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Byzantine dress

Byzantine dress changed over the thousand years of the Empire, but was conservative. The Byzantines liked color and pattern, made and exported richly patterned cloth Byzantine silk and embroidered for the upper classes, resist-dyed and printed for the lower. A different border or trimming round the edges was common, many single stripes down the body or around the upper arm are seen denoting class or rank. Taste for the middle and upper classes followed the latest fashions at the Imperial Court; as in the West during the Middle Ages, clothing was expensive for the poor, who wore the same well-worn clothes nearly all the time. In the early stages of the Byzantine Empire the traditional Roman toga was still used as formal or official dress. By Justinian's time this had been replaced by the tunica, or long chiton, for both sexes, over which the upper classes wore other garments, like a dalmatica, a heavier and shorter type of tunica, again worn by both sexes, but by men; the hems curve down to a sharp point.

The scaramangion was a riding-coat of Persian origin, opening down the front and coming to the mid-thigh, although these are recorded as being worn by Emperors, when they seem to become much longer. In general, except for military and riding-dress, men of higher status, all women, had clothes that came down to the ankles, or nearly so. Women wore a top layer of the stola, for the rich in brocade. All of these, except the stola, might be belted or not; the terms for dress are confusing, certain identification of the name a particular pictured item had, or the design that relates to a particular documentary reference, is rare outside the Court. The chlamys, a semicircular cloak fastened to the right shoulder continued throughout the period; the length fell sometimes only to the hips or as far as the ankles, much longer than the version worn in Ancient Greece. As well as his courtiers, Emperor Justinian wears one, with a huge brooch, in the Ravenna mosaics. On each straight edge men of the senatorial class had a tablion, a lozenge shaped coloured panel across the chest or midriff, used to show the further rank of the wearer by the colour or type of embroidery and jewels used.

Theodosius I and his co-emperors were shown in 388 with theirs at knee level in the Missorium of Theodosius I of 387, but over the next decades the tablion can be seen to move higher on the Chlamys, for example in ivories of 413-414. A paragauda or border of thick cloth including gold, was an indicator of rank. Sometimes an oblong cloak would be worn by the military and ordinary people. Cloaks were pinned on the right shoulder for ease of movement, access to a sword. Leggings and hose were worn, but are not prominent in depictions of the wealthy. Basic clothes appear to have been expensive for the poor; some manual workers slaves, are shown continuing to wear, at least in summer, the basic Roman slip costume, two rectangles sewn together at the shoulders and below the arm. Others, when engaged in activity, are shown with the sides of their tunic tied up to the waist for ease of movement; the most common images surviving from the Byzantine period are not relevant as references for actual dress worn in the period.

Christ, the Apostles, Saint Joseph, Saint John the Baptist and some others are nearly always shown wearing formulaic dress of a large himation, a large rectangular mantle wrapped round the body, over a chiton, or loose sleeved tunic, reaching to the ankles. Sandals are worn on the feet; this costume is not seen in secular contexts, although this is deliberate, to avoid confusing secular with divine subjects. The Theotokos is shown wearing a maphorion, a more shaped mantle with a hood and sometimes a hole at the neck; this is close to actual typical dress for widows, for married women when in public. The Virgin's underdress may be visible at the sleeves. There are conventions for Old Testament prophets and other Biblical figures. Apart from Christ and the Virgin, much iconographic dress is white or muted in colour when on walls and in manuscripts, but more brightly coloured in icons. Many other figures in Biblical scenes if unnamed, are depicted wearing "contemporary" Byzantine clothing. Modesty was important for all except the rich, most women appear entirely covered by rather shapeless clothes, which needed to be able to accommodate a full pregnancy.

