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2005 Quebec student protests

The 2005 Quebec student protests were a series of student strikes and student protests in opposition to budget cuts of C$103 million in the Grants and Loans program by the Charest government. It occurred between February 24 and April 2005 and involved thousands of CEGEP and universities students from across Quebec. During the 2003 Quebec general election campaign, the Liberal Party of Quebec, led by Jean Charest, made a promise to freeze education cost. Having to deal with a rough budget, because of the election promise, the Quebec government changed the Grants and Loans program by transforming $103 million of grants into loans, nearly doubling the debt of the poorest students. Coalitions representing most CEGEPs and universities started to negotiate with the government. Talks and protests, in the form of marches, went on for over a year. Students from most CEGEPs and universities took the streets on April 14, 2004 and November 10, 2004. During their January 29–30, 2005 congress, the students' unions members of the ASSÉ and other independent students' unions decide to form the Coalition de l'Association pour une Solidarité Syndicale Étudiante Élargie to coordinate the upcoming strike campaign.

The strike was initiated on February 21, by a member of the CASSÉÉ, the anthropology students' association from University of Montreal. But the real start was given on February 24 when over 30,000 students members of the CASSÉÉ, a few other unions joined the strike; the FECQ and the FEUQ, federations of CEGEP and university unions, called for a student strike on March 4 and March 9 respectively. By March 15, over 100,000 students were on strike; this turn of events surprised many, as these organizations were traditionally opposed to strikes/boycotts as a negotiation tactic. On March 16, 2005 students from traditionally more moderate institutions like École Polytechnique de Montréal, as well as from Concordia University and McGill's Post-Graduate Student Society joined the strike for 24 hours. Between 10,000 and 100,000 students took the streets for a peaceful march in Montreal, creating the largest student protest staged in Quebec until March 22, 2012; the École des Hautes Études Commerciales de Montréal and McGill University undergraduates Students' Society of McGill University joined the strike on March 18 for 24 symbolic hours, though the McGill boycott went unobserved and further action was rejected by the student body through an online poll.

This constituted the first strike since 1967 for the HEC and the first strike in 40 years for Polytechnique. On April 2, the student federations and the government reached an agreement, still left to be voted on by the individual student associations during the week; this agreement consists of a CAN $70M refunding for 2005–2006 and a return of the $103M for the next 4 years, totaling $482M. This money comes from 3 levels: the millennium grant foundation, the federal government and the provincial government; the FEUQ endorsed the agreement, while the FECQ maintained a neutral position, saying it was "interesting enough" to be voted on by the individual members' unions. The CASSÉÉ rejected it. Over the next week, the movement ended, with over two thirds of the students voting for a return to class during the week. However, at least 20 unions representing over 100,000 students rejected the offer and by April 11, there were still 20,000 students boycotting class. During the following 2 weeks, most associations ended or suspended the boycott to allow the students to complete their semester.

The symbol of support for the student strike was a small square of red cloth worn upon clothing as a kind of ribbon. The Parti Québécois MNAs in opposition, wore the red square to demonstrate their support for the striking students. On March 30, a group of students hoisted, it took a full day. On its lower panel, it was written: "Arrêtons de sacrifier nos enfants", which means: "Let's stop sacrificing our children." 1996 Quebec student protests 2012 Quebec student protests Students' union Student protest 2012 Quebec general election FEUQ FECQ ASSÉ

Syneresis (chemistry)

Syneresis, in chemistry, is the extraction or expulsion of a liquid from a gel, as when serum drains from a contracting clot of blood. Another example of syneresis is the collection of whey on the surface of yogurt. Syneresis can be observed when the amount of diluent in a swollen polymer exceeds the solubility limit as the temperature changes. A household example of this is the counter intuitive expulsion of water from dry gelatin when the temperature increases. Syneresis has been proposed as the mechanism of formation of the amorphous silicate composing the frustule of diatoms. In the processing of dairy milk, for example during cheese making, syneresis is the formation of the curd due to the sudden removal of the hydrophilic macropeptides, which causes an imbalance in intermolecular forces. Bonds between hydrophobic sites start to develop and are enforced by calcium bonds which form as the water molecules in the micelles start to leave the structure; this process is referred to as the phase of coagulation and syneresis.

The splitting of the bond between residues 105 and 106 in the κ-casein molecule is called the primary phase of the rennet action, while the phase of coagulation and syneresis is referred to as the secondary phase. In cooking, syneresis is the sudden release of moisture contained within protein molecules caused by excessive heat, which over-hardens the protein shell. Moisture inside expands upon heating; the hard protein shell pops. This process is, it creates weeping in scrambled eggs, with dry protein curd swimming in released moisture. It causes emulsified sauces, such as hollandaise, to "break", it creates unsightly moisture pockets within baked custard dishes such as crème brûlée. In dentistry, syneresis is the expulsion of water or other liquid molecules from dental impression materials after an impression has been taken. Due to this process, the impression shrinks a little and therefore its size is no longer accurate. For this reason, many dental impression companies recommend to pour the dental cast as soon as possible to prevent distortion of the dimension of the teeth and objects in the impression.

The opposite process of syneresis is imbibition, meaning, a material that absorbs water molecules from the surrounding. Alginate is an example of imbibition since if soaked in water, it will absorb it. Flocculation Coagulation

Al-Ahwaz theater (Zanj Rebellion)

The al-Ahwaz theater was one of two major areas of operations during the Zanj Rebellion, the other being the regions of lower and central Iraq. Beginning in 869, Zanj armies entered the province of al-Ahwaz and succeeded in scoring several victories against the defending forces of the Abbasid Caliphate. Over the course of the next decade, the rebels attacked and looted many of the cities in the region, including Suq al-Ahwaz,'Askar Mukram and Ramhurmuz. By the height of the rebellion in the mid-870s the Zanj were in control of extensive portions of the province, appointing governors to the districts under their sway and collecting supplies from the local population. During this period, the Zanj in al-Ahwaz were commanded by'Ali ibn Aban al-Muhallabi, a primary lieutenant of the overall Zanj leader'Ali ibn Muhammad. In an effort to contain the Zanj, the Abbasid government in Samarra dispatched several commanders to the province to fight against the rebels; the caliphal armies were at times able to defeat the Zanj in battle, but they were unsuccessful in dislodging them from the province and suffered severe losses themselves.

The Abbasid war effort was further complicated after the Saffarid amir Ya'qub ibn al-Layth arrived in al-Ahwaz in 875 and attempted to assert his own authority over the region, at the expense of both the Zanj and the Abbasids. The Zanj presence in al-Ahwaz came to a sudden end in 881, when'Ali ibn Aban was ordered to abandon the region and return to lower Iraq, where the remaining military events of the rebellion would take place; the Zanj Rebellion began in the region of southern Iraq. The leader of the revolt was one'Ali ibn Muhammad, who had led two failed movements against the Abbasid government in 863 and 868.'Ali was able to gather a major following among the black slaves, employed to cultivate the lands in the area of the modern Shatt al-Arab. The rebels soon spread out through the districts around the city of Basra, began taking control of the villages in the region. Due to their proximity to Basra, some of the border districts of al-Ahwaz were entered by the Zanj in the initial months of the revolt.

The rebels' movements in the province at this stage, were restricted to the lands around the southern Dujayl River. The Zanj secured peace agreements with some of the villages in the area. For a year following the outbreak of the revolt, the rebels had remained confined to the districts in the vicinity of Basra. In mid-870, the Zanj succeeded in overrunning al-Ubulla and receiving the submission of'Abbadan, the rebels sought to follow up these victories with further attacks; the Zanj leader'Ali ibn Muhammad decided to expand to the northeast and make al-Ahwaz the target of his next campaign, an army was ordered to proceed to the province. The Zanj troops that set out for al-Ahwaz were enthusiastic about their mission, they were reinforced with slaves and weapons, confiscated from'Abbadan, their first target was Jubba, to the east of the Dujayl. The residents of the town offered no resistance and fled, allowing the Zanj to enter Jubba and pillage it. From there, they spread through the environs of Jubba.

