Penguin Classics is an imprint of Penguin Books under which classic works of literature are published in English, Brazilian Portuguese, Korean among other languages. Literary critics see books in this series as important members of the Western canon, though many titles are translated or of non-Western origin; the first Penguin Classic was E. V. Rieu's translation of The Odyssey, published in 1946, Rieu went on to become general editor of the series. Rieu sought out literary novelists such as Robert Graves and Dorothy Sayers as translators, believing they would avoid "the archaic flavour and the foreign idiom that renders many existing translations repellent to modern taste." In 1964 Betty Radice and William Baldick succeeded Rieu as joint editors, with Radice becoming sole editor in 1974 and serving as an editor for 21 years. As editor, Radice argued for the place of scholarship in popular editions, modified the earlier Penguin convention of the plain text, adding line references, maps, explanatory notes and indexes.
She broadened the canon of the'Classics', encouraged and diversified their readership while upholding academic standards. Penguin Books has paid particular attention to the design of its books since recruiting German typographer Jan Tschichold in 1947; the early minimalist designs were modernised by Italian art director Germano Facetti, who joined Penguin in 1961. The new classics were known as "Black Classics" for their black covers, which featured artwork appropriate to the topic and period of the work; this design was revised in 1985 to have pale yellow covers with a black spine, colour-coded with a small mark to indicate language and period. In 2002, Penguin redesigned its entire catalogue; the redesign restored the black cover, adding a white orange lettering. The text page design was overhauled to follow a more prescribed template, allowing for faster copyediting and typesetting, but reducing the options for individual design variations suggested by a text's structure or historical context.
Prior to 2002, the text page typography of each book in the Classics series had been overseen by a team of in-house designers. The in-house text design department still albeit much smaller than formerly. Recent design work includes the Penguin Little Black Classic series. Penguin Classics collaborated with Bill Amberg in 2008 in the design of six books. Within the broader category of Classics, Penguin has issued specialised series with their own designs; these include: Penguin Nature Classics, with authors such as John James Audubon, Rachel Carson, John Muir Penguin Modern Classics, issued from 1961 onwards, with authors such as Truman Capote, James Joyce, George Orwell, Vladimir Nabokov, Antoine de Saint Exupéry. Some titles come with critical apparatus; the series has gone through a number of redesigns, the most recent being in June 2017: see here here, here. The series was renamed Penguin 20th Century Classics in May 1989, but the series reverted to its old name in February 2000. 20th Century Classics feature full-page front cover art, with a light blue-green/eau de nil rear cover and spine.
Penguin Enriched Classics, such as Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and Prejudice, The Scarlet Letter, A Tale of Two Cities Penguin Popular Classics, issued in 1994, are paperback editions of texts under the Classics imprints. They were a response to Wordsworth Classics, a series of cheap reprints which imitated Penguin in using black as its signature colour. Penguin Designer Classics, issued in 2007, is a set of five limited-edition books, with covers created by fashion designers to commemorate the series' 60th Anniversary Penguin Mini Modern Classics, issued in 2011, is an assortment of fifty pocket-sized books from fifty different authors such as Franz Kafka, Italo Calvino, E. M. Forster, Virginia Woolf and Stefan Zweig, it has been released to celebrate the 50th Anniversary of the Penguin Modern Classics. It is out of print. Penguin Little Black Classics, issued in 2015 a series of pocket-sized classics introduced to celebrate the 80th anniversary of Penguin Books. Pocket Penguins, issued in 2016.
The series echoes the style of the original Penguin Books, with smaller A-format size, tri-band design. The first 20 books were released in May 2016, described by publishing director Simon Winder as "a mix of the famous and the unjustly overlooked". No definitive bibliography of Penguin Classics has yet been published, although several partial bibliographies have been issued; the earliest come from the Penguin Catalogues, published annually covering in-print editions. The 1963 catalogue, for example, lists 97 titles, although by the series overall had produced 118 volumes. In the 1980s Penguin began publishing discrete catalogues of its Classics and Twentieth Century Classics series, listing all the titles available in the UK; the Penguin Collectors' Society have published two bibliographies of the early, pre-ISBN editions: firstly in 1994, with an update in 2008. In 2008, Penguin Books USA published a complete annotated listing of all Penguin Classics titles in a single paperback volume in the style of its Penguin Classics books.
