Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
Kimberly Denise Jones, known professionally by her stage name Lil' Kim, is an American rapper, songwriter and actress. She was born and raised in Brooklyn, New York, living much of her adolescent life on the streets after being expelled from home. In her teens, Jones would freestyle rap influenced by fellow female hip-hop artists like MC Lyte and The Lady of Rage. In 1994, she was discovered by fellow rapper The Notorious B. I. G. who invited her to join his rap group Junior M. A. F. I. A.. Lil' Kim's debut studio album, Hard Core, was certified double platinum by the RIAA, has since sold more than 6 million copies worldwide, spawned three successful singles: "No Time", "Not Tonight", "Crush on You", her following albums, The Notorious K. I. M. and La Bella Mafia, were certified platinum, making her the only female rapper besides Missy Elliott and Nicki Minaj to have at least three platinum-certified studio albums. In 2001, she was featured on the single "Lady Marmalade", alongside Mýa, Pink and Christina Aguilera, which went to number one on the U.
S. Billboard Hot 100. In addition, the remake won two MTV Video Music Awards including Video of the Year, a Grammy Award for Best Pop Collaboration with Vocals at the 44th Grammy Awards in 2002. In 2005, she served a yearlong prison sentence for lying to a jury about her friends' involvement in a shooting four years earlier. During her incarceration, her fourth album, The Naked Truth, was released to positive reviews from critics, she returned to the public eye in 2009 with an appearance on Dancing with the Stars. Throughout her career, Lil' Kim has sold more than 15 million albums and 30 million singles worldwide, her songs "No Time", "Big Momma Thang", "Ladies Night" were each listed on Complex Magazine's list of the 50 Best Rap Songs By Women. In 2012, Lil' Kim was listed on VH1's 100 Greatest Women In Music list at number 45, the second highest position for a solo female hip-hop artist. Lil' Kim has been called "the fiercest, most provocative, most infamous female rapper" by AllMusic, she has been noted as one of the top 50 greatest MCs of all time in the book There's a God on the Mic.
Aside from music, Lil' Kim is known for her risk-taking and luxurious approach to fashion that inspired many artists. She has been called one of the most influential rappers of all time referred to as the "Queen of Rap" and "Hip-Hop Goddess". Jones was born in the Bedford–Stuyvesant neighborhood of the New York City borough of Brooklyn, the second child of Linwood Jones, a former U. S. Marine, Ruby Jones, she has one older brother named Christopher. As a child, Jones attended Queen of All Saints Elementary School in Brooklyn. At the age of 9, her parents separated, Jones was raised by her father, with whom she had a tumultuous relationship. After being kicked out of her house by her father, Jones dropped out of high school and began living out on the streets. While still a teen, Jones met The Notorious B. I. G. A.k.a. Biggie Smalls, a key figure in both her personal and artistic life after Wallace gained popularity and influence through his relationship with Bad Boy Records, founded by Sean "Puff Daddy" Combs.
Jones attended Sarah J. Hale Vocational High School for two and a half years. Many of her friends went there and she would skip school to hang out with them. Since her school work wasn't being completed, the decision was made for her to transfer to Brooklyn College Academy to finish her remaining year and half of school, it was the same school that fellow rappers Foxy Brown attended. In 1994, B. I. G. was instrumental in introducing and promoting the Brooklyn-based group, Junior M. A. F. I. A. Which included Jones, only 19 at the time; the group's first and only album, was released to mediocre reviews and moderate sales on August 29, 1995 and debuted at number eight on the U. S. Billboard 200 chart, selling 69,000 copies in its first week of release. Wallace wrote most of the album's material. Three hit singles came from Conspiracy: "Player's Anthem", "I Need You Tonight", "Get Money"; the RIAA certified Conspiracy gold on December 6, 1995. "Player's Anthem" and "Get Money" were certified platinum respectively.
Lil' Kim's increasing popularity as a member of Junior M. A. F. I. A. Allowed her to start a solo career shortly after the Conspiracy album was released, she began working on what would become her debut album Hard Core by late 1995. After a year with Junior M. A. F. I. A. Lil' Kim began a solo career by making guest performances on R&B albums and recording her debut album, Hard Core, released in November 1996; the album debuted at number 11 on the Billboard 200, the highest debut for a female rap album at that time, number 3 on Billboard's Top R&B Albums, selling 78,000 copies in its first week of release and has sold over 5 million copies worldwide. Hard Core was certified double platinum by the RIAA on March 14, 2001 after having been certified gold on January 6, 1997 and platinum on June 3, 1997; the album's lead single "No Time", a duet with Combs, reached the top spot of the Billboard Hot Rap Tracks chart and was certified gold by the RIAA. The following single, "Crush on You", reached number 2 on the rap chart.
A remix of the album's track "Not Ton
University of Pennsylvania
The University of Pennsylvania is a private Ivy League research university located in the University City neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is one of the nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence and the first institution of higher learning in the United States to refer to itself as a university. Benjamin Franklin, Penn's founder and first president, advocated an educational program that trained leaders in commerce and public service, similar to a modern liberal arts curriculum; the university's coat of arms features a dolphin on its red chief, adopted from Benjamin Franklin's own coat of arms. University of Pennsylvania is home many professional and graduate schools including, the first school of medicine in North America, the first collegiate business school and the first "student union" building and organization were founded at Penn; the university has four undergraduate schools which provide a combined 99 undergraduate majors in the humanities, natural sciences and engineering, as well twelve graduate and professional schools.
It provides the option to pursue specialized dual degree programs. Undergraduate admissions is competitive, with an acceptance rate of 7.44% for the class of 2023, the school is ranked as the 8th best university in the United States by the U. S. News & World Report. In athletics, the Quakers field varsity teams in 33 sports as a member of the NCAA Division I Ivy League conference and hold a total of 210 Ivy League championships as of 2017. In 2018, the university had an endowment of $13.8 billion, the seventh largest endowment of all colleges in the United States, as well as an academic research budget of $966 million. As of 2018, distinguished alumni include 14 heads of 64 billionaire alumni. S. House of Representatives. Other notable alumni include 27 Rhodes Scholars, 15 Marshall Scholarship recipients, 16 Pulitzer Prize winners, 48 Fulbright Scholars. In addition, some 35 Nobel laureates, 169 Guggenheim Fellows, 80 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, many Fortune 500 CEOs have been affiliated with the university.
University of Pennsylvania considers itself the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States, though this is contested by Princeton and Columbia Universities. The university considers itself as the first university in the United States with both undergraduate and graduate studies. In 1740, a group of Philadelphians joined together to erect a great preaching hall for the traveling evangelist George Whitefield, who toured the American colonies delivering open air sermons; the building was designed and built by Edmund Woolley and was the largest building in the city at the time, drawing thousands of people the first time it was preached in. It was planned to serve as a charity school as well, but a lack of funds forced plans for the chapel and school to be suspended. According to Franklin's autobiography, it was in 1743 when he first had the idea to establish an academy, "thinking the Rev. Richard Peters a fit person to superintend such an institution". However, Peters declined a casual inquiry from Franklin and nothing further was done for another six years.
In the fall of 1749, now more eager to create a school to educate future generations, Benjamin Franklin circulated a pamphlet titled "Proposals Relating to the Education of Youth in Pensilvania", his vision for what he called a "Public Academy of Philadelphia". Unlike the other Colonial colleges that existed in 1749—Harvard, William & Mary and Princeton—Franklin's new school would not focus on education for the clergy, he advocated an innovative concept of higher education, one which would teach both the ornamental knowledge of the arts and the practical skills necessary for making a living and doing public service. The proposed program of study could have become the nation's first modern liberal arts curriculum, although it was never implemented because William Smith, an Anglican priest who became the first provost and other trustees preferred the traditional curriculum. Franklin assembled a board of trustees from among the leading citizens of Philadelphia, the first such non-sectarian board in America.
At the first meeting of the 24 members of the Board of Trustees, the issue of where to locate the school was a prime concern. Although a lot across Sixth Street from the old Pennsylvania State House, was offered without cost by James Logan, its owner, the Trustees realized that the building erected in 1740, still vacant, would be an better site; the original sponsors of the dormant building still owed considerable construction debts and asked Franklin's group to assume their debts and, their inactive trusts. On February 1, 1750, the new board took over the building and trusts of the old board. On August 13, 1751, the "Academy of Philadelphia", using the great hall at 4th and Arch Streets, took in its first secondary students. A charity school was chartered July 13, 1753 in accordance with the intentions of the original "New Building" donors, although it lasted only a few years. On June 16, 1755, the "College of Philadelphia" was chartered, paving the way for the addition of undergraduate instruction.
All three schools shared the same Board of Trustees and were consider
In Christianity, a minister is a person authorized by a church, or other religious organization, to perform functions such as teaching of beliefs. The term is taken from Latin minister. In the Catholic Church, Oriental Orthodox, Nordic Lutheran, Eastern Orthodox churches, the concept of a priesthood is emphasized. In other Christian denominations, such as the Baptist, Congregationalist, Methodist and Reformed churches, the term "minister" refers to members of the ordained clergy who leads a congregation or participates in a role in a parachurch ministry. With respect to ecclesiastical address, many ministers are styled as "The Reverend"; the Church of England defines the ministry of priests as follows: Priests are called to be servants and shepherds among the people to whom they are sent. With their Bishop and fellow ministers, they are to proclaim the word of the Lord and to watch for the signs of God's new creation, they are to be messengers and stewards of the Lord. Formed by the word, they are to call their hearers to repentance and to declare in Christ's name the absolution and forgiveness of their sins.
With all God's people, they are to tell the story of God's love. They are to baptize new disciples in the name of the Father, of the Son, of the Holy Spirit, to walk with them in the way of Christ, nurturing them in the faith, they are to unfold the Scriptures, to preach the word in season and out of season, to declare the mighty acts of God. They are to preside at the Lord's table and lead his people in worship, offering with them a spiritual sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving, they are to bless the people in God's name. They are to resist evil, support the weak, defend the poor, intercede for all in need, they prepare the dying for their death. Guided by the Spirit, they are to discern and foster the gifts of all God's people, that the whole Church may be built up in unity and faith. Ministers may perform some or all of the following duties: assist in co-ordinating volunteers and church community groups assist in any general administrative service conduct marriage ceremonies and memorial services, participate in the ordination of other clergy, confirming young people as members of a local church encourage local church endeavors engage in welfare and community services activities of communities establish new local churches keep records as required by civil or church law plan and conduct services of public worship preach pray and encourage others to be theocentric preside over sacraments of the church.
Such as: the Lord's Supper known as the Lord's Table, or Holy Communion, the Baptism of adults or children provide leadership to the congregation, parish or church community, this may be done as part of a team with lay people in roles such as elders refer people to community support services, psychologists or doctors research and study religion and theology supervise prayer and discussion groups and seminars, provide religious instruction teach on spiritual and theological subjects train leaders for church and youth leadership work on developing relationships and networks within the religious community provide pastoral care in various contexts provide personal support to people in crises, such as illness and family breakdown visit the sick and elderly to counsel and comfort them and their families administer Last Rites when designated to do so the first style of ministering is the player coach style. In this style, the pastor is a "participant in all the processes that the church uses to reach people and see them transformed the second style of ministering is the delegating style, in which the minister develops members of the church to point that they can be trusted the third style of ministering is the directing style where the minister gives specific instructions and supervises the congregation the last and fourth style of ministering is the combination style, which a minister allows directional ministering from a pastoral staff member mention prayer of salvation to those interested in becoming a believer Depending on the denomination the requirements for ministry vary.
All denominations require. In regards to training, denominations vary in their requirements, from those that emphasize natural gifts to those that require advanced tertiary education qualifications, for example, from a seminary, theological college or university. One of the clearest references is found in 1 Timothy 3:1-16, which outlines the requirements of a bishop: This is a true saying, if a man desire the office of a bishop, he desireth a good work. A bishop must be blameless, the husband of one wife, sober, of good behaviour, given to hospitality, apt to teach.
The Game (rapper)
Jayceon Terrell Taylor, better known by his stage name The Game, is an American rapper, record producer and actor. He is best known as a rapper in the West Coast hip hop scene and for being one of Dr. Dre's signees under Aftermath. Born in Compton, California, he released his first mixtape You Know What It Is Vol. 1 in 2002. He rose to fame in 2005 with the success of his major-label debut album The Documentary and found continued success with the 2006 follow-up Doctor's Advocate; the Recording Industry Association of America certified The Documentary Double Platinum in March 2005. A rising artist in the 2000s, The Game was considered to be a driving force in bringing back the West Coast hip hop scene into the mainstream and competing with many of his East Coast counterparts; the Game was placed into G-Unit by Jimmy Iovine. As a result of his disputes with 50 Cent, Game left Aftermath and signed with Geffen, another label under Universal's Interscope Geffen A&M unit, to terminate his contractual obligations with G-Unit in the summer of 2006.
