as a bellwether; the evidence suggests.

Altay Bayındır

Altay Bayındır is a Turkish professional footballer of Abkhazian descent who plays as a goalkeeper for the Turkish club Fenerbahçe. Altay made his professional debut with MKE Ankaragücü in a 1-1 Süper Lig with Çaykur Rizespor on 30 November 2018. On 8 July 2019, Bayındır signed a four-year contract with Fenerbahçe. Altay represented the Turkey U-20s at the 2018 Toulon Tournament; as of 29 December 2019. Altay Bayındır at the Turkish Football Federation Altay Bayındır at Altay Bayındır at Soccerway

Artistic development of Tom Thomson

Tom Thomson was a Canadian painter from the beginning of the 20th century. Beginning from humble roots, his development as a career painter was meteoric, only pursuing it in the final years of his life, he became one of the foremost figures in Canadian art, leaving behind around 400 small oil sketches and around fifty larger works on canvas. Beginning his career in 1902 as a graphic designer, he only began to paint in 1912 at the age of 35, his skills developed. His creative peak came from 1914 until his untimely death in 1917, his art style progressed from sombre, grey scenes into brilliantly coloured exposés, characterized by rapid and thickly applied brushstrokes. His works presage the advances seen by the Abstract Expressionist movement; the artwork of Thomson is divided into two bodies: the first is made up of the small oil sketches on wood panels, of which there are around 400, the second is of around fifty larger works on canvas. The smaller sketches were done in the style of en plein air in "the North," Algonquin Park, in the spring and fall.

The larger canvases were instead completed over the winter in Thomson's studio—an old utility shack with a wood-burning stove on the grounds of the Studio Building, an artist's enclave in Rosedale, Toronto. Although he sold few of the larger paintings during his lifetime, they formed the basis of posthumous exhibitions, including one at Wembley in London, that brought international attention to his work, though the more plentiful sketches have been thought of as the core of his work, he considered most of his sketches to be complete works in themselves and not studies for larger works, since in the transition to a larger canvas the works lose their characteristic intimacy. Still, a dozen or so of the major canvases were directly derived from smaller sketches. Indeed, paintings like Northern River, Spring Ice, The Jack Pine and The West Wind were only expanded into larger oil paintings. While the sketches were produced the canvases were developed over weeks or months; because of this, they display an "inherent formality," with the transition from small to large requiring a reinvention or elaboration of the original details.

In this transition he exaggerated hillsides or other landscape features to give the final picture greater depth. Comparing sketches with their respective canvases allows one to see the changes Thomson made in colour and background textural patterns. In 1914 Thomson made himself a sketch box to hold 8½ × 10½ inch panels; the lower half of the box served as a palette, while the upper half served as a support for canvas or wood panels. Slots made room for three paintings to be carried at any given time, keeping them apart so wet paint did not smear or flatten. Thomson utilized different materials throughout his career. For example, the wood panels he used in 1914 developed vertical cracks, he had only used hard wood-pulp board in 1914, but began using it in 1915. In the spring and fall of 1915 he used terra cotta-coloured and carnation-coloured paint as sealers, but by 1916 he had switched to ochre paint. In the spring of 1917 he disassembled and cut up wood crates to make into 5 × 7 inch panels for sketching, smaller than those he painted on and requiring tighter handling.

Fragments of brand names are stamped on the back such as Birches and An Ice Covered Lake. During the same spring he reused around one-third of his sketches, either because he was not satisfied with them or because he was short on painting materials. In 2000, a study was conducted to understand the materials and working method of Thomson. In 2002–03, before a travelling exhibition organized by the National Gallery of Canada and the Art Gallery of Ontario, the Canadian Conservation Institute utilized infrared and X-ray photography and micro-sampling of pigments to further analyze many of Thomson's paintings. Sandra Webster-Cook and Anne Ruggles described in their research how Thomson applied differently coloured primers in various parts of his paintings to give them subtle yet important qualities. Thomson used photography to capture things that gained his interest, such as fish he caught, images of his friends or the landscape, he does not seem to have used any of his photographs for producing art, with none of the extant photos corresponding to any of his paintings.

He instead preferred to capture images with small oil sketches, nearly all of the works he produced are among these small sketches. David Silcox however has speculated that Drowned Land may have been painted with a photograph as a memory aid given their "uncanny precision."In 1912 while travelling up the Spanish River in the Mississagi area with William Broadhead, Thomson lost at least a dozen rolls of film along with many more sketches after their canoe experienced several spills. He had intended to use them in his commercial work. Tom Thomson's first foray into art came in 1901 with his education at Canada Business College in Chatham, Ontario, it was there. By 1902, he had been hired in Seattle at the design firm Maring & Ladd, working as a pen artist and etcher, his main work there consisted in producing business cards and posters, as well as three-colour printing. Having learned calligraphy, he specialized in lettering and painting. Thomson may have worked as a freelance commerc