The Napoleonic Wars were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions and led by the United Kingdom. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and its resultant conflict; the wars are categorised into five conflicts, each termed after the coalition that fought Napoleon: the Third Coalition, the Fourth, the Fifth, the Sixth, the Seventh. Napoleon, upon ascending to First Consul of France in 1799, had inherited a chaotic republic. In 1805, Austria and Russia waged war against France. In response, Napoleon defeated the allied Russo-Austrian army at Austerlitz in December 1805, considered his greatest victory. At sea, the British defeated the joint Franco-Spanish navy in the Battle of Trafalgar on October 1805; this victory prevented the invasion of Britain itself. Concerned about the increasing French power, Prussia led the creation of the Fourth Coalition with Russia and Sweden, the resumption of war in October 1806.
Napoleon defeated the Prussians in Jena and the Russians in Friedland, bringing an uneasy peace to the continent. The peace failed, though, as war broke out in 1809, when the badly prepared Fifth Coalition, led by Austria, was defeated in Wagram. Hoping to isolate Britain economically, Napoleon launched an invasion of Portugal, the only remaining British ally in continental Europe. After occupying Lisbon in November 1807, with the bulk of French troops present in Spain, Napoleon seized the opportunity to turn against his former ally, depose the reigning Spanish Bourbon family and declare his brother King of Spain in 1808 as Joseph I; the Spanish and Portuguese revolted with British support, after six years of fighting, expelled the French from Iberia in 1814. Concurrently, unwilling to bear economic consequences of reduced trade violated the Continental System, enticing Napoleon to launch a massive invasion of Russia in 1812; the resulting campaign ended with the dissolution and disastrous withdrawal of the French Grande Armée.
Encouraged by the defeat, Prussia and Russia formed the Sixth Coalition and began a new campaign against France, decisively defeating Napoleon at Leipzig in October 1813 after several inconclusive engagements. The Allies invaded France from the East, while the Peninsular War spilled over southwestern French territory. Coalition troops captured Paris at the end of March 1814 and forced Napoleon to abdicate in early April, he was exiled to the island of Elba, the Bourbons were restored to power. However, Napoleon escaped in February 1815, reassumed control of France; the Allies responded with the Seventh Coalition, defeating Napoleon permanently at Waterloo in June 1815 and exiling him to St Helena where he died six years later. The Congress of Vienna redrew the borders of Europe, brought a lasting peace to the continent; the wars had profound consequences on global history, including the spread of nationalism and liberalism, the rise of the British Empire as the world's foremost power, the appearance of independence movements in Latin America and subsequent collapse of the Spanish Empire, the fundamental reorganisation of German and Italian territories into larger states, the establishment of radically new methods of conducting warfare.
Napoleon seized power in 1799. There are a number of opinions on the date to use as the formal beginning of the Napoleonic Wars; the Napoleonic Wars began with the War of the Third Coalition, the first of the Coalition Wars against the First French Republic after Napoleon's accession as leader of France. Britain ended the Treaty of Amiens and declared war on France in May 1803. Among the reasons were Napoleon's changes to the international system in Western Europe in Switzerland, Germany and the Netherlands. Kagan argues that Britain was irritated in particular by Napoleon's assertion of control over Switzerland. Furthermore, Britons felt insulted when Napoleon stated that their country deserved no voice in European affairs though King George III was an elector of the Holy Roman Empire. For its part, Russia decided that the intervention in Switzerland indicated that Napoleon was not looking toward a peaceful resolution of his differences with the other European powers; the British enforced a naval blockade of France to starve it of resources.