The Game's second major label album Doctor's Advocate was released on November 14, 2006 and it became his second album to debut at number one on the U. S. Billboard 200 chart. Doctor's Advocate did not feature any production from Dr. Dre. Pitchfork Media placed The Documentary at number 35 on their list of Top 50 Albums of 2005; the Game was nominated with a total of two nominations, including Grammy Award for Best Rap Song and Grammy Award for Best Rap Performance by a Duo or Group for the smash single "Hate It or Love It". The New York Times named Doctor's Advocate best hip-hop album of 2006, his next album LAX was released in 2008. With his eighth studio album The R. E. D. Album, The Game again debuted at number one on the Billboard 200. In addition to music, The Game has starred in motion pictures and founded The Black Wall Street Records. In September 2011, The Game started working on his ninth studio album, Jesus Piece, released on December 11, 2012, his final album released by Interscope. After releasing a mixtape OKE, on October 12, 2013, Baby announced The Game had signed to Cash Money, distributed by Republic.
However, The Game refuted this claim. His latest album 1992 was released on October 14, 2016, spawned two official singles; the Game was born Jayceon Terrell Taylor on November 29, 1979, in Compton, in southern Los Angeles County to George Taylor, Jr. and Lynette Baker, who both were members of the Crips street gang. Through his father, Taylor is of partial Mexican American and Native American heritage in addition to the African American ancestry he inherited from both parents, he grew up in a Crip-controlled neighborhood known as Santana Blocc, although Taylor himself grew up to become a member of the Bloods through his brother. In an October 2006 interview with MTV News correspondent Sway Calloway, The Game described his family as "dysfunctional". Taylor endured many hardships in his adolescence. At the age of 7, he was placed in foster care. At 13, one of his older brothers, was shot at a gas station and died soon thereafter; when he was 15, Taylor was removed from the foster care system and moved in with his mother, he had a tumultuous relationship with her.
Taylor attended Compton High School. However, his older half-brother George Taylor III, known as Big Fase 100, attended Centennial High School and was the leader of the Cedar Block Piru Bloods street gang. In high school, Taylor was involved in sports including basketball and track, which his height enabled him to do so. In 1999, Taylor claims that he enrolled in Washington State University on a basketball scholarship and was expelled after a short time when caught with drugs in his possession. However, the university's athletic department stated that Taylor was never enrolled in their athletic program, nor the university. By the early 2000s, Taylor had become involved in "street life," selling drugs and participating in gang activities. While recovering in the hospital from gunshot wounds he incurred in late 2001, Game told his brother to go out and buy all of the classic hip-hop albums. Over the course of five months, he studied all of the various influential rap albums and developed a strategy to turn himself into a rapper.
With the help of his older brother Big Fase, they founded the label. It featured such artists as Glasses Malone, Nu Jerzey Devil, along with Game himself, his stage name was coined by his grandmother, a huge fan of the 1997 blockbuster, The Game. Game first gained prominence when he attended a hip-hop summit hosted by Russell Simmons and Louis Farrakhan. After he had recovered and Big Fase made a mixtape together, he released his first mixtape You Know What It Is Vol. 1 in 2002, landed a record deal with the independent label Get Low Recordz owned by JT the Bigga Figga. Game's mixtape reached the hands of Sean Combs, founder of Bad Boy Records, on the verge of signing him to his label. Five months he was discovered by Dr. Dre who listened to the mixtape, produced by his brother. Dr. Dre contacted Game and signed him to his Aftermath Entertainment label in 2003. In late 2003, Interscope Records CEO Jimmy Iovine and Dr. Dre decided to have Game work with 50 Cent and G-Unit in order to help build a growing buzz around Game which would fuel interest in G-Unit.
Game made his first cameo appearance in the music video for 50 Cent's "In da Club", where he is seen dancing with a girl. Since he has made numerous cameo appearances in music videos by 50 Cent, Lloyd Banks
Selma is a city in and the county seat of Dallas County, in the Black Belt region of south central Alabama and extending to the west. Located on the banks of the Alabama River, the city has a population of 20,756 as of the 2010 census; the city is best known for the 1960s Selma Voting Rights Movement and the Selma to Montgomery marches, beginning with "Bloody Sunday" in March 1965 and ending with 25,000 people entering Montgomery at the end of the last march to press for voting rights. This activism generated national attention to social justice and that summer, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 was passed by Congress to authorize federal oversight and enforcement of constitutional rights of all citizens, it had been a trading market town during the years of King Cotton in the South. It was an important armaments manufacturing and iron shipbuilding center during the Civil War, surrounded by miles of earthen fortifications; the Confederate forces were defeated during the Battle of Selma. Before discovery and settlement, the area of present-day Selma had been inhabited for thousands of years by various warring tribes of Indians.
The Europeans encountered the historic Native American people known as the Muscogee, in the area for hundreds of years. French explorers and colonists were the first Europeans to explore this area. In 1732, they recorded the site of present-day Selma as Écor Bienville. Anglo-Americans called it the Moore's Bluff settlement. Selma was incorporated in 1820; the city was planned and named as Selma by William R. King, a politician and planter from North Carolina, a future Vice President of the United States; the name, meaning "throne", came from the Ossianic poem The Songs of Selma. During the Civil War, Selma was one of the South's main military manufacturing centers, producing tons of supplies and munitions, building Confederate warships such as the ironclad Tennessee; the Selma iron works and foundry was considered the second-most important source of weaponry for the South, after the Tredegar Iron Works in Richmond, Virginia. This strategic concentration of manufacturing capabilities made Selma a target of Union raids into Alabama late in the Civil War.
Because of its military importance, Selma had been fortified by three miles of earthworks that ran in a semicircle around the city. They were anchored on the south by the Alabama River; the works had been built two years earlier, while neglected for the most part since, were still formidable. They were 8 feet to 12 feet high, 15 feet thick at the base, with a ditch 4 feet wide and 5 feet deep along the front. In front of this was a 5 feet high picket fence of heavy posts planted in the ground and sharpened at the top. At prominent positions, earthen forts were built with artillery in position to cover the ground over which an assault would have to be made; the North had learned of the importance of Selma to the Confederate military, Federal military planned to take the city. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman first made an effort to reach it, but after advancing from the west as far as Meridian, within 107 miles of Selma, his forces retreated back to the Mississippi River. Gen. Benjamin Grierson, invading with a cavalry force from Memphis, was intercepted and returned.
On March 30, 1865, Union General James H. Wilson detached Gen. John T. Croxton's brigade to destroy all Confederate property at Tuscaloosa, Alabama. Wilson's forces captured a Confederate courier, found to be carrying dispatches from Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest describing his scattered forces. Wilson sent a brigade to destroy the bridge across the Cahaba River at Centreville, which cut off most of Forrest's reinforcements from reaching the area, he began a running fight with Forrest's forces. On the afternoon of April 1, after skirmishing all morning, Wilson's advanced guard ran into Forrest's line of battle at Ebenezer Church, where the Randolph Road intersected the main Selma road. Forrest had hoped to bring his entire force to bear on Wilson. Delays caused by flooding, plus earlier contact with the enemy, resulted in Forrest mustering fewer than 2,000 men, many of whom were not war veterans but home militia consisting of old men and young boys; the outnumbered and outgunned Confederates fought for more than an hour as reinforcements of Union cavalry and artillery were deployed.
Forrest was killed with his revolver. A Union cavalry charge broke the Confederate militia, causing Forrest to be flanked on his right, he was forced to retreat. Early the next morning, Forrest reached Selma. Taylor did so after giving Forrest command of the defense. Selma was protected by fortifications; the wall was deep, surrounded by a ditch and picket fence. Earthen forts were built to cover the grounds with artillery fire. Forrest's defenders consisted of his Tennessee escort company, McCullough's Missouri Regiment, Crossland's Kentucky Brigade, Roddey's Alabama Brigade, Frank Armstrong's Mississippi Brigade, General Daniel W. Adams' state reserves, the citizens of Selma who were "volunteered" to man the works. Altogether this force numbered less than 4,000; as the Selma fortifications were built to be defended by 20,000 men, Forrest's soldiers had to stand 10 to 12 feet apart to try to cover the works. Wilson's force arrived in fr
Lawrence "Kris" Parker, better known by his stage names KRS-One, Teacha, is an American rapper and occasional producer from The Bronx, New York. KRS-One rose to prominence as part of the hip hop music group Boogie Down Productions, which he formed with DJ Scott La Rock in the mid-1980s. KRS-One is best known for his top hits, "Sound of da police", "Love's gonna get'cha" and "My Philosophy". Boogie Down Productions are sometimes considered one of the first rap groups to inspire both gangsta rap and conscious rap, they received critical acclaim in their early years. Following the release of the group's debut album, Criminal Minded, La Rock was shot and killed, but KRS-One continued the group as a solo project, he began releasing records under his own name in 1993. KRS-One is politically active, having started the Stop the Violence Movement, after the death of Scott La Rock. Lawrence Parker was raised by a single Bajan mother. Parker left home at 16 to become an MC, coming to live at a homeless shelter in the South Bronx where he was dubbed "Krisna" by residents because of his interest in the Hare Krishna spirituality of some of the antipoverty workers.
By the time he met youth counselor Scott Sterling, he was writing graffiti as KRS-One. Together he and Sterling, a.k.a. DJ Scott La Rock, created Boogie Down Productions, releasing their debut album, Criminal Minded, in 1987. KRS-One began his recording career as one third of the hip hop group Boogie Down Productions, or BDP, alongside DJ Scott La Rock and Derrick "D-Nice" Jones. After being rejected by radio DJs Mr. Magic and Marley Marl, KRS-One would go on to diss the two and those associated with them, sparking what would be known as The Bridge Wars. Additionally, KRS-One had taken offense to "The Bridge", a song by Marley Marl's protege, MC Shan The song could be interpreted as a claim that Queensbridge was the monument of hip-hop, though MC Shan has denied this claim. Still, KRS-One "dissed" the song with the BDP record "South Bronx." Next, a second round of volleys would ensue with Shan's "Kill That Noise" and BDP's "The Bridge Is Over." KRS-One, demonstrating his nickname "The Blastmaster", gave a live performance against MC Shan, many conceded he had won the battle.
Many believe this live performance to be the first MC battle where rappers attack each other, instead of a battle between who can get the crowd more hyped. Parker and Sterling decided to form a rap group together calling themselves "Scott La Rock and the Celebrity Three"; that was short-lived, however, as the two peripheral members quit, leaving Sterling. They decided to call themselves "Boogie Down Productions". "Success is the Word", a 12-inch single produced by David Kenneth Eng and Kenny Beck, was released on indie Fresh/Sleeping Bag Records but did not enjoy commercial success. Boogie Down Productions released their debut album Criminal Minded in 1987; the album, whose cover pictured BDP draped in ammunition and brandishing guns, is credited with setting the template for the burgeoning genres of hardcore and gangsta rap. Scott La Rock was killed in a shooting that year, after attempting to mediate a dispute between teenager and BDP member D-Nice and local hoodlums. During this time KRS-One gained acclaim as one of the first MCs to incorporate Jamaican style into hip-hop, using the Zung gu zung melody made famous by Yellowman in Jamaican dance halls earlier in the decade.
While KRS-One used Zunguzung styles in a more powerful and controversial manner in his song titled "Remix for P is Free", he can still be credited as one of the more influential figures to bridge the gap between Jamaican music and American Hip-Hop. Following the fatal shooting of Scott La Rock in 1987, KRS was determined to continue Boogie Down Productions through the tragedy, releasing the album By All Means Necessary in 1988, he was joined by beatboxer D-Nice, rapper Ramona "Ms. Melodie" Parker, Kris's younger brother DJ Kenny Parker, among others. However, Boogie Down Productions would remain Kris's show, their content would become political through its subsequent releases Ghetto Music: The Blueprint of Hip Hop, Live Hardcore Worldwide and Sex and Violence. KRS-One was the primary initiator behind the H. E. A. L. Compilation and the Stop the Violence Movement; as Parker adopted this "humanist", less defensive approach, he turned away from his "Blastmaster" persona and towards that of "The Teacha", although he has used "Blastmaster" throughout his career.
After five solo albums under the name "Boogie Down Productions," KRS-One decided to set out on his own. On his first solo album, 1993's Return of the Boom Bap, Parker worked together with producers DJ Premier, Kid Capri and Showbiz, the latter providing the catchy-yet-hardcore track "Sound of da Police", his second album, 1995's KRS-One, featured Channel Live on "Free Mumia", a song in which they criticize Black Civil Rights Activist C. Delores Tucker among others. Other prominent guest stars on KRS-One included Busta Rhymes, Das EFX and Fat Joe. In 1991, KRS-One appeared on the alternative rock group R. E. M.'s single "Radio Song", which appeared on the band's album Out of Time, released the same year. In 1992, Bradley Nowell from Sublime featured an acoustic song named "KRS-One" with his voice and DJ's samplers. In 1995, KRS organized a group called Channel