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Byzantine coinage

Byzantine currency, money used in the Eastern Roman Empire after the fall of the West, consisted of two types of coins: the gold solidus and a variety of valued bronze coins. By the end of the empire the currency was issued only in silver stavrata and minor copper coins with no gold issue; the East Roman or Byzantine Empire operated several mints throughout its history. Aside from the main metropolitan mint in the capital, Constantinople, a varying number of provincial mints were established in other urban centres during the 6th century. Most provincial mints except for Syracuse were lost to invasions by the mid-7th century. After the loss of Syracuse in 878, Constantinople became the sole mint for gold and silver coinage until the late 11th century, when major provincial mints began to re-appear. Many mints, both imperial and, as the Byzantine world fragmented, belonging to autonomous local rulers, were operated in the 12th to 14th centuries. Constantinople and Trebizond, the seat of the independent Empire of Trebizond, survived until their conquest by the Ottoman Turks in the mid-15th century.

Early Byzantine coins continue the late Roman conventions: on the obverse the head of the Emperor, now full face rather than in profile, on the reverse a Christian symbol such as the cross, or a Victory or an angel. The gold coins of Justinian II departed from these stable conventions by putting a bust of Christ on the obverse, a half or full-length portrait of the Emperor on the reverse; these innovations incidentally had the effect of leading the Islamic Caliph Abd al-Malik, who had copied Byzantine styles but replacing Christian symbols with Islamic equivalents to develop a distinctive Islamic style, with only lettering on both sides. This was used on nearly all Islamic coinage until the modern period; the type of Justinian II was revived after the end of Iconoclasm, with variations remained the norm until the end of the Empire. In the 10th century, so-called "anonymous folles" were struck instead of the earlier coins depicting the emperor; the anonymous folles featured the bust of Jesus on the obverse and the inscription "XRISTUS/bASILEU/bASILE", which translates to "Christ, Emperor of Emperors" Byzantine coins followed, took to the furthest extreme, the tendency of precious metal coinage to get thinner and wider as time goes on.

Late Byzantine gold coins became thin wafers. The Byzantine coinage had a prestige. European rulers, once they again started issuing their own coins, tended to follow a simplified version of Byzantine patterns, with full face ruler portraits on the obverse; the start of what is viewed as Byzantine currency by numismatics began with the monetary reform of Anastasius in 498, who reformed the late Roman Empire coinage system which consisted of the gold solidus and the bronze nummi. The nummus was an small bronze coin, at about 8–10 mm, weight of 0.56 g making it at 576 to the Roman pound, inconvenient because a large number of them were required for small transactions. New bronze coins, multiples of the nummus were introduced, such as the 40 nummi, 20 nummi, 10 nummi (also known as the decanummium, 5 nummi coins; the obverse of these coins featured a stylized portrait of the emperor while the reverse featured the value of the denomination represented according to the Greek numbering system. Silver coins were produced.

The only issued silver coin was the Hexagram first issued by Heraclius in 615 which lasted until the end of the 7th century, minted in varying fineness with a weight between 7.5 and 8.5 grams. It was succeeded by the ceremonial miliaresion established by Leo III the Isaurian in ca. 720, which became standard issue from ca. 830 on and until the late 11th century, when it was discontinued after being debased. Small transactions were conducted with bronze coinage throughout this period; the gold solidus or nomisma remained a standard of international commerce until the 11th century, when it began to be debased under successive emperors beginning in the 1030s under the emperor Romanos Argyros. Until that time, the fineness of the gold remained consistent at about 0.955–0.980. The Byzantine monetary system changed during the 7th century when the 40 nummi, now smaller, became the only bronze coin to be issued. Although Justinian II attempted a restoration of the follis size of Justinian I, the follis continued to decrease in size.

In the early 9th century, a three-fourths-weight solidus was issued in parallel with a full-weight solidus, both preserving the standard of fineness, under a failed plan to force the market to accept the underweight coins at the value of the full weight coins. The 11⁄12 weight coin was called a tetarteron, the full weight solidus was called the histamenon; the tetarteron was only sporadically reissued during the 10th century. The full weight solidus was struck at 72 to the Roman pound 4.48 grams in weight. There were solidi of weight reduced by one siliqua issued for trade with the Near East; these reduced solidi, with a star both on obverse and reverse, weighed about 4.25 g. The Byzantine solidus was valued in Western Europe, where it became known as the bezant, a corruption of Byzantium; the term bezant became the name for the heraldic symbol of a roundel

Troop 1500

Troop 1500 is a documentary film which won two Gracie Awards from the American Women in Radio & Television in the Individual Achievement Award for Outstanding Director and Outstanding Documentary. The nationally broadcast film follows a unique Girl Scouts of the USA troop which unites mothers and daughters monthly behind the bars at the Hilltop Unit, a prison of the Texas Department of Criminal Justice, in Gatesville, Texas. All of the mothers have been convicted of serious crimes and are serving long sentences; the troop's activities are centered on rebuilding the tenuous relationships, addition to arts and crafts and learning life skills, the mothers and daughters bond by asking and answering tough questions of each other. For more than five years, filmmaker Ellen Spiro worked with the leaders and girls of Troop 1500, the "prison troop," as a volunteer and mentor, she spent the first year with the troop training the girls in cinematography and editing, she began making Troop 1500 in which the girls occupy front and center of the film, as subjects as well as crew.

Troop 1500 is an example of Spiro's innovative style of filmmaking which requires an interpersonal and intimate involvement with her subject over a long period of time. American Women in Radio & Television 32nd annual Gracie Award Individual Achievement Award for Outstanding Director Outstanding Documentary Commendation from the Texas State Legislature Austin, Liz. Film Documents Scout Troop's Efforts to Break Cycle of Crime. Amarillo Globe News. 2006-3-18. Retrieved on 2007-6-24. Evans, Kate. Troop 1500: Girls with Mums in Prison, Together. Life Matters. 2006-4-20. Retrieved on 2007-6-24. Geisler, Erin. Troop 1500: Girl Scouts Beyond Bars; the University of Texas at Austin, Office of Public Affairs. 2005-3-14. Retrieved 2007-6-22. Grant, Darlene.. Resilience of girls with incarcerated mothers: The impact of Girl Scouts; the Prevention Researcher, 13, 11-14. Guiding Kids Through Troop 1500. Official Website of the Girls Scouts of the USA. 2006 newsletter. Retrieved 2007-6-22. Hill, Alison Michelle. Troop 1500: The Real Deal on a Reality Movie.

Studio 2B: The Place for Teens. Retrieved 2007-6-22. Holt, Cody. Job: Video Reunion. DigitalContentProducer.com. 2006-6-1. Retrieved on 2007-6-24. Karnasiewicz, Sarah. Tough Cookies. Salon.com. 2006-3-21. Retrieved on 2007-6-18. Kasten, Susan. Troop 1500. Beloit College Magazine. Summer 2006. Retrieved 2007-6-22. Neff, Nancy. Beyond Bars: Special Girl Scout Troop Helps Young Women Connect with Their Mothers in Prison; the University of Texas at Austin Online Features. 2006-1-23. Retrieved on 2007-6-22. S. Brianna. Finding and Filming Your Passions: An Interview with Filmmaker Ellen Spiro, Part I. Studio 2B: The Place for Teens. Retrieved 2007-6-22. S. Brianna. and Filming Your Passions: An Interview with Filmmaker Ellen Spiro, Part II. Studio 2B: The Place for Teens. Retrieved 2007-6-22. Scheib, Ronnie. Troop 1500: Girl Scouts Behind Bars. Variety. 2005-3-15. Retrieved on 2007-6-17. Swan, Marion. Troop 1500 Documentary on Texas Girl Scout Council Premieres at South By Southwest Film Festival. Official Website of the Girls Scouts of the USA.

2005-3-3. Retrieved 2007-6-22. Swan, Marion. Emmy Award-Winning PBS Series Independent Lens to Host Broadcast Premiere of'Troop 1500'. Official Website of the Girls Scouts of the USA. 2006-3-9. Retrieved on 2007-6-24. Troop 1500 at the Internet Movie Database Troop 1500 Official Website Troop 1500 at Independent Lens Troop 1500 Girl Scouts Beyond Bars at Women Make Movies Taylor Zelman, Shawn. American Women in Radio & Television Announces 32nd Annual Gracie Award Winners. American Women in Radio & Television official website. 2007-2-27. Retrieved on 2007-6-25. Texas State Legislature, Senate Resolution 545

Sam Waley-Cohen

Sam Bernard Waley-Cohen is an English National Hunt amateur jockey and businessman. Waley-Cohen is the son of Felicity Ann and businessman, racehorse breeder and trainer Robert Waley-Cohen, nephew of the theatre owner and producer Sir Stephen Waley-Cohen Bt. Joanna Waley-Cohen, provost at NYU Shanghai, collegiate professor and professor of history in the NYU History Department in New York and grandson of Lord Mayor of London, Sir Bernard Waley-Cohen; the founder of Shell Oil -Marcus Samuel, 1st Viscount Bearsted- was his great-great-grandfather. Waley-Cohen was educated at Dragon School and St Edward's School, Oxford followed by the University of Edinburgh. Waley-Cohen married Annabel Ballin in 2012. Waley-Cohen was reported in the sports' pages in 2007 when he came 5th on his father's horse Liberthine in the Grand National, he won the delayed 2010 King George VI Chase in January 2011 on Long Run, preventing Kauto Star from winning the race for a record fifth consecutive year. In 2011, Sam Waley-Cohen won the Cheltenham Gold Cup on Long Run.

He is the first amateur jockey in 30 years to win the race. In the 2012 and 2013 runnings they finished third to Bobs Worth respectively. Over the Grand National course he has an enviable record, he came second in the 2011 Grand National on Oscar Time, has now won six races around the Grand National course, making him the most successful course jockey of the modern era. Waley-Cohen started his career at Louis Dreyfus Trading Ltd in London, spending time with the successful sugar trading division. Waley-Cohen has built up the Portman Dentalcare chain of dental practices since he started the business in 2009. By March 2011 the business had grown to eight dental practices employing 170 staff and by 2013 it has grown to 15 dental practices, his business activities saw him nominated as Spears young entrepreneur of the year in 2011. Waley-Cohen is a celebrity ambassador for The Bone Cancer Research Trust, he is a trustee of the Injured Jockeys Fund, founder of the TAWC Fund. Portman Healthcare