Napoleon responded with economic embargoes against Britain, sought to eliminate Britain's Continental allies to break the coalitions arrayed against him. The so-called Continental System formed a league of armed neutrality to disrupt the blockade and enforce free trade with France; the British responded by capturing the Danish fleet, breaking up the league, secured dominance over the seas, allowing it to continue its strategy. Napoleon won the War of the Third Coalition at Austerlitz, forcing the Austrian Empire out of the war and formally dissolving the Holy Roman Empire. Within months, Prussia declared war; this war ended disastrously for Prussia and occupied within 19 days of the beginning of the campaign. Napoleon subsequently defeated the Russian Empire at Friedland, creating powerful client states in Eastern Europe and ending the fourth coalition. Concurrently, the refusal of Portugal to commit to the Con
Alleyn's School is a 4–18 mixed, Church of England, day school and sixth form in Dulwich, England. It is a registered charity and was part of the Alleyn's College of God's Gift charitable foundation, which included James Allen's Girls' School, Dulwich College and their affiliate schools; the school is listed in the Good Schools Guide. Alleyn's charges up with three terms per academic year; however money is raised each year to fund the bursary in order to help a proportion of students from families of modest incomes enter the school. The Worshipful Company of Saddlers agreed in 1970 to provide funds to support the school and this association continues with the investiture of Saddler's Scholars each year. In 1619, Edward Alleyn established his "College of God's Gift" with twelve poor scholars. Alleyn's School is a direct descendant of Edward Alleyn's original foundation and was established as a boys' school in 1882, it still exists as part of a foundation alongside Dulwich College and JAGS. The original school is now the foundation chapel and the offices for the Dulwich Estate, which belongs to the foundation schools.
Alleyn's became a public school with the election of the Headmaster to the Headmasters' Conference in 1919. It was a direct grant grammar school from 1958 until the abolition of that status in 1975; the Governors opted for outright independence and co-education. For the original College of God's Gift, 24 students had to be chosen from the four parishes with which Edward Alleyn had been connected. Saint Giles, Saint Saviour, Saint Botolph and Saint Giles, Cripplegate. On 4 May 2009, six children in Year 7 were diagnosed with Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 2009 swine flu outbreak; the school was closed for one week to contain the outbreak and exams were rescheduled. All pupils and staff were offered a course of the anti-viral drug Tamiflu, distributed from the school. All the infected pupils responded to treatment, were named with quotes in the newspapers; the novelist Edward Upward was an English master at Alleyn's from 1932 to 1961. The former rural rebranding government specialist Dr Michael B. Stevens is a Geography master at Alleyn's.
2016-present. The former England Football manager and current Crystal Palace manager Roy Hodgson was a PE master at alleyns. 1971-1973. Alleyn's started developing a new theatre complex, named the Edward Alleyn Building, on 10 February 2007; the £8.5million building was completed in 2008 and had a Grand Gala Opening in 2009. The school has one of the largest Combined Cadet Forces in the country. Felix Barrett, theatre director Stuart Blanch, Baron Blanch, Bishop of Liverpool, 1966–1975,. Musician. Director of Music, Royal Naval College, Greenwich.
Flying Colours (novel)
Flying Colours is a Horatio Hornblower novel by C. S. Forester published 1938 as the third in the series, but now eighth by internal chronology, it describes the adventures of Hornblower and his companions escaping from imprisonment in Napoleonic France and returning to England. It is one of three Hornblower novels adapted into the 1951 British-American film Captain Horatio Hornblower R. N.. At the end of the previous novel, A Ship of the Line, after attacking and damaging a superior French squadron with HMS Sutherland, Hornblower had to surrender his ship to the French, he and his surviving crew are imprisoned in the French-occupied Spanish fortress of Rosas on the Mediterranean Sea. From the walls of Rosas, Hornblower witnesses an English raid leading to the final destruction of the French ships he immobilised. Soon afterwards, Hornblower is told that he is to be sent to Paris to be tried as a pirate for his previous actions, including the capture of a battery and some coastal vessels using a ruse of war.