The rebels continued marching north, at last arrived before the city of al-Ahwaz, otherwise known as Suq al-Ahwaz. News of the Zanj approach was met with great trepidation in the city; the military governor of al-Ahwaz at the time was Sa'id ibn Yaksin, who had a contingent of troops at his disposal. Sa'id, decided to withdraw from the city, taking his soldiers with him, the residents of al-Ahwaz fled; when the Zanj army reached Suq al-Ahwaz they were able to enter and occupy the city, with no one offering resistance. The fiscal governor Ibrahim ibn Muhammad ibn al-Mudabbir, who had remained in Suq al-Ahwaz with his pages and servants, was captured by the rebels, his money and slaves were seized; the Zanj occupation of Suq al-Ahwaz lasted only temporarily, by the following year the Abbasids reestablished their military presence in the region. The occupation, succeeded in opening a new front in the war against the government; the Zanj would occupy Suq al-Ahwaz twice more, in 873 and again in 875, after the latter occasion they would retain a hold over the city for several years.

The capture of al-Ahwaz, together with that of al-Ubulla less than two months prior helped spread to fear among the residents of the surrounding regions. In 871, the Zanj leader sent'Ali ibn Aban to al-Ahwaz, ordering him to occupy the province and destroy a bridge spanning the Dujayl. Upon reaching the bridge, his troops were met by Ibrahim ibn Sima al-Turki, a government commander, returning to Iraq from Fars. Ibrahim attacked the rebels from several sides, killing a large number of them and forcing'Ali to flee. Pursued by Ibrahim's cavalry,'Ali attempted to reach Suq al-Ahwaz, but a foot wound hindered his movements and he decided to retreat back to Jubba instead; as a result of his victory, Ibrahim was appointed to conduct the war against the Zanj in al-Ahwaz, Sa'id ibn Yaksin was dismissed from his post. Ibrahim decided to pursue'Ali and divided his forces into two, sending one contingent under his secretary Shahin and retaining the other for himself. Informed of their movements,'Ali met Shahin's force and defeated it, killing Shahin and a large number of his men.

He immediately advanced against Ibrahim, r

To Add One Meter to an Anonymous Mountain

To Add One Meter to an Anonymous Mountain is a collective performance art work done by Chinese artist Zhang Huan in 1995. Ten Beijing East-Village artists, Wang Shihua, Cang Xin, Gao Yang, Zuoxiao Zuzhou, Ma Zongyin, Duan Yingmei, Zhu Ming, Ma Liuming, Zhang Binbin and Zhang Huan himself, laid their naked body on top of each other until they added another meter to the Miaofeng Mountain, on the outskirts of Beijing; the work was photographed by Lv Nan. The ten artists involved in the work each kept a photographic negative that differs from the other artists' negatives—either a participant faced a different direction or someone's leg lifted up a little. Image: To Add One Meter to an Anonymous Mountain In the mid-1980s, under the influence of western modernist and postmodernist art forms which were introduced to China after the Chinese economic reform, a group of Chinese visual artists started to experiment with conceptual performance art. Through such art form, they showed their intention to “move out of the state-controlled gallery system” and "act out" their art in the public sphere.

In the early 1990s, an avant-garde artistic community called “the Beijing East-Village” emerged on the urban edge of Beijing. Living in shelters built up for migrant workers, the small group of artists from different parts of China gathered and created collaborative performance work in and around the area. Zhang Huan, Zhu Ming and Ma Liuming, the leading artists of the community focused their works on exploring and reflecting “gender and physical and psychological endurance.” To Add One Meter to an Anonymous Mountain is one of the performance works done by Zhang Huan during this time period. To Add One Meter to an Anonymous Mountain was created on May 11, 1995. According to Zhang Huan's associate Kong Bu, the project began at 13:00 with two surveyors, Jin Kui and Xiong Wen, setting up their equipment to measure the height of the Miaofeng Mountain, 86.393 meters. The ten naked artists lined up by ascending weight, with the heaviest at the bottom, they lay on top of each other in the form of a pyramid.