The basic garment in the early Empire comes down to the ankles, with a high round collar and tight sleeves to the wrist. The fringes and cuffs might be decorated with a band around the upper arm as well. In the 10th and 11th century a dress with flared sleeves very full indeed at the wrist, becomes popular, before disappearing. In court ladies this may come with a V-collar. Belts were worn with belt-hooks to support the skirt. Neck openings were often buttoned, hard to see in art, not described in texts, but must have been needed if only for breast-feeding. Straight down

Singapore Area Licensing Scheme

The Singapore Area Licensing Scheme, was a road pricing scheme introduced in 1975 to 1998, charged drivers who were entering downtown Singapore, thereby aimed to manage traffic demand. This was the first urban traffic congestion pricing scheme to be implemented in the world; this scheme affected all roads entering a 6-square-kilometre area in the Central Business District called the "Restricted Zone" increased to 7.25 square kilometres to include areas that became commercial in nature. The scheme was replaced in 1998 by the Electronic Road Pricing; the introduction of congestion pricing was one of a number of anti-congestion policies implemented in Singapore since the 1970s, in recognition of the country's land constraints, need of economic competitiveness, to avoid the traffic gridlock that chokes many cities in the world. One key aspect of demand management in Singapore is the restraint of vehicle ownership, either through the imposition of high ownership costs or restriction on the actual growth of the car population.

These measures have included high annual road custom duties and vehicle registration fees. Besides fiscal deterrents, supply of motor vehicles was regulated since 1990, when a Vehicle Quota System was introduced; these high initial buy-in charges are considered as the price motorists pay for the luxury of owning a car and to cover part of the fixed costs associated with scaling basic road infrastructure. Use-related charges, such as fuel taxes, ALS or high parking rates are utilised by public authorities to further constraint travel. In parallel to the whole spectrum of road pricing measures, the government has invested in public transport and implemented a park-and-ride scheme, with thirteen fringe car parks, hence providing car users a real alternative to switch travel modes. In summary, Singapore's urban and transport strategy allowed the users to have pro-transit "carrots" matching auto-restraint "sticks", as a result, despite having one of the highest per capita incomes in Asia, 32% of Singaporean households owned cars in 2010.

The ALS was first formulated and designed in 1973, under the leadership of a high level inter-ministerial committee, which recommended policies and measures to improve the urban transport situation back then. The ALS scheme was implemented only after a one-year public dialogue and some modifications were made based on the public's feedback; as detailed above, the ALS was sold as part of an overall package of road pricing measures and public transportation improvements that helped to gain public support. A total of 28 overhead gantries were set up along the boundaries of the RZ, including the areas surrounding Orchard Road; these gantries were monitored by auxiliary police officers who carried out visual checks and recorded any violations. Fines were S$70 and for obvious traffic management reasons, licences were not sold at the control points of the RZ. Users had to buy, in advance, a special paper licence at a cost of S$3 per day, sold at post offices, petrol stations, area licence sales booths or convenience stores, on a monthly or daily basis.

This licence was displayed on the car windscreen or on the handle bars for motorcycles during hours of operation. They were 7.30 am to 9.30 am daily, except on Sundays and public holidays. However, it soon had to be extended to 10.15 am, to control the surge of vehicles waiting to enter just after 9.30 am. In 1989, the evening peak had to be restricted too, in 1994, the ALS was extended from 7.30 am to 6.30 pm. In the first few years after the introduction of the ALS, passenger cars having four or more occupants, public buses and service vehicles were allowed into the zone without being charged. Carpool was exempted too, to better manage demand and to counter the belief that the scheme favoured the rich. Special carpool pick-up points were set up. In 1989 more users were required to pay the fee, as motorcycles and heavy vehicles made up about two-thirds of the traffic entering the RZ. Hence, with this review of the policy, only buses and emergency vehicles were exempted; the exemption for carpools was abolished, because many private cars were picking up bus commuters just to avoid the payment.