Hornblower, his first lieutenant, still recovering from the loss of a foot in the fighting, his coxswain, are taken away in a carriage by an Imperial aide-de-camp. The carriage becomes stuck in a snowstorm on a minor road close to the river Loire, part of the escort leaves to get help from Nevers, the next town. Hornblower and Brown steal a small boat on the river. Taking Bush with them, they set out downstream, but the river is in spate, the boat capsizes in some rapids. Hornblower and Brown carry Bush towards the nearest building, which happens to be the Chateau de Graçay; the Comte de Graçay, a member of the old French nobility who has lost three sons in Napoleon's wars, his widowed daughter-in-law Marie, welcome them and protect them from the authorities, who abandon the search thinking them drowned. The party prepare for an escape in late spring. During these months, Bush learns to walk with a wooden leg. Hornblower and Brown build a new boat to continue their voyage downstream. Meanwhile and Marie have a short but intense love affair.
Springtime comes and the river is in perfect condition for travel. Disguised as a fishing party, the escapees make their way to the port city of Nantes. There, they change their disguise to that of high-ranking Dutch customs officers in French service, using uniforms made for them by Marie and the staff of the Chateau, they manage to recapture the cutter Witch of Endor, taken as a French prize the year before. Manning it with a prison work gang, they take the ship out of the harbour and rendezvous with the British blockading fleet. Here, Hornblower learns. Returning to Portsmouth, Hornblower, in common with any other captain who has lost his ship, faces a court martial for the loss of the Sutherland. However, he is'most honourably' acquitted by the court and finds himself a celebrity for his exploits in the Mediterranean and his daring escape from France, he is received by the Prince Regent, who makes him a knight of the Order of the Bath and a Colonel of Marines. Together with the money from prizes taken while he was captain of the Sutherland and from his recapture of the Witch of Endor, he is financially secure and free to court and marry Lady Barbara.
Flying Colours at Faded Page
Adolf Hitler was a German politician and leader of the Nazi Party. He rose to power as Chancellor of Germany in 1933 and Führer in 1934. During his dictatorship from 1933 to 1945, he initiated World War II in Europe by invading Poland in September 1939, he was involved in military operations throughout the war and was central to the perpetration of the Holocaust. Hitler was raised near Linz, he moved to Germany in 1913 and was decorated during his service in the German Army in World War I. In 1919, he joined the German Workers' Party, the precursor of the NSDAP, was appointed leader of the NSDAP in 1921. In 1923, he was imprisoned. In jail, he dictated the first volume of his autobiography and political manifesto Mein Kampf. After his release in 1924, Hitler gained popular support by attacking the Treaty of Versailles and promoting Pan-Germanism, anti-semitism and anti-communism with charismatic oratory and Nazi propaganda, he denounced international capitalism and communism as part of a Jewish conspiracy.
By July 1932 the Nazi Party was the largest elected party in the German Reichstag, but did not have a majority, no party was able to form a majority parliamentary coalition in support of a candidate for chancellor. Former chancellor Franz von Papen and other conservative leaders persuaded President Paul von Hindenburg to appoint Hitler as Chancellor on 30 January 1933. Shortly after, the Reichstag passed the Enabling Act of 1933, which began the process of transforming the Weimar Republic into Nazi Germany, a one-party dictatorship based on the totalitarian and autocratic ideology of National Socialism. Hitler aimed to eliminate Jews from Germany and establish a New Order to counter what he saw as the injustice of the post-World War I international order dominated by Britain and France, his first six years in power resulted in rapid economic recovery from the Great Depression, the abrogation of restrictions imposed on Germany after World War I, the annexation of territories inhabited by millions of ethnic Germans, which gave him significant popular support.
