Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay. S. states of Maine, New Hampshire and New York. It shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by its second-largest administrative division, it is and politically considered to be part of Central Canada. Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario, it is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, including the Island of Montreal. English-speaking communities and English-language institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal but are significantly present in the Outaouais, Eastern Townships, Gaspé regions.
The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited by Aboriginal peoples. The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. In central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas. Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995. Although neither passed, the 1995 referendum saw the highest voter turnout in Quebec history, at over 93%, only failed by less than 1%. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada". While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace and communication technologies and the pharmaceutical industry play leading roles.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, second only to Ontario in economic output. The name "Québec", which comes from the Algonquin word kébec meaning "where the river narrows" referred to the area around Quebec City where the Saint Lawrence River narrows to a cliff-lined gap. Early variations in the spelling of the name included Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of New France; the province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province". The Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years' War; the proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. The Quebec Act of 1774 expanded the territory of the province to include the Great Lakes and the Ohio River Valley and south of Rupert's Land, more or less restoring the borders existing under French rule before the Conquest of 1760.
The Treaty of Paris ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. In 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada; this territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867. Each became one of the first four provinces. In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local aboriginal peoples; this was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec.
In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Quebec disputes this boundary. Located in the eastern part of Canada, part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of, sparsely populated, its topography is different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate, the proximity to water. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Appalachians are the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, while the Canadian Shield occupies most of central and northern Quebec. Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of fresh water, occupying 12% of its surface, it has 3 % of the world's renewable fresh water. Mor
Tadoussac is a village in Quebec, Canada, at the confluence of the Saguenay and Saint Lawrence rivers. The indigenous Innu called the place Totouskak meaning "bosom" in reference to the two round and sandy hills located on the west side of the village. According to other interpretations, it could mean "place of lobsters", or "place where the ice is broken". Although located in Innu territory, the post was frequented by the Mi'kmaq people in the second half of the 16th century, who called it Gtatosag. Alternate spellings of Tadoussac over the centuries included Tadousac and Thadoyzeau. Tadoussac was first visited by Europeans in 1535 and was established in 1599 when the first trading post in Canada was formed there, in addition to a permanent settlement being placed in the same area that the Grand Hotel is located today. Jacques Cartier came to the site in 1535 during his second voyage, he found Innu people using it as a base for hunting seal. That same century, Basques conducted whaling expeditions on the river.
Tadoussac was founded in 1599 by François Gravé Du Pont, a merchant, Pierre de Chauvin de Tonnetuit, a captain of the French Royal Navy, when they acquired a fur trade monopoly from King Henry IV. Gravé and Chauvin built the settlement on the shore at the mouth of the Saguenay River, at its confluence with the St. Lawrence, to profit from its location, but the frontier was harsh and only sixteen of the initial 50 settlers survived the first winter. In 1603, the tabagie or "feast" of Tadoussac reunited Gravé with Samuel de Champlain and with the Montagnais, the Algonquins, the Etchimins." In 1615, the Mission of L'Exaltation-de-la-Sainte-Croix-de-Tadoussac, named in memory of a cross planted by Jean de Quen, was founded by the Récollet Order. Their missionary brothers sang the first Mass there two years later. Tadoussac remained the only seaport on the St. Lawrence River for 30 years. Historians believe the St. Lawrence Iroquoians, who inhabited the St. Lawrence valley upriver to the west, were defeated and pushed out by the Mohawk before the early 17th century.
By the late 17th and early 18th century, Tadoussac was the centre of fur trade between the French and First Nations peoples. Competition over the fur trade increased among the nations. Colonists from the Tadoussac area were involved in whaling from 1632 until at least the end of the century. In the 19th century, with industrialization reaching other parts of Canada, tourists discovered the appeal of this rural village. Wealthy Québécois built a number of vacation villas. A Victorian hotel called the Hotel Tadoussac was built in 1864. In 1855, the geographic township of Tadoussac was established. In 1899, it was incorporated as a village municipality. In 1937, the Parish Municipality of Tadoussac was formed, but dissolved in 1949 because it had less than 500 inhabitants; the modern village of Tadoussac lies close to the site of the original settlement at the mouth of the Saguenay River. It is known as a tourist destination because of the rugged beauty of the Saguenay fjord and its facilities for whale watching.
