Compact sport utility vehicle
Compact sport utility vehicle known as compact SUV, is a class of small sport utility vehicles, larger than mini SUVs, but smaller than mid-size SUVs with a length between 4.25 to 4.60 metres. In markets such as India, They were a sub-segment of Utility Vehicles, but the smaller size versions have grown to become a dominant segment. According to Bob Lutz, an executive at several car companies, American Motors "invented an all-new automotive segment—the compact sport utility vehicle" with the original compact Jeep Cherokee two- and four-door models; the modern compact SUV models were introduced in 1983. General Motors released the two-door Chevrolet S-10 Blazer, a four-wheel drive wagon with a four-cylinder engine as standard. Mid-year, Ford brought out the Ford Bronco II. Both models were body-on-frame designs based on each automaker's small pickup trucks, the Chevrolet S-10 and Ford Ranger respectively. Chevrolet's S-10 pickup based baby Blazer came with an all-steel, permanent roof and a top-hinged rear hatch.
The Bronco II's general dimensions, drive train, cab details were identical to those of the compact truck with differences in the interior only aft of the doors. Both were station wagon-like vehicles with seating for four adults and an enclosed cargo area, while their similar compact truck versions that would fit two and have an open load bed; the first purpose-designed unibody compact SUV, the first with four-doors, was the Jeep Cherokee. It was introduced by American Motors Corporation in 1983 for the 1984 model year and was produced unchanged through 2001 in the U. S. and through 2005 in China. The compact XJ Cherokee took its name from the full-size SJ model that came before it, but was smaller. While the competing SUVs were adaptations of trucks, Jeep did not sell many pickup trucks so they designed a SUV first; the original Jeep XJ combined a passenger car comfort with a rugged chassis for ease of driving in difficult conditions, established the modern SUV market segment. Automobile magazine called it a "masterpiece" of automotive design with room for five passengers and their cargo.
The compact Cherokee's design and sales popularity spawned imitators as other automakers noticed that the Jeep XJ models began replacing regular cars. Compact SUVs have become an alternative to the minivans for families. While unchanged since its introduction, Cherokee XJ production continued through 2005 in China, was one of the best-selling compact SUVs in the world. There were over 2.8 million Jeep XJs built in the U. S. between 1984 and 2001. Most compact SUVs since the mid-2000s are crossover SUVs with monocoque construction and limited off-road capabilities; these models are derived from a compact car automobile platform. There are many different brands and models available in this market segment across numerous national markets. For example, the U. S. is "crowded with so many of these vehicles that sorting through them can be a daunting task." There are so many models in different price ranges and targeting different consumer needs that one publisher, U. S. News & World Report, separately evaluates compact SUVs on the basis of "best value for the money" and "best for families."
A subcompact SUV called a mini SUV or subcompact crossover, is a class of small sport utility vehicles with a length under and around 4,200 mm. The term comprises any vehicle, smaller than a compact SUV in North American standardization, or any 4x4 with a supermini body in international standardization or based on a supermini platform. First mini SUVs appeared in the course of 1990s and were off-road vehicles built on body-on-frame chassis, such as the Suzuki Samurai; some of the current models still use this concept due to their off-road prowess and more manageable size on the trail. However, most modern mini SUVs reside on unibody construction and offer only few off-road capabilities, hence falling into the crossover SUV category; some are representative of modern superminis with only a bumper hinge and more ground clearance. In Japan, as cars under 3,400 mm in length are attract lower taxes. Mini MPV List of sport utility vehicles
The Renault Mégane is a small family car produced by the French car manufacturer Renault since the end of 1995, was the successor to the Renault 19. The Mégane has been offered in three and five door hatchback, coupé, convertible and estate bodystyles at various points in its lifetime, having been through three generations is now in its fourth incarnation; the first generation was based on its predecessor, the 19, utilized modified versions of that car's drivetrain and chassis. In November 1996, the Mégane Scénic compact MPV was introduced, using the same mechanical components as the hatchback Mégane. For 2002, the Mégane entered its second generation with a substantial redesign taking place, was voted European Car of the Year for 2003, whilst becoming the first car in its class to receive a five star EuroNCAP rating; the Mégane entered its third generation in 2008, with another different design being used. A fourth generation Mégane was launched in 2015, with sales commencing in 2016. Development of the X64 began at the beginning of 1990, with the first sketches of X64 programme being drawn during the first six months of 1990.
Several themes were outlined and developed into four small scale models by September 1990. The designs retained. Theme A: a six light version, evoking the Laguna. In March 1991, all four styling proposals were developed into full scale. Theme C by Michel Jardin was chosen by Le Quement and frozen for production in April 1992; the first prototypes were built and presented to management in December 1992. 432 prototypes were built and destroyed during development. In June 1993, Renault purchased production tooling for the X64, with the first test unit being assembled at the Douai plant in October 1994, pre production units being constructed from December 1994 to the middle of 1995; the Mégane I was unveiled in September 1995, at the Frankfurt Motor Show, as a replacement for the Renault 19. The car was a reskin of its predecessor, carried over the 19's floorpan, engines and chassis design, albeit with much modification. Taking its name from a Renault concept car shown in 1988, the Mégane further developed the new corporate styling theme introduced by Patrick Le Quément on the Laguna, most notably the "bird beak" front grille – a styling cue borrowed from the Renault 16 of the 1960s.
As with the 19 and the 11 before it, the Mégane was produced at Renault's Douai plant in northern France starting in July 1995, at the Spanish plant of Palencia. Market launch began on 15 November 1995 in France, 15 December 1995 for the coupé. Sales in the United Kingdom commenced in April 1996. Safety was a key focus of the Mégane I, Renault's first car reflecting their new focus of selling on safety, it featured a pillar mounted three point seatbelt for the middle rear occupant, standard front belt pre tensioners and load limiters, driver's airbag and an impressive safety structure – a specification ahead of most rivals in 1995. Some features, such as the three point middle belt, had debuted on the Renault 19 safety concept vehicle; the car benefited from Renault's first "System for Restraint and Protection" a system of careful optimisation of occupant restraint by interaction of the seat, pretensioner, load limiter and airbag. The Mégane I achieved a best in class four star crash test rating in the 1998 round of testing by Euro NCAP.
November 1996 saw the introduction of the Mégane Scénic compact MPV. Power came from the Renault E type engine in 1.4 L and 1.6 L, the F-type unit in both 1.9 L diesel and 2.0 L petrol forms, although this time around there was a wider variety of 16 valve derivatives. A 1.9 L diesel engine in both aspirated and turbocharged forms was available. Renault produced a limited number of Renaultsport edition Phase 1's with the Renaultsport bodywork; the Renaultsport kit was available to purchase for a short time direct from Renault France, but has now been discontinued, thus their value has increased. The estate version of the original Mégane was only available in LHD form, with no RHD variants being built, this could be due to the greater popularity of the Scenic in those markets, it was added with the facelift of 1999. In Japan, Renault was licensed by Yanase Co. Ltd. but in 1999 Renault acquired a stake in Japanese automaker Nissan. As a result of Renault's purchase, Yanase canceled its licensing contract for all Renault models sold in Japan, but not limited to, the Mégane I, in 2000, Nissan took over as the sole licensee for Renault cars.
A mild facelift in spring 1999 gave the Mégane I a modified grille, more advanced safety features and upgraded equipment, 16 valve engines were used across the range. An Estate body style was launched in mainland Europe with the facelift; the production continued for the Latin America Market, where it was sold alongside the Mégane II line at a lower price until 2011. In countries such as Argentina and Colombia the Mégane I was available until 2010 sold as a sedan and an Estate, but in Venezuela was available only as a sedan, it features as the top line of the model the LA04 engine, was produced by both Renault Colombia a
A sedan — saloon — is a passenger car in a three-box configuration with separate compartments for engine and cargo. Sedan's first recorded use as a name for a car body was in 1912; the name comes from a 17th century development of a litter, the sedan chair, a one-person enclosed box with windows and carried by porters. Variations of the sedan style of body include: close-coupled sedan, club sedan, convertible sedan, fastback sedan, hardtop sedan, notchback sedan and sedanet/sedanette; the current definition of a sedan is a car with a closed body with the engine and cargo in separate compartments. This broad definition does not differentiate sedans from various other car body styles, but in practice the typical characteristics of sedans are: a B-pillar that supports the roof two rows of seats a three-box design with the engine at the front and the cargo area at the rear a less steeply sloping roofline than a coupé, which results in increased headroom for rear passenger and a less sporting appearance.
A rear interior volume of at least 33 cu ft It is sometimes suggested that sedans must have four doors. However, several sources state that a sedan can have four doors. In addition, terms such as sedan and coupé have been more loosely interpreted by car manufacturers since 2010; when a manufacturer produces two-door sedan and four-door sedan versions of the same model, the shape and position of the greenhouse on both versions may be identical, with only the B-pillar positioned further back to accommodate the longer doors on the two-door versions. A sedan chair, a sophisticated litter, was an enclosed box with windows used to transport one seated person. Porters at the front and rear carried the chair with horizontal poles. Litters date back to long before ancient Egypt and China. Sedan chairs were developed in the 1630s. Reputable etymologists suggest the name of the chair probably came through Italian dialects from the Latin sedere meaning to sit; the same experts report that the first recorded use of sedan for an automobile body occurred in 1912 when a new Studebaker model was described by its manufacturers as a sedan.
The same American dictionary provides this description: "Sedan an enclosed automobile for four or more people, having two or four doors". There were enclosed automobile bodies before 1912. Long before that time the same enclosed but horse-drawn carriages were known as broughams in the United Kingdom, they were berlinas in France and Italy. Both names are still used there for sedans. There is an unsubstantiated claim that the body of a particular 1899 Renault Voiturette Type B was the first motor vehicle, a sedan, it was a two-door two-seater vehicle with an extra external seat for a footman/mechanic. Georgano claims the earliest usage matching a modern definition of a sedan was a 1911 Speedwell sedan manufactured in the United States. In American English and Latin American Spanish, the term sedan is used. In British English, a car of this configuration is called a saloon. Hatchback sedans are known as hatchbacks. Super saloon is used to describe a high performance saloon car where sports saloon would have been used in the past.
Saloon has been used by British car manufacturers in the United States, for example, the Rolls-Royce Park Ward. In Australia and New Zealand sedan is now predominantly used, they were simply cars. In the 21st century saloon is still found in the long-established names of particular motor races. In other languages, sedans are known as berlina though they may include hatchbacks; these names, like sedan, all come from forms of passenger transport used before the advent of automobiles. In German sedans are berlines or limousines and limousines are stretch-limousines. In the United States notchback sedan distinguishes models with a horizontal trunklid; the term is only referred to in the marketing when it is necessary to distinguish between two sedan body styles of the same model range. Several sedans have a fastback profile, but instead of a trunk lid, the entire back of the vehicle lifts up. Examples include the Chevrolet Malibu Maxx, Audi A5 Sportback and Tesla Model S; the names "hatchback" and "sedan" are used to differentiate between body styles of the same model.
Therefore the term "hatchback sedan" is not used, to avoid confusion. There have been many sedans with a fastback style. Hardtop sedans were a popular body style in the United States from the 1950s to the 1970s. Hardtops are manufactured without a B-pillar leaving uninterrupted open space or, when closed, glass along the side of the car; the top was intended to look like a convertible's top but it was fixed and made of hard material that did not fold. All manufacturers in the United States from the early 1950s into the 1970s provided at least a 2-door hardtop model in their range and, if their engineers could manage it, a 4-door hardtop as well; the lack of side-bracing demanded a strong and heavy chassis frame to combat unavoidable flexing. The fashion may have delayed the introduction of unibody construction. In 1973 the US government passed Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 216 creating a standard roof strength test to measure the integrity of roof structure in motor vehicles to come into effect some years later.