Hitler sought Lebensraum for the German people in Eastern Europe, his aggressive foreign policy is considered the primary cause of World War II in Europe. He directed large-scale rearmament and, on 1 September 1939, invaded Poland, resulting in Britain and France declaring war on Germany. In June 1941, Hitler ordered an invasion of the Soviet Union. By the end of 1941, German forces and the European Axis powers occupied most of Europe and North Africa. In December 1941, shortly after Japan attacked Pearl Harbour, Hitler declared war on the United States, bringing it directly into the conflict. Failure to defeat the Soviets and the entry of the United States into the war forced Germany onto the defensive and it suffered a series of escalating defeats. In the final days of the war, during the Battle of Berlin in 1945, he married his longtime lover Eva Braun. Less than two days on 30 April 1945, the two committed suicide to avoid capture by the Soviet Red Army. Under Hitler's leadership and racially motivated ideology, the Nazi regime was responsible for the genocide of at least 5.5 million Jews and millions of other victims who he and his followers deemed Untermenschen or undesirable.
Hitler and the Nazi regime were responsible for the killing of an estimated 19.3 million civilians and prisoners of war. In addition, 28.7 million soldiers and civilians died as a result of military action in the European theatre. The number of civilians killed during World War II was unprecedented in warfare, the casualties constitute the deadliest conflict in history. Hitler's father Alois; the baptismal register did not show the name of his father, Alois bore his mother's surname Schicklgruber. In 1842, Johann Georg Hiedler married Alois's mother Maria Anna. Alois was brought up in the family of Johann Nepomuk Hiedler. In 1876, Alois was legitimated and the baptismal register changed by a priest to register Johann Georg Hiedler as Alois's father. Alois assumed the surname "Hitler" spelled Hiedler, Hüttler, or Huettler; the name is based on "one who lives in a hut". Nazi official Hans Frank suggested that Alois's mother had been employed as a housekeeper by a Jewish family in Graz, that the family's 19-year-old son Leopold Frankenberger had fathered Alois.
No Frankenberger was registered in Graz during that period, no record has been produced of Leopold Frankenberger's existence, so historians dismiss the claim that Alois's father was Jewish. Adolf Hitler was born on 20 April 1889 in Braunau am Inn, a town in Austria-Hungary, close to the border with the German Empire, he was christened as "Adolphus Hitler". He was the fourth of six children born to his third wife, Klara Pölzl. Three of Hitler's siblings—Gustav and Otto—died in infancy. Living in the household were Alois's children from his second marriage: Alois Jr. and Angela. When Hitler was three, the family moved to Germany. There he acquired the distinctive lower Bavarian dialect, rather than Austrian German, which marked his speech throughout his life; the family returned to Austria and settled in Leonding in 1894, in June 1895 Alois retired to Hafeld, near Lambach, where he farmed and kept bees. Hitler attended Volksschule (a state-owned primary schoo
Guy's Hospital is an NHS hospital in the borough of Southwark in central London. It is part of Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust and one of the institutions that comprise the King's Health Partners, an academic health science centre, it is a large teaching hospital and is, with St Thomas' Hospital and King's College Hospital, the location of King's College London GKT School of Medical Education. The Tower Wing is the world's second tallest hospital building, standing at 148.65 metres with 34 floors. It is one of the tallest buildings in London; the hospital dates from 1721, when it was founded by philanthropist Thomas Guy, who had made a fortune from the South Sea Bubble and as a publisher of unlicensed Bibles. It was established as a hospital to treat "incurables" discharged from St Thomas' Hospital. Guy had been a Governor and benefactor of St Thomas' and his fellow Governors supported his intention by granting the south-side of St Thomas' Street for a peppercorn rent for 999 years.
Following his death in 1724, Thomas Guy was entombed at the hospital's chapel, in a tomb featuring a marble sculpture by John Bacon. The original buildings formed a courtyard facing St Thomas Street, comprising the hall on the east side and the Chapel, Matron's House and Surgