For centuries, Froissarts Chronicles have been recognised as the chief expression of the chivalric revival of the 14th century Kingdom of England and Kingdom of France. His history is an important source for the first half of the Hundred Years War, what little is known of Froissarts life comes mainly from his historical writings and from archival sources which mention him in the service of aristocrats or receiving gifts from them. This is why de Looze has characterised these works as pseudo-autobiographical, Froissart came from Valenciennes in the County of Hainaut, situated in the western tip of the Holy Roman Empire, bordering France. Earlier scholars have suggested that his father was a painter of armorial bearings, other suggestions include that he began working as a merchant but soon gave that up to become a cleric. For this conclusion there is no real evidence, as the poems which have been cited to support these interpretations are not really autobiographical. By about age 24, Froissart left Hainault and entered the service of Philippa of Hainault, queen consort of Edward III of England, in 1361 or 1362.
This service, which would have lasted until the death in 1369, has often been presented as including a position of court poet and/or official historiographer. Froissart took an approach to his work. He traveled in England, Wales, France and Spain gathering material and he traveled with Lionel, Duke of Clarence, to Milan to attend and chronicle the dukes wedding to Violante, the daughter of Galeazzo Visconti. At this wedding, two other significant writers of the Middle Ages were present and Petrarch, after the death of Queen Philippa, he enjoyed the patronage of Joanna, Duchess of Brabant among various others. He received rewards—including the benefice of Estinnes, a village near Binche and became canon of Chimay—sufficient to finance further travels and he returned to England in 1395 but seemed disappointed by changes that he viewed as the end of chivalry. The date and circumstances of his death are unknown but St. Monegunda of Chimay might be the resting place for his remains. Much more than his poetry, Froissarts fame is due to his Chronicles, the text of his Chronicles is preserved in more than 100 illuminated manuscripts, illustrated by a variety of miniaturists.
One of the most lavishly illuminated copies was commissioned by Louis of Gruuthuse, the four volumes of this copy contain 112 miniatures painted by well-known Brugeois artists of the day, among them Loiset Lyédet, to whom the miniatures in the first two volumes are attributed. He is thought to have one of the first to mention the use of the verge and foliot, or verge escapement in European clockworks. The English composer Edward Elgar wrote an overture entitled Froissart, Froissarts Chronicles LHorloge amoureux Méliador Peter Ainsworth, Jean, in Graeme Dunphy, Encyclopedia of the Medieval Chronicle, Brill,2010, pp. 642–645. Cristian Bratu, Je, aucteur de ce livre, Authorial Persona, in Authorities in the Middle Ages. Influence and Power in Medieval Society, sini Kangas, Mia Korpiola, and Tuija Ainonen, eds
Abbot, meaning father, is an ecclesiastical title given to the male head of a monastery in various traditions, including Christianity. The office may be given as a title to a clergyman who is not the head of a monastery. The word is derived from the Aramaic av meaning father or abba, in the Septuagint, it was written as abbas. At first it was employed as a title for any monk. The title abbot came into general use in western monastic orders whose members include priests. An abbot is the head and chief governor of a community of monks, the English version for a female monastic head is abbess. In Egypt, the first home of monasticism, the jurisdiction of the abbot, or archimandrite, sometimes he ruled over only one community, sometimes over several, each of which had its own abbot as well. Saint John Cassian speaks of an abbot of the Thebaid who had 500 monks under him, by the Rule of St Benedict, until the Cluniac reforms, was the norm in the West, the abbot has jurisdiction over only one community.
Monks, as a rule, were laymen, nor at the outset was the abbot any exception, for the reception of the sacraments, and for other religious offices, the abbot and his monks were commanded to attend the nearest church. This rule proved inconvenient when a monastery was situated in a desert or at a distance from a city, the change spread more slowly in the West, where the office of abbot was commonly filled by laymen till the end of the 7th century. The ecclesiastical leadership exercised by abbots despite their frequent lay status is proved by their attendance, thus at the first Council of Constantinople, AD448,23 archimandrites or abbots sign, with 30 bishops. The second Council of Nicaea, AD787, recognized the right of abbots to ordain their monks to the inferior orders below the diaconate, abbots used to be subject to episcopal jurisdiction, and continued generally so, in fact, in the West till the 11th century. The Code of Justinian expressly subordinates the abbot to episcopal oversight, in the 12th century, the abbots of Fulda claimed precedence of the archbishop of Cologne.