Fiat Automobiles S.p. A. is an Italian automobile manufacturer, a subsidiary of FCA Italy S.p. A., part of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles. Fiat Automobiles was formed in January 2007 when Fiat reorganized its automobile business, traces its history back to 1899 when the first Fiat automobile, the Fiat 4 HP, was produced. Fiat Automobiles is the largest automobile manufacturer in Italy. During its more than century-long history, it remained the largest automobile manufacturer in Europe and the third in the world after General Motors and Ford for over twenty years, until the car industry crisis in the late 1980s. In 2013, Fiat S.p. A. was the second largest European automaker by volumes produced and the seventh in the world, while FCA is the world's eighth largest auto maker. In 1970, Fiat Automobiles employed more than 100,000 in Italy when its production reached the highest number, 1.4 million cars, in that country. As of 2002, it built more than 1 million vehicles at six plants in Italy and the country accounted for more than a third of the company's revenue.
Fiat has manufactured railway engines, military vehicles, farm tractors and weapons such as the Fiat–Revelli Modello 1914. Fiat-brand cars are built in several locations around the world. Outside Italy, the largest country of production is Brazil, where the Fiat brand is the market leader; the group has factories in Argentina and Mexico and a long history of licensing manufacture of its products in other countries. Fiat Automobiles has received many international awards for its vehicles, including nine European Car of the Year awards, the most of any other manufacturer, it ranked many times as the lowest level of CO2 emissions by vehicles sold in Europe. On 11 July 1899, Giovanni Agnelli was part of the group of founding members of FIAT, Fabbrica Italiana di Automobili Torino; the first Fiat plant opened in 1900 with 35 staff making 24 cars. Known from the beginning for the talent and creativity of its engineering staff, by 1903 Fiat made a small profit and produced 135 cars; the company went public selling shares via the Milan stock exchange.
Agnelli led the company until his death in 1945, while Vittorio Valletta administered the firm's daily activities. Its first car, the 3 ½ CV resembled contemporary Benz, had a 697 cc boxer twin engine. In 1903, Fiat produced its first truck. In 1908, the first Fiat was exported to the US; that same year, the first Fiat aircraft engine was produced. Around the same time, Fiat taxis became popular in Europe. By 1910, Fiat was the largest automotive company in Italy; that same year, a new plant was built in Poughkeepsie, NY, by the newly founded American F. I. A. T. Automobile Company. Owning a Fiat at that time was a sign of distinction; the cost of a Fiat in the US was $4,000 and rose up to $6,400 in 1918, compared to $825 for a Ford Model T in 1908, $525 in 1918, respectively. During World War I, Fiat had to devote all of its factories to supplying the Allies with aircraft, machine guns and ambulances. Upon the entry of the US into the war in 1917, the factory was shut down as US regulations became too burdensome.
After the war, Fiat introduced its first tractor, the 702. By the early 1920s, Fiat had a market share in Italy of 80%. In 1921, workers hoisted the red flag of communism over them. Agnelli responded by quitting the company. However, the Italian Socialist Party and its ally organization, the Italian General Confederation of Labour, in an effort to effect a compromise with the centrist parties ordered the occupation ended. In 1922, Fiat began to build the famous Lingotto car factory—then the largest in Europe—which opened in 1923, it was the first Fiat factory to use assembly lines. In 1928, with the 509, Fiat included insurance in the purchase price. Fiat made military machinery and vehicles during World War II for the Army and Regia Aeronautica and for the Germans. Fiat made obsolete fighter aircraft like the biplane CR.42, one of the most common Italian aircraft, along with Savoia-Marchettis, as well as light tanks and armoured vehicles. The best Fiat aircraft was the G. 55 fighter. In 1945, the year Benito Mussolini was overthrown, the National Liberation Committee removed the Agnelli family from leadership roles in Fiat because of its ties to Mussolini's government.
They were not returned until 1963, when Giovanni's grandson, took over as general manager until 1966, as chairman until 1996. In 1970, Fiat employed more than 100,000 in Italy when its production reached the highest number, 1.4 million cars, in that country. As of 2002, Fiat built more than 1 million vehicles at six plants in Italy and the country accounted for more than a third of the company's revenue. Towards the end of 1976 it was announced that the Libyan government was to take a shareholding in the company in return for a capital injection Other aspects of the Libyan agreement included the construction of a truck and bus plant at Tripoli. Chairman Agnelli candidly described the deal as "a classic petro-money recycling operation which will strengthen the Italian reserves, provide Fiat with fresh capital and give the group greater tranquility in which to carry out its investment programmes". On 29 January 20
Subcompact car is the American classification for small cars, broadly equivalent to the B-segment or supermini classifications. According to the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency car size class definition, the subcompact category sits between minicompact and compact categories; the EPA definition of a subcompact is a passenger car with a combined interior and cargo volume of between 85–99 cubic feet. Current examples of subcompact cars are the Ford Chevrolet Sonic; the smaller cars in the A-segment / city car category are sometimes called subcompacts in the U. S. because the EPA's name for this smaller category— minicompact— is not used by the general public. The prevalence of small cars in the United States increased in the 1960s increased imports of cars from Europe and Japan. Widespread use of the term subcompact coincided with the early 1970s increase in subcompact cars built in the United States. Early 1970s subcompacts include Chevrolet Vega and Ford Pinto; the term subcompact originated during the 1960s, however it came into popular use in the early 1970s, as car manufacturers in the United States began to introduce smaller cars into their line-up.
Cars in this size were variously categorized, including "small cars" and "economy cars". Several of these small cars were produced in the U. S. in limited volumes, including the 1930 American Austin and the 1939 Crosley. From the 1950s onwards, various imported small cars were sold in the U. S. including the Nash Metropolitan, Volkswagen Beetle and various small British cars. Due to the increasing populary of small cars imported from Europe and Japan during the late 1960s, the American manufacturers to began releasing competing locally-built models in the early 1970s; the AMC Gremlin was described at its April 1970 introduction as "the first American-built import" and the first U. S. built subcompact car. Introduced in 1970 were the Chevrolet Vega and Ford Pinto. Sales of American-built "low weight cars" accounted for more than 30% of total car sales in 1972 and 1973, despite inventory shortages for several models; the Gremlin and Vega were all rear-wheel drive and available with four-cylinder engines.
The Pontiac Astre, the Canadian-born re-badged Vega variant was released in the U. S. September 1974. Due to falling sales of the larger pony cars in the mid-1970s, the Vega-based Chevrolet Monza was introduced as an upscale subcompact and the Ford Mustang II temporarily downsized from the pony car class to become a subcompact car for its second generation; the Monza with its GM variants Pontiac Sunbird, Buick Skyhawk, Oldsmobile Starfire, the Mustang II continued until the end of the decade. The Chevrolet Chevette was GM's new entry-level subcompact introduced as a 1976 model, it was an ` Americanized' design from GM's German subsidiary. And there were subcompacts that were imported but sold through a domestic manufacturers dealer network Captive imports, the Renault Le Car and the Ford Fiesta In 1977, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency began to use a new vehicle classification system, based on interior volume instead of exterior size; this resulted in cars classified as subcompact now being classified as compact cars, a smaller group of cars now being classified as subcompact.
In 1978, Volkswagen began producing the "Rabbit" version of the Golf— a modern, front-wheel drive design— in Pennsylvania. In 1982, American Motors began manufacturing the U. S. Renault Alliance— a version of the Renault 9— in Wisconsin. Both models benefiting from European designs and experience. To replace the aging Chevette in the second half of the 1980s, Chevrolet introduced marketed imported front-wheel drive subcompact cars: the Suzuki Cultus and the Isuzu Gemini. During the 1990s GM offered the Geo brand featuring the Suzuki-built Metro subcompact; because of consumer demand for fuel-efficient cars during the late-2000s, sales of subcompact cars made it the fastest growing market category in the U. S; as of 2016, numerous models of subcompacts are sold in North America. As of 2012, the Chevrolet Sonic was the only subcompact assembled in the United States. Imported subcompact cars include Korean models such as Hyundai Accent, Kia Rio along with Japanese models such as Honda Fit, Mazda 2, Nissan Micra, Scion xD, Suzuki Swift, Toyota Yaris and Toyota Prius C.
Car classification Mini SUV Economy car