The authority for the Port of Tadoussac was transferred in April 2012 to the Municipality of Tadoussac. The entire area is either rural or still in a wilderness state, with several federal and provincial natural parks and preserves protecting natural resources. Tadoussac encompasses the first marine national park of Canada; the nearest urban agglomeration is Saguenay about 100 km west. The film The Hotel New Hampshire, based on the 1981 John Irving novel of the same name, was shot at the Hotel Tadoussac and released in 1984. Tadoussac is located on the north-west shore of the Saint Lawrence River, at its confluence with the Saguenay River; the cold, fresh water from the Saguenay and the warmer, salty water of the St. Lawrence, meet to create a rich marine environment; the rivers support an abundance of krill, making the area attractive to whales. Tadoussac is the north-east terminus of the Baie-Ste-Catherine/Tadoussac ferry, which offers free and frequent service across the Saguenay River; the ferry is the main link to Sept-Îles.
The village is considered the gateway to the Manicouagan region. Bus service to and from Quebec City and Montreal is offered by twice a day, 7 days a week. Old chapel Trading post of Pierre Chauvin CIMM, Center of Marine Mammal Interpretation Whale watching excursions in the Saguenay–St. Lawrence Marine Park Club de Golf Tadoussac Population trend: population in 2016: 799 Population in 2011: 813 Population in 2006: 850 Population in 2001: 870 Population in 1996: 913 Population in 1991: 832Private dwellings occupied by usual residents: 380 Mother tongue: English as first language: 1.8% French as first language: 92.3% English and French as first language: 1.8% Other as first language: 4.1% List of village municipalities in Quebec 1925 Charlevoix–Kamouraska earthquake Tadoussac website The CIMM in Tadoussac
Labrador is a geographic and cultural region within the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It comprises the mainland portion of the province, separated from the island of Newfoundland by the Strait of Belle Isle, it is northernmost geographical region in Atlantic Canada. Labrador occupies the eastern part of the Labrador Peninsula, it is bordered to the south by the Canadian province of Quebec. Labrador shares a small land border with the Canadian territory of Nunavut on Killiniq Island. Though Labrador covers 71 percent of the province's land area, it has only 8 percent of the province's population; the aboriginal peoples of Labrador include the Northern Inuit of Nunatsiavut, the Southern Inuit-Métis of Nunatukavut, the Innu. Many of the non-aboriginal population in Labrador did not permanently settle in Labrador until the natural resource developments of the 1940s and 1950s. Before the 1950s, few non-aboriginal people lived in Labrador year-round; the few European immigrants who worked seasonally for foreign merchants and brought their families were known as settlers.
Labrador is named after João Fernandes Lavrador, a Portuguese explorer who sailed along the coasts of the Peninsula in 1498–99. Lavrador in Portuguese means "farmer". Either in Spanish does. Labrador has a triangular shape that encompasses the easternmost section of the Canadian Shield, a sweeping geographical region of thin soil and abundant mineral resources, its western border with Quebec is the drainage divide of the Labrador Peninsula. Lands that drain into the Atlantic Ocean are part of Labrador, while lands that drain into Hudson Bay are part of Quebec. Northern Labrador's climate is classified as polar, while Southern Labrador's climate is classified as subarctic. Labrador can be divided into four geographical regions: the North Coast, Central Labrador, Western Labrador, the South Coast; each of those regions is described below. From Cape Chidley to Hamilton Inlet, the long, northern tip of Labrador holds the Torngat Mountains, named after an Inuit spirit believed to inhabit them; the mountains stretch along the coast from Port Manvers to Cape Chidley, the northernmost point of Labrador.