The artists constituted five layers: three people in the bottom layer, two people in each of the three middle layers, one person lying at the top. In the meantime, the surveyors kept tracking the total height. Between 13:26 and 13:38 that afternoon, their measurement came to 87.393 meters one meter higher than the original height. To Add One Meter to an Anonymous Mountain gains its meaning in the discussion of body art in modern China. According to Zhang Huan, the work explored a new approach to "feel and experience the existence of the body under the pressures of environment." In a conversation with Art Journal, Zhang Huan said that the form of performance art is associated with his earlier life experience, in which he found himself in physical conflict with the external world around him, both in terms of behaviors and dressing style. As a result, human body is used as the basic medium and language in the creation of To Add One Meter to an Anonymous Mountain. Through the physical contact of naked body and the environment, the inescapable nature of external pressure is embodied and the existence of "self" is emphasized.

And such experience goes beyond a certain kind of personal feeling. As art historian Qian Zhijian said, the work forced the audiences to be aware of the cruel reality as witnessed in Zhang Huan's performance. There are political readings about Zhang Huan's performance art. An audience of SFMOMA’s exhibition “Art and China after 1989” commented that To Add One Meter to an Anonymous Mountain reminded her of "the piles of dead, naked Jewish people in the Holocaust." After the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests, exhibitions of contemporary art were banned by Chinese officials until the late 1990s. From her point of view, the work captured Chinese people at their worst situation as they were under the oppression opinions that could happen to anybody, anywhere. Many people understand Zhang Huan’s work in a more spiritual manner. According to Yu Yeon Kim, an independent curator of many distinguished international exhibitions of contemporary art, To Add One Meter to an Anonymous Mountain deals with complex issues of identity, spiritualism and transgression.

She commented that "the spectrum of Zhang Huan’s performance art spans subjecting his flesh to extreme hardships to sly poetic alchemy." Zhuang Huan’s associate Kong Bu said that “the works of this period were masochistic, showing Zhang Huan's abnormally excited posture and a wisdom and romanticism hinted at by his extreme bodily language.” From 1996, Zhang Huan’s work continued to gain international attention and had chance to be displayed in various places overseas. To Add One Meter to an Anonymous Mountain received international acclaim at the 48th Venice Biennial in 1999 and is still considered "a monumental work in the history of Chinese performance art." Zuoxiao Zuzhou, one of the Beijing East-Village artists involved in To Add One Meter to an Anonymous Mountain, reproduced the performance art work in 2007 by replacing the nudity with pigs. The work is named I Love Contemporary Art Too, is used as the cover of his 2008 album You Know Where the East Is. Image: Zuoxiao Zuzhou-I Love Contemporary Art Too-2007 In 2015, Zhang Huan and his associate Kong Bu were interviewed about their reflection on To Add One Meter to an Anonymous Mountain 20 years after the creation of the work.

They told the interviewer that over the years, they found another layer of meaning contained in the work, the limitation of life: "when we left the mountain, it looked the same way before our arrival. We tr

2020 CONCACAF League

The 2020 CONCACAF League will be the 4th edition of the CONCACAF League, a football club competition organized by CONCACAF, the regional governing body of North America, Central America, the Caribbean. The winners of the 2020 CONCACAF League and the next best five teams will qualify for the 2021 CONCACAF Champions League. Saprissa are the title holders. A total of 22 teams participate in the CONCACAF League: North American Zone: 1 team Central American Zone: 18 teams Caribbean Zone: 3 teams Therefore, teams from either 10 or 11 out of the 41 CONCACAF member associations may participate in the CONCACAF League; the one berth for the North American Zone is allocated to the Canadian Soccer Association through the Canadian Premier League, where the champions of the Finals, contested between the Spring and Fall season champions, qualify. They are the second Canadian representative included in CONCACAF competitions, besides the Canadian Championship champions which qualify for the CONCACAF Champions League.

The 18 berths for the Central American Football Union, which consists of seven member associations, are allocated as follows: three berths for each of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, two berths for Nicaragua, one berth for Belize. All of the leagues of Central America employ a split season with two tournaments in one season, so the following teams qualify for the CONCACAF League: In the league of Costa Rica, both champions, the non-champions with the best aggregate record, qualify. If there is any team which are champions of both tournaments, the non-champions with the second best aggregate record qualify. In the leagues of El Salvador, Guatemala and Panama, both champions, the runners-up with the better aggregate record, qualify. If there is any team which are finalists of both tournaments, the runners-up with the worse aggregate record qualify. If there are any two teams which are finalists of both tournaments, the semi-finalists with the best aggregate record qualify. In the league of Nicaragua, both champions qualify.

If there is any team which are champions of both tournaments, the runners-up with the better aggregate record qualify. In the league of Belize, the champions with the better aggregate record qualify. If teams from any Central American associations are excluded, they are replaced by teams from other Central American associations, with the associations chosen based on results from previous CONCACAF League and CONCACAF Champions League tournaments; the three berths for the Caribbean Football Union, which consists of 31 member associations, are allocated via the CONCACAF Caribbean Club Championship and CONCACAF Caribbean Club Shield, the first-tier and second-tier subcontinental Caribbean club tournaments. Since 2018, the CONCACAF Caribbean Club Championship is open to teams from professional leagues, where they can qualify as champions or runners-up of their respective association's league in the previous season, while the CONCACAF Caribbean Club Shield is open to teams from non-professional leagues, where they can qualify as champions of their respective association's league in the previous season.

Besides the champions of the CONCACAF Caribbean Club Championship which qualify for the CONCACAF Champions League, the runners-up and third-placed team of the CONCACAF Caribbean Club Championship, the winners of a playoff between the fourth-placed team of the CONCACAF Caribbean Club Championship and the champions of the CONCACAF Caribbean Club Shield, qualify for the CONCACAF League. For the champions of the CONCACAF Caribbean Club Shield to be eligible for the playoff, they must comply with the minimum CONCACAF Club Licensing requirements for the CONCACAF League; the following 22 teams qualify for the tournament. Ten teams enter in the round of 16: two each from Costa Rica and Panama, one each from El Salvador, Guatemala and the Caribbean. Twelve teams enter in the preliminary round: two each from El Salvador and the Caribbean, one each from Canada, Costa Rica, Panama and Belize; the draw for the 2020 CONCACAF League will be held in May 2020. The draw determines each tie in the preliminary round between a team from Pot 1 and a team from Pot 2, each containing six teams.

The "Bracket Position Pots" contains the bracket positions numbered 1 through 6 corresponding to each tie. The teams from Pot 1 are assigned a bracket position from Pot A and the teams from Pot 2 are assigned a bracket position from Pot B. Teams from the same association cannot be drawn against each other in the preliminary round except for "wildcard" teams which replace a team from another association; the draw determines each tie in the round of 16 between a team from Pot 3 and a team from Pot 4, each containing eight teams, with the six preliminary round winners, whose identity is not known at the time of the draw, in Pot 4. The "Bracket Position Pots" contains the bracket positions numbered 1 through 8 corresponding to each tie; the teams from Pot 3 are assigned a bracket position from Pot A and the teams from Pot 4 are assigned a bracket position from Pot B. The seeding of teams are based on the CONCACAF Club Index; the CONCACAF Club Index, instead of ranking each team, is based on the on-field performance of the teams that have occupied the respective qualifying slots in the previous five editions of the CONCACAF League and CONCACAF Champions Le