The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic commonly referred to in English as Byelorussia, was a federal unit of the Soviet Union. It existed between 1920 and 1922, from 1922 to 1991 as one of fifteen constituent republics of the USSR, with its own legislation from 1990 to 1991; the republic was ruled by the Communist Party of Byelorussia and was referred to as Soviet Byelorussia by a number of historians. To the west it bordered Poland. Within the Soviet Union, it bordered the Lithuanian SSR and the Latvian SSR to the north, the Russian SFSR to the east, the Ukrainian SSR to the south; the Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia was declared by the Bolsheviks on 1 January 1919 following the declaration of independence by the Belarusian Democratic Republic in March 1918. In 1922, the BSSR was one of the four founding members of the Soviet Union, together with the Ukrainian SSR, the Transcaucasian SFSR, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Byelorussia was one of several Soviet republics occupied by Nazi Germany during World War II.
Towards the final years of the Soviet Union's existence, the Supreme Soviet of Byelorussian SSR adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty on 27 July 1990. On 15 August 1991, Stanislaŭ Šuškievič was elected as the country's first president. Ten days on 25 August 1991, Byelorussian SSR declared its independence and renamed to the Republic of Belarus; the Soviet Union was dissolved four months and one day on 26 December 1991. The term Byelorussia first rose in the days of the Russian Empire, the Russian Tsar was styled "the Tsar of All the Russias", as Russia or the Russian Empire was formed by three parts of Russia—the Great and White; this asserted that the territories are all Russian and all the peoples are Russian. Following the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917, the term "White Russia" caused some confusion as it was the name of the military force that opposed the red Bolsheviks. During the period of the Byelorussian SSR, the term Byelorussia was embraced as part of a national consciousness. In western Belarus under Polish control, Byelorussia became used in the regions of Białystok and Hrodna during the interwar period.
Upon the establishment of the Byelorussian Socialist Soviet Republic in 1920, the term Byelorussia was only used officially. In 1936, with the proclamation of the 1936 Soviet Constitution, the republic was renamed to the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic transposing the second and third words. On 25 August 1991 the Supreme Soviet of the Byelorussian SSR renamed the Soviet republic to the Republic of Belarus, with the short form "Belarus". Conservative forces in the newly independent Belarus did not support the name change and opposed its inclusion in the 1991 draft of the Constitution of Belarus. Prior to the First World War, Belarusian lands were part of the Russian Empire, which it gained from the Partitions of Poland more than a century earlier. During the War, the Russian Western Front's Great retreat in August/September 1915 ended with the lands of Hrodna and most of Viĺnia guberniyas occupied by Germany; the resulting front, passing at 100 kilometres to the west of Minsk remained static towards the end of the conflict, despite Russian attempts to break it at Lake Narač in late spring 1916 and General Alexei Evert's inconclusive thrust around the city of Baranavičy in summer of that year, during the Brusilov offensive further south, in Western Ukraine.
The abdication of Tsar Nicholas II in light of the February Revolution in Russia in February 1917, activated a rather dormant political life in Belarus. As central authority waned, different political and ethnic groups strived for greater self-determination and secession from the ineffective Russian Provisional Government; the momentum picked up after the incompetent actions of the 10th Army during the ill-fated Kerensky Offensive during the summer. Representatives of Belarusian regions and of different newly established political powers, including the Belarusian Socialist Assembly, the Christian democratic movement and the General Jewish Labour Bund, formed a Belarusian Central Council. Towards the autumn political stability continued to shake, countering the rising nationalist tendencies were the Bolshevik Soviets, when the October Revolution hit Russia, that same day, on 25 October, the Minsk Soviet of workers and soldiers deputies took over the administration of the city; the Bolshevik All-Russian council of Soviets declared the creation of the Western Oblast which unified the Viĺnia, Mahilioŭ and Minsk guberniyas that were not occupied by the German army, to administer the Belarusian lands in the frontal zone.
On 26 November, the executive committee of workers and soldiers deputies for the Western O
The Wheeler–Schebler Carburetor Company was one of the Indianapolis's most important auto parts manufacturers and the last automobile parts factories in Indianapolis, Indiana to survive from the first decades of the 20th century. The Wheeler–Schebler Carburetor Company Building was the company's original building at the Barth Avenue site, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2004. In 1904, Harry C. Stutz, involved in the design and manufacture of internal combustion engines, introduced George Schebler to Frank W. Wheeler. In the resulting partnership, Wheeler provided the money, while Schebler provided the engineering skills. Stutz worked temporarily as Sales Manager. By 1907, they had achieved enough success to move to Indianapolis into a state-of-the-art factory one of the most advanced in the United States at the time, it produced carburetors for over 15 makes of autos from 1911 up to 1951. Frank Wheeler and three other local men opened the Indianapolis Motor Speedway in 1909.
Prior to the inauguration of the Indianapolis 500 in 1911, the Wheeler-Schebler company sponsored the Wheeler-Schebler Trophy Race at the track. George Schebler sold his interests in the company in 1912, but it continued to operate under the Wheeler-Schebler name until 1928, when it evolved into the Marvel-Schebler Carburetor Company, one of five companies that played a role in the development of what became Borg-Warner Corporation; the Marvel-Schebler company did some of the early work on fuel injection systems in the late 1950s and early 60s merging with the Tillotson Carburetor Company in 1971. In 1985, the name was revised to "Control Systems" by Borg-Warner; when Borg-Warner went through a leveraged buyout in 1987, Borg Warner Automotive Inc. was spun off as an independent company, still in operation, developing fuel efficient engine and drive train technology. To this day, the trophy awarded annually to the winner of the Indianapolis 500 is known as the Borg-Warner Trophy; the original Wheeler-Schebler building still survives.
It used to house the "Wheeler Arts Community" and the "Community Arts and Education Center" in the Fountain Square district of Indianapolis at 1035 East Sanders Street until it was closed in 2018. The building is now being converted into market-rate housing units. Wheeler–Schebler Carburetor Company Building at National Park Service
The Brecksville-Northfield High Level Bridge is a bridge in Greater Cleveland, Ohio, U. S. connecting Brecksville in Cuyahoga County with Sagamore Hills Township in Summit County. It is located in the Cuyahoga Valley National Park. In 2012, five men were accused of planning to blow up the bridge; the five were accused of planting what they thought were explosives and attempting to detonate it with a cell phone. Following guilty pleas and one conviction, the men were sentenced between November 2012 and October 2013. "Brecksville-Northfield High Level Bridge, Spanning Cuyahoga River Between Brecksville & Northfield, Cuyahoga County, OH". Historic American Engineering Record. Brecksville-Northfield High Level Bridge at bridgehunter.com