The Torngat Mountain range is home to Mount Caubvick, the highest point in the province. This area is predominantly Inuit, with the small Innu community of Natuashish being the exception; the north coast is the most isolated region of Labrador, with snowmobiles and planes being the only modern modes of transportation. The largest community in this region is Nain. Nunatsiavut is an Inuit self-government region in Labrador created on June 23, 2000; the Settlement area comprises the majority of Labrador's North Coast, while the land-use area includes land farther to the interior and in Central Labrador. Nain is the administrative center of Nunatsiavut. Central Labrador extends from the shores of Lake Melville into the interior, it contains the largest river in Labrador and one of the largest in Canada. The hydroelectric dam at Churchill Falls is the second-largest underground power station in the world. Most of the supply is bought by Hydro-Québec under a long-term contract; the Lower Churchill Project will develop the remaining potential of the river and supply it to provincial consumers.
Known as "the heart of the Big Land", the area's population comprises people from all groups and regions of Labrador. Central Labrador is home to Happy Valley – Goose Bay. Once a refueling point for plane convoys to Europe during World War II, CFB Goose Bay is now operated as a NATO tactical flight training site, it was an alternate landing zone for the United States' Space Shuttle. Other major communities in the area are the large reserve known as Sheshatshiu; the highlands above the Churchill Falls were once an ancient hunting ground for the Innu First Nations and settled trappers of Labrador. After the construction of the hydroelectric dam at Churchill Falls in 1970, the Smallwood Reservoir has flooded much of the old hunting land, it submerged trapping cabins. Western Labrador is home to the Iron Ore Company of Canada, which operates a large iron ore mine in Labrador City. Together with the small community of Wabush, the two towns are known as "Labrador West". From Hamilton Inlet to Cape Charles/St.
Lewis, NunatuKavut is the territory of the Central-Southern Labrador Inuit known as the Labrador Métis. The region is peppered with tiny Inuit fishing communities. From Cape Charles to the Quebec/Labrador coastal border. Like NunatuKavut, the straits is known for its Labrador sea grass and the multitude of icebergs that pass by the coast via the Labrador Current. Red Bay is known as one of the best examples of a preserved 16th-century Basque whaling station, it is the location of four 16th-century Spanish galleons. The lighthouse at Point Amour is the second-largest lighthouse in Canada. MV Apollo, a passenger ferry carrying customers between the mainland and St. Barbe on the island of Newfoundland, is based in Blanc Sablon, Quebec near the Quebec/Labrador border. L'Anse-au-Clair is a small town on the Labrador side of the border. Most of Labrador uses Atlantic Time; the southeastern tip nearest Newfoundland uses Newfoundland Time to stay coordinated with the more populous part of the province. Early settlement in Labrador was tied to the sea as demonstrated by the Montagnais and Inuit, although these peoples made significant forays throughout the interior.
It is believed that the Norsemen were the first Europeans to sight Labrador around 1000 AD, but no Norse remains have
Constitution of Canada
The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada. Canada is one of the oldest constitutional democracies in the world; the constitution outlines Canada's system of government, as well as the civil rights of all Canadian citizens and those in Canada. The composition of the Constitution of Canada is defined in subsection 52 of the Constitution Act, 1982, as consisting of the Canada Act 1982, all acts and orders referred to in the schedule, any amendments to these documents; the Supreme Court of Canada has held that the list is not exhaustive and includes a number of pre-confederation acts and unwritten components as well. See list of Canadian constitutional documents for details; the first semblance of a constitution for Canada was the Royal Proclamation of 1763. The act renamed the northeasterly portion of the former French province of New France as Province of Quebec coextensive with the southern third of contemporary Quebec; the proclamation, which established an appointed colonial government, was the constitution of Quebec until 1774, when the British parliament passed the Quebec Act, which expanded the province's boundaries to the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, one of the grievances listed in the United States Declaration of Independence.
The Quebec Act replaced the French criminal law presumption of guilty until proven innocent with the English criminal law presumption of innocent until proven guilty. The Treaty of Paris of 1783 ended the American War of Independence and sent a wave of British loyalist refugees northward to Quebec and Nova Scotia. In 1784, the two provinces were divided; the winter of 1837–38 saw rebellion in both of the Canadas, with the result they were rejoined as the Province of Canada in 1841. This was reversed by the British North America Act in 1867. On 1 July 1867, there were four provinces in confederation as "One dominion under the name of Canada": Canada West, Canada East, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick. Title to the Northwest Territories was transferred by the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1870 and the province of Manitoba was in the same year the first created out of it. British Columbia joined confederation in 1871, followed by Prince Edward Island in 1873; the Yukon Territory was created by Parliament in 1898, followed by Alberta and Saskatchewan in 1905.
The Dominion of Newfoundland, Britain's oldest colony in the Americas, joined Canada as a province in 1949. Nunavut was created in 1999. An Imperial Conference in 1926 that included the leaders of all Dominions and representatives from India, led to the eventual enactment of the Statute of Westminster 1931; the statute, an essential transitory step from the British Empire to the Commonwealth of Nations, provided that all existing Dominions became sovereign of the United Kingdom and all new Dominions would be sovereign upon the grant of Dominion status. Newfoundland never ratified the statute, so it was still subject to imperial authority when its entire system of government and economy collapsed in the mid-1930s. Canada did ratify the statute, but had requested an exception because the Canadian federal and provincial governments could not agree on an amending formula for the Canadian constitution, it would be another 50 years. In the interim, the British parliament periodically passed enabling acts with respect to amendments to Canada's constitution.
The patriation of the Canadian constitution was achieved in 1982 when the British parliament, with the assent of the Canadian parliament, passed the Canada Act 1982, which included in its schedules the Constitution Act, 1982, the United Kingdom thus formally absolving itself of any remaining responsibility for, or jurisdiction over, Canada. In a formal ceremony on Parliament Hill in Ottawa, Queen Elizabeth II proclaimed both acts as law on 17 April 1982. Constitution Act, 1982, included the Canadian Charter of Freedoms. Prior to the charter, there were various statutes which protected an assortment of civil rights and obligations, but nothing was enshrined in the constitution until 1982; the charter has thus placed a strong focus upon individual and collective rights of the people of Canada. Enactment of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms has fundamentally changed much of Canadian constitutional law; the act codified many oral constitutional conventions and made amendment of the constitution more difficult.
The Canadian federal constitution could be amended by solitary act of the Canadian or British parliaments, by formal or informal agreement between the federal and provincial governments, or simply by adoption as ordinary custom of an oral convention or unwritten tradition, perceived to be the best way to do something. Since the act, amendments must now conform to certain specified provisions in the written portion of the Canadian constitution; this was an Act of the British parliament called the British North America Act 1867. It outlined Canada's system of govern
Anticosti Island is an island in the province of Quebec, Canada at the outlet of the Saint Lawrence River into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, between 49° and 50° N. and between 61° 40' and 64° 30' W. At 7,892.52 km2 in size, it is the 90th largest island in the world and 20th largest island in Canada. Anticosti Island is separated on the north from the Côte-Nord region of Quebec by the Jacques Cartier Strait, on the south from the Gaspé Peninsula by the Honguedo Strait. Anticosti Island is larger than Prince Edward Island but sparsely populated, with most of the permanent population in the village of Port-Menier on the western tip of the island, consisting chiefly of the keepers of the lighthouses erected by the Canadian government; the entire island constitutes one municipality known as L'Île-d'Anticosti. Due to more than 400 shipwrecks off its coasts, Anticosti Island is sometimes called the "Cemetery of the Gulf". Anticosti Island is part of the eastern Saint Lawrence lowlands, it is 217 km long and has a maximum breadth of 48 km —1½ times as large as the province of Prince Edward Island.
Its coastline is 520 km long, is rocky and dangerous, offering little shelter for ships except in Gamache and Fox Bays. There are large shoals to the south; the largest lake on the island is Lake Wickenden. There are numerous rivers on Anticosti, many of which flow through deep gorges and canyons to the north and south shores. Topographically, Anticosti Island can be divided into three distinct regions: two lowland areas exceeding 150 metres in elevation, in the eastern and western thirds of the island linked along the coast; this plateau is a unidirectional structure tilted to the south, is characterized by rolling cuestas. The rocks exposed on the island form a continuous sedimentary stratum more than 2,000 m thick; these are the most complete strata in eastern North America of the Silurian periods. The climate of Anticosti Island is maritime sub-boreal, tempered by the maritime influence of the Gulf of St. Lawrence which reduces the temperature differences; the average annual temperature is 1.9 °C.
The month of July is the warmest with an average temperature of 14.79 °C. Conversely, February is the coldest month, on average −11.2 °C. Snow precipitation is abundant accumulating over 300 centimetres in the western and central parts. For thousands of years, Anticosti Island was the territory of the indigenous peoples who lived on the mainland and used it as a hunting ground; the Innu called it Notiskuan, translated as "where bears are hunted" and the Mi'kmaq called it Natigôsteg, meaning "forward land". Some early settlers called some Native Americans the Anticosti, documented their ethnobotany. A full list of 26 plants using this name attributed to them can be found at http://naeb.brit.org/uses/tribes/9/. The French explorer Jacques Cartier sailed along its shore in the summer of 1534, he provided its first written description and named it Isle de l'Assomption, because he discovered it on the Day of the Assumption of Mary. This name had fallen into disuse by 1656. About 1586, the historian André Thevet wrote that "the savages named Naticousti", while Samuel de Champlain spelled it Antiscoti, Antiscoty and Antycosty.
From that time on, France had incorporated the island into its colonial empire. Its first settlers arrived in 1680 when King Louis XIV gave Louis Jolliet the Seigneury of the Mingan Archipelago and Anticosti Island as compensation for exploring the Mississippi and Hudson Bay. Louis Jolliet erected a fort on Anticosti and in the spring of 1681 settled there with his wife, four children and six servants, his fort was captured and occupied during the winter of 1690 by some of the Massachusetts troops of William Phips during their retreat after an unsuccessful attempt to capture Quebec City. After Jolliet's death in 1700, the island was divided among his three sons and the Jolliet family retained ownership until 1763 when the island became part of British North America under the terms of the Treaty of Paris that ended the Seven Years' War; that same year, the island was annexed to Newfoundland until 1774 when it was returned to Lower Canada and annexed again to Newfoundland from 1809 to 1825. It became a part of Quebec at the Canadian Confederation in 1867.
During these years the island property changed hands several times, its owners using it for the harvesting of timber. For example, the French Canadian Gabriel-Elzéar Taschereau owned it among other seigneuries and made money from them. In 1874, it was bought by the Anticosti Island Company and they founded the villages at English Bay and Fox Bay. Most of the inhabitants, continued to be the few keepers of the island's many lighthouses; because of the number of shipwrecks around the island, stores of provisions were maintained around the island for sailors who might be washed ashore. In 1882, the Parish of Notre-Dame-de-l'Assomption was founded, a term referring to Cartier's name for the island. In 1884, the island became property of the Stockwell brothers who formed a forestry company two years later, but they were unsuccessful and the company lasted only five years. By the 1890s, the fish and wildlife of the island had been eradicated through the locals' indiscriminate slaughter. In 1895, Anticosti was sold for $125,000 to French chocolate maker Henri Menier who leased the shore fishing rights.
Menier named the island's 70 m (230 ft
Logging is the cutting, skidding, on-site processing, loading of trees or logs onto trucks or skeleton cars. In forestry, the term logging is sometimes used narrowly to describe the logistics of moving wood from the stump to somewhere outside the forest a sawmill or a lumber yard. In common usage, the term may cover a range of forestry or silviculture activities. Illegal logging refers to, it can refer to the harvesting, purchase, or sale of timber in violation of laws. The harvesting procedure itself may be illegal, including using corrupt means to gain access to forests. Clearcut logging is not considered a type of logging but a harvesting or silviculture method, is called clearcutting or block cutting. In the forest products industry logging companies may be referred to as logging contractors, with the smaller, non-union crews referred to as "gyppo loggers". Cutting trees with the highest value and leaving those with lower value diseased or malformed trees, is referred to as high grading, it is sometimes called selective logging, confused with selection cutting, the practice of managing stands by harvesting a proportion of trees.
Logging refers to above-ground forestry logging. Submerged forests exist on land, flooded by damming to create reservoirs; such trees are by the lowering of the reservoirs in question. Ootsa Lake and Williston Lake in British Columbia, Canada are notable examples where timber recovery has been needed to remove inundated forests. Clearcutting, or clearfelling, is a method of harvesting that removes all the standing trees in a selected area. Depending on management objectives, a clearcut may or may not have reserve trees left to attain goals other than regeneration, including wildlife habitat management, mitigation of potential erosion or water quality concerns. Silviculture objectives for clearcutting, a focus on forestry distinguish it from deforestation. Other methods include shelterwood cutting, group selective, single selective, seed-tree cutting, patch cut, retention cutting; the above operations can be carried out by different methods, of which the following three are considered industrial methods: Trees are felled and delimbed and topped at the stump.
The log is transported to the landing, where it is bucked and loaded on a truck. This leaves the slash in the cut area, where it must be further treated if wild land fires are of concern. Trees and plants are felled and transported to the roadside with top and limbs intact. There have been advancements to the process which now allows a logger or harvester to cut the tree down and delimb a tree in the same process; this ability is due to the advancement in the style felling head. The trees are delimbed and bucked at the landing; this method requires. In areas with access to cogeneration facilities, the slash can be chipped and used for the production of electricity or heat. Full-tree harvesting refers to utilization of the entire tree including branches and tops; this technique removes both nutrients and soil cover from the site and so can be harmful to the long term health of the area if no further action is taken, depending on the species, many of the limbs are broken off in handling so the end result may not be as different from tree-length logging as it might seem.
Cut-to-length logging is the process of felling, delimbing and sorting at the stump area, leaving limbs and tops in the forest. Harvesters fell the tree and buck it, place the resulting logs in bunks to be brought to the landing by a skidder or forwarder; this method is available for trees up to 900 mm in diameter. Harvesters are employed in level to moderately steep terrain. Harvesters are computerized to optimize cutting length, control harvesting area by GPS, use price lists for each specific log to archive most economical results during harvesting. Felled logs are generally transported to a sawmill to be cut into lumber, to a paper mill for paper pulp, or for other uses, for example, as fence posts. Many methods have been used to move logs from where they were cut to a rail line or directly to a sawmill or paper mill; the cheapest and most common method is making use of a river's current to float floating tree trunks downstream, by either log driving or timber rafting. To help herd the logs to the mill, in 1960 the Alaskan Lumber and Pulp Mill had a specially designed boat, constructed of 1 1⁄2 inch steel.
In the late 1800s and the first half of the 1900s, the most common method was the high-wheel loader, a set of wheels over ten feet tall that the log or logs were strapped beneath. Oxen were at first used with the high-wheel loaders. In 1960 the largest high wheel loader was built for service in California. Called the Bunyan Buggie, the unit was self-propelled and had wheels 24 feet high and a front dozer blade, 30 feet across and 6 feet high. Log transportation can be challenging and costly since trees are far from roads or watercourses. Road building and maintenance may be restricted in National Forests or other wilderness areas since it can cause erosion in riparian zones; when felled logs sit adja
Gulf of Saint Lawrence
The Gulf of Saint Lawrence is the outlet of the North American Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean. The gulf is a semienclosed sea, covering an area of about 226,000 square kilometres and containing about 34,500 cubic kilometres of water, which results in an average depth of 152 metres; the Gulf of Saint Lawrence is bounded on the north by the Labrador Peninsula and Quebec, to the east by Saint-Pierre and Newfoundland, to the south by the Nova Scotia peninsula and Cape Breton Island, to the west by the Gaspe Peninsula, New Brunswick, Quebec. As for significant islands the Gulf of Saint Lawrence contains Anticosti Island, PEI, Îles-de-la-Madeleine, Cape Breton Island, Saint Pierre Island, Miquelon-Langlade. Half of the ten provinces of Canada adjoin the Gulf: New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Labrador, Quebec. Besides the Saint Lawrence River itself, significant streams emptying into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence include the Miramichi River, Natashquan River, Romaine River, Restigouche River, Margaree River, Humber River.
Branches of the Gulf include the Chaleur Bay, Fortune Bay, Miramichi Bay, St. George's Bay, Bay St. George, Bay of Islands, Northumberland Strait; the gulf flows into the Atlantic Ocean through the following outlets: The Strait of Belle Isle between Labrador and Newfoundland: between 15 kilometres and 60 kilometres wide and 60 metres deep at its deepest. The Cabot Strait between Newfoundland and Saint-Pierre and Cape Breton Island: 104 km wide and 480 m deep at its deepest; the Strait of Canso between Cape Breton Island and the Nova Scotia peninsula: 1.0 km wide and 60 m deep at its deepest. Due to the construction of the Canso Causeway across the strait in 1955, it no longer permits exchange of water between the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the Atlantic Ocean; the limits of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence vary between sources. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence as follows: Fisheries and Oceans Canada places the western limit at Pointe-des-Monts.
St. Paul Island, Nova Scotia, off the northeastern tip of Cape Breton Island, is referred to as the "Graveyard of the Gulf" because of its many shipwrecks. Access to this island is controlled by the Canadian Coast Guard. Bonaventure Island on the eastern tip of the Gaspe Peninsula, Île Brion and Rochers-aux-Oiseaux northeast of the Magdalen Islands are important migratory bird sanctuaries administered by the Canadian Wildlife Service; the Federal Government of Canada has national parks along the Gulf of Saint Lawrence at Forillon National Park on the eastern tip of the Gaspe Peninsula, Prince Edward Island National Park on the northern shore of the island, Kouchibouguac National Park on the northeastern coast of New Brunswick, Cape Breton Highlands National Park on the northern tip of Cape Breton Island, Gros Morne National Park on the west coast of Newfoundland, a National Park Reserve in the Mingan Archipelago on the Côte-Nord of Quebec. The five provinces bordering the Gulf of Saint Lawrence have several provincial parks apiece, some of which preserve coastal features.
The Laurentian Channel is a feature of the floor of the Gulf, formed during previous ice ages, when the Continental Shelf was eroded by the Saint Lawrence River during the periods when the sea level plunged. The Laurentian Channel is about 290 m deep and about 1,250 km long from the Continental Shelf to the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River. Deep waters with temperatures between 2 and 6.5 °C enter the Gulf at the continental slope and are advected up the channel by estuariane circulation. Over the 20th century, the bottom waters of the end of the channel have become hypoxic; the gulf has provided a important marine fishery for various First Nations that have lived on its shores for millennia and used its waters for transportation. The first documented voyage by a European in its waters was by the French explorer Jacques Cartier in the year 1534. Cartier named the shores of the Saint Lawrence River "The Country of Canadas", after an indigenous word meaning "village" or "settlement", thus naming the world's second largest country.
At just about the same period, Basques came to frequent the area for whale-hunting and trade with the First Nations people of the modern Canadian Atlantic and Quebec provinces. They left vestiges of their presence in many locations of the area—docks, graveyards, etc. Saint Lawrence Seaway Estuary of Saint Lawrence Atlantic Ocean Anticosti Island St. Lawrence Global Observatory The Gulf of St. Lawrence - A Unique Ecosystem, Department of Fisheries and Oceans Timing and position of late Wisconsinan ice-margins on the upper slope seaward of Laurentian Channel