It has been maintained that the right to wear mitres was sometimes granted by the popes to abbots before the 11th century, but the documents on which this claim is based are not genuine. The first undoubted instance is the bull by which Alexander II in 1063 granted the use of the mitre to Egelsinus, abbot of the monastery of St Augustine at Canterbury. Of these the precedence was yielded to the abbot of Glastonbury, until in AD1154 Adrian IV granted it to the abbot of St Albans, next after the abbot of St Albans ranked the abbot of Westminster and Ramsey. Of course, they always and everywhere had the power of admitting their own monks, the power of the abbot was paternal but absolute, however, by the canon law. One of the goals of monasticism was the purgation of self and selfishness
Clairvaux Abbey is a Cistercian monastery in Ville-sous-la-Ferté,15 km from Bar-sur-Aube, in the Aube department in northeastern France. The original building, founded in 1115 by St. Bernard, is now in ruins, Clairvaux Abbey was a good example of the general layout of a Cistercian monastery. The Abbey has been listed since 1926 as a monument by the French Ministry of Culture. The grounds are now occupied and used by Clairvaux Prison, a high-security prison, Cistercian monasteries were all arranged according to a set plan unless the circumstances of the locality forbade it. A strong wall, furnished at intervals with watchtowers and other defenses, beyond it a moat, artificially diverted from tributaries which flow through the precincts, completely or partially encircled the wall. This water furnished the monastery with an abundant supply of water for irrigation, sanitation, an additional wall, running from north to south, bisected the monastery into an inner and outer ward. The inner ward housed the buildings, while the agricultural.
The precincts were entered by a gateway at the western extremity. Here the barns, stables, workshops, a single gatehouse afforded communication through the wall separating the outer from the inner ward. On passing through the gateway and visitors entered the court of the inner ward. Immediately to the right of entrance was the residence, in close proximity to the guest-house. On the other side of the court were stables for the accommodation of the horses of the guests, the church occupied a central position, with the great cloister to the south, surrounded by the chief monastic buildings. Further to the east, the cloister contained the infirmary, novices lodgings. Beyond the smaller cloister, and separated from the buildings by a wall, lay the vegetable gardens. Large fish ponds were located in the area east of the monastic buildings. The ponds were an important feature of life, and much care was given by the monks to their construction. They often remain as one of the few traces of these vast monasteries.
The church consists of a vast nave of eleven bays, entered by a narthex, with a transept, to the east of each limb of the transept are two square chapels, divided according to Cistercian rule by solid walls
Hundred Years' War
Each side drew many allies into the war. It was one of the most notable conflicts of the Middle Ages, the war marked both the height of chivalry and its subsequent decline, and the development of strong national identities in both countries. After the Norman Conquest, the kings of England were vassals of the kings of France for their possessions in France, the French kings had endeavored, over the centuries, to reduce these possessions, to the effect that only Gascony was left to the English. Through his mother, Isabella of France, Edward III of England was the grandson of Philip IV of France and nephew of Charles IV of France, in 1316, a principle was established denying women succession to the French throne. When Charles IV died in 1328, unable to claim the French throne for herself, the French rejected the claim, maintaining that Isabella could not transmit a right that she did not possess. Several overwhelming English victories in the war—especially at Crecy, however, the greater resources of the French monarchy precluded a complete conquest.
Historians commonly divide the war into three separated by truces, the Edwardian Era War, the Caroline War, and the Lancastrian War. Later historians adopted the term Hundred Years War as a historiography periodization to encompass all of these events, the war owes its historical significance to multiple factors. By its end, feudal armies had been replaced by professional troops. Although primarily a conflict, the war gave impetus to ideas of French. The wider introduction of weapons and tactics supplanted the feudal armies where heavy cavalry had dominated, the war precipitated the creation of the first standing armies in Western Europe since the time of the Western Roman Empire and thus helping to change their role in warfare. With respect to the belligerents, in France, civil wars, deadly epidemics, English political forces over time came to oppose the costly venture. The dissatisfaction of English nobles, resulting from the loss of their continental landholdings, the root causes of the conflict can be found in the demographic and political crises of 14th century Europe.
The outbreak of war was motivated by a rise in tension between the Kings of France and England about Guyenne and Scotland. The dynastic question, which due to an interruption of the direct male line of the Capetians, was the official pretext. The question of succession to the French throne was raised after the death of Louis X in 1316. Louis X left only a daughter, and his posthumous son John I lived only a few days, Count of Poitiers, brother of Louis X, asserted that women were ineligible to succeed to the French throne. Through his political sagacity he won over his adversaries and succeeded to the French throne as Philip V of France, by the same law that he procured, his daughters were denied the succession, which passed to his younger brother, Charles IV, in 1322
Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history, the causes of the French Revolution are complex and are still debated among historians. Following the Seven Years War and the American Revolutionary War, the French government was deeply in debt, Years of bad harvests leading up to the Revolution inflamed popular resentment of the privileges enjoyed by the clergy and the aristocracy. Demands for change were formulated in terms of Enlightenment ideals and contributed to the convocation of the Estates-General in May 1789, a central event of the first stage, in August 1789, was the abolition of feudalism and the old rules and privileges left over from the Ancien Régime. The next few years featured political struggles between various liberal assemblies and right-wing supporters of the intent on thwarting major reforms. The Republic was proclaimed in September 1792 after the French victory at Valmy, in a momentous event that led to international condemnation, Louis XVI was executed in January 1793.
External threats closely shaped the course of the Revolution, popular agitation radicalised the Revolution significantly, culminating in the rise of Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins. Large numbers of civilians were executed by revolutionary tribunals during the Terror, after the Thermidorian Reaction, an executive council known as the Directory assumed control of the French state in 1795. The rule of the Directory was characterised by suspended elections, debt repudiations, financial instability, persecutions against the Catholic clergy, dogged by charges of corruption, the Directory collapsed in a coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799. The modern era has unfolded in the shadow of the French Revolution, almost all future revolutionary movements looked back to the Revolution as their predecessor. The values and institutions of the Revolution dominate French politics to this day, the French Revolution differed from other revolutions in being not merely national, for it aimed at benefiting all humanity.
Globally, the Revolution accelerated the rise of republics and democracies and it became the focal point for the development of all modern political ideologies, leading to the spread of liberalism, nationalism, socialism and secularism, among many others. The Revolution witnessed the birth of total war by organising the resources of France, historians have pointed to many events and factors within the Ancien Régime that led to the Revolution. Over the course of the 18th century, there emerged what the philosopher Jürgen Habermas called the idea of the sphere in France. A perfect example would be the Palace of Versailles which was meant to overwhelm the senses of the visitor and convince one of the greatness of the French state and Louis XIV. Starting in the early 18th century saw the appearance of the sphere which was critical in that both sides were active. In France, the emergence of the public sphere outside of the control of the saw the shift from Versailles to Paris as the cultural capital of France.
In the 1750s, during the querelle des bouffons over the question of the quality of Italian vs, in 1782, Louis-Sébastien Mercier wrote, The word court no longer inspires awe amongst us as in the time of Louis XIV
The Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance is a Roman Catholic religious order of cloistered contemplative monastics who follow the Rule of St. Benedict. A branch of the Order of Cistercians, they have communities of monks and nuns, commonly referred to as Trappists and Trappistines, respectively. The order takes its name from La Trappe Abbey or La Grande Trappe, a reform movement began there in 1664, in reaction to the relaxation of practices in many Cistercian monasteries. Armand Jean le Bouthillier de Rancé, originally the commendatory abbot of La Trappe, as commendatory abbot, de Rancé was a layman who obtained income from the monastery but had no religious obligations. After a conversion of life between 1660 and 1662, de Rancé formally joined the abbey and became its abbot in 1663. In 1892 the reformed Trappists broke away from the Cistercian order, written in the sixth century, guides the lives of Trappists. The Rule describes the ideals and values of a monastic life, Strict Observance refers to the Trappists goal of following closely St.
Benedicts Rule and taking the three vows described in his Rule, fidelity to monastic life, and obedience. Benedicts insistence on lack of speech has some impact on their way of life, Trappist monks generally speak only when necessary, thus idle talk is strongly discouraged. According to St. Benedict, speech disturbs a disciples quietude and receptivity, speech that leads to unkind amusement or laughter is seen as evil and is banned. A Trappist sign language, distinct from other forms of monastic sign language, has developed to render speaking unnecessary, meals are usually taken in contemplative silence as members of the order are supposed to listen to a reading. Comparing with the Benedictines and the Cistercians, Trappists fully abstain from meat as regards four-footed animals, while living as vegetarians, they may sometimes eat fish and their diet mostly consists of vegetables and grain products. Usually they will be asked to live in the monastery for a period of time. Postulancy, candidates live as a member of the monastery as a postulant for some months, postulants will be clothed with the monastic habit and are formally received as a member of this order.
Novices are still guided by the director, and they undergo this stage for two years. After novitiate, novices may take temporary vows and they will live this stage for three to nine years to deepen study, practicing the Gospel in the monastic way and integration within the society. After finishing the stage, the professed members may take final vows for their entire life. The 48th chapter of the Rule of St. Benedict states for are they monks in truth, following this rule, most Trappist monasteries produce goods that are sold to provide income for the monastery. Monasteries in Belgium and the Netherlands, such as Orval Abbey and Westvleteren Abbey, the TRAPPIST telescope of the University of Liège is named in honour of the beer
Marchenoir is a commune in the Loir-et-Cher department of central France. The nearby forest of Marchenoir was the site of LAumône Abbey, the Earl of Buckingham stayed at the Abbey in 1380 whilst his army was quartered in the Forest. In 1650 Claude Pajon was appointed to be pastor to the Reformed Church at Marchenoir, the husband and wife comedians Raymond Bussières and Annette Poivre are buried in the Marchenoir cemetery. Communes of the Loir-et-Cher department INSEE statistics
Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester
Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester, 1st Earl of Buckingham, 1st Earl of Essex, KG was the fourteenth and youngest child of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. He was the youngest of the five sons of Edward III who survived to adulthood, Thomas was born 7 January 1355 at Woodstock Palace in Oxfordshire after two short-lived brothers, one of whom had been baptised Thomas. He married Eleanor de Bohun by 1376, was given Pleshey castle in Essex, the younger sister of Woodstocks wife, Mary de Bohun, was subsequently married to Henry of Bolingbroke, Earl of Derby, who became King Henry IV of England. In 1377, at the age of 22, Woodstock was knighted and created Earl of Buckingham, in 1385 he received the title Duke of Aumale and at about the same time was created Duke of Gloucester. Thomas of Woodstock was in command of a campaign in northern France that followed the Breton War of Succession of 1343–64. The earlier conflict was marked by the efforts of John IV, John was supported in this struggle by the armies of the kingdom of England, whereas Charles was supported by the kingdom of France.
At the head of an English army, John prevailed after Charles was killed in battle in 1364, but the French continued to undermine his position and he returned to Brittany in 1379, supported by Breton barons who feared the annexation of Brittany by France. An English army was sent under Woodstock to support his position, due to concerns about the safety of a longer shipping route to Brittany itself, the army was ferried instead to the English continental stronghold of Calais in July 1380. Eventually, the two armies simply marched away, French defensive operations were thrown into disarray by the death of King Charles V of France on 16 September 1380. Woodstocks chevauchée continued westwards largely unopposed, and in November 1380 he laid siege to Nantes, however, he found himself unable to form an effective stranglehold, and urgent plans were put in place for Sir Thomas Felton to bring 2,000 reinforcements from England. Richard II managed to dispose of the Lords Appellant in 1397, during that time he was murdered, probably by a group of men led by Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk, and the knight Sir Nicholas Colfox, presumably on behalf of Richard II.
This caused an outcry among the nobility of England that is considered by many to have added to Richards unpopularity, Thomas married Eleanor de Bohun, the elder daughter and co-heiress with her sister, Mary de Bohun, of their father Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford. Isabel Philippa, died young As he was attainted as a traitor, the title Earl of Buckingham was inherited by his son, who died in 1399 only two years after his own death. Thomas of Woodstocks eldest daughter, married into the powerful Stafford family and her son, Humphrey Stafford was created Duke of Buckingham in 1444 and inherited part of the de Bohun estates. Thomas of Woodstocks murder plays a prominent part in William Shakespeares play Richard II and he is the subject of Thomas of Woodstock, another Elizabethan drama by an anonymous playwright. Because of its affinities to Shakespeares play, it is called Richard the Second Part One