In 1980, the fee was increased to S$5, but in 1989 it was reduced back to S$3, due to the fact that now more vehicles were paying. In 1994, two levels of licence fees were established, to differentiate between daily permits and inter-peak licences; the paper licences vary in shape depending on the class of vehicle, their colours varied from one month to another to deter fraud. The colour-coded licences made it easier for the enforcement personnel to identify the vehicles during the restricted hours. For reason of traffic management, violating vehicles were not stopped at the gantries, but their number plates were taken down and their owner would receive an order to appear in court to pay the fine; the control was made only at the gantries, vehicles were free to move around or leave the RZ without having to pay the fee. ALS gantries were enforced by CISCO officers, who manually screened passing vehicles and book offending vehicles with fines. Prior to the end of the ALS and the beginning of Electronic Road Pricing, 105 such officers were deployed.

According to the book The Journey – Singapore's Land Transport Story, the amount of traffic entering the Restricted Zone in June 1975 was 32,500 vehicles, after the beginning of the ALS in June 1975, the vehicle numbers dropped to only 7,700, between the hours of 7.30 am to 9.30 am, a 76% reduction. The use of transit for work related trips into

Zeca (footballer, born 1988)

José Carlos Gonçalves Rodrigues known as Zeca, is a Portuguese-born Greek professional footballer who plays as a midfielder for Danish club Copenhagen and the Greece national team. He spent most of his career in Greece with Panathinaikos after starting out at Casa Pia, appearing in more than 200 competitive matches for the former club and winning the 2014 Greek Cup. In 2017, he signed with Copenhagen. Born in Portugal, Zeca became a Greek citizen in March 2017 and started representing its national team the same year. Born in Lisbon of Cape Verdean descent, Zeca started his career with local Casa Pia AC, joining joined the club's youth system at the age of 10 and promoting to the fourth division in his first season as a senior. In summer 2010 he moved straight into the Primeira Liga. During his first and only season with the Sado River team, Zeca made 26 league appearances, appearing in as many games as a starter or a substitute and totalling 1,611 minutes of action. On 29 July 2011, Zeca signed a four-year contract with Greek giants Panathinaikos F.

C. for a fee of €400,000, as the club was coached by countryman Jesualdo Ferreira. He played all 30 league games in 2012 -- 13. After a massive rebuilding for the following campaign, he was one of the few survivors. On 26 April 2014, after more than 100 appearances with the club, Zeca lifted the Greek Cup as team captain, in a final against PAOK FC at the Olympic stadium in Athens. On 21 June, he signed a three-year extension. In February 2015, Zeca expressed his desire to play for the Greece national team if he was awarded the country's citizenship, he agreed to renew his contract until 2018 two months commenting on the deal: "It will be good to continue with Anastasiou in charge.... The team is happy and I think we can do a lot better under him". On 6 February 2016, Andrea Stramaccioni's team ended the match with ten players as Zeca was shown a straight red card in a 0–1 home loss against Skoda Xanthi FC. Eight days after returning from suspension, he again received his marching orders, but in an eventual 3–0 win at PAS Giannina FC.

On 9 August 2016, Zeca extended his contract until the summer of 2019 for an undisclosed fee. On 28 August 2017, Panathinaikos reached a formal agreement with F. C. Copenhagen for Zeca's transfer to the Danish club, for a fee believed to be in the region of €1.5 million. The player signed a four-year deal, with an annual salary of €1 million. In his debut, on 9 September, he scored in a 4–3 home win over FC Midtjylland. On 6 November 2019, Zeca renewed his contract until 30 June 2023. Having completed five years of residence and professional status in Greece, Zeca became eligible for its citizenship in the beginning of 2017, he passed the relevant language and history exams in November 2016, becoming available for national side manager Michael Skibbe in the middle of the 2018 FIFA World Cup qualification campaign. He earned his first cap on 25 March 2017, coming on as a late substitute in a 1–1 away draw against Belgium; as of 28 February 2020 As of 12 October 2019 As of 11 June 2019 Panathinaikos Greek Football Cup: 2013–14Copenhagen Danish Superliga: 2018–19 Zeca at ForaDeJogo Portugal national team data Zeca at National-Football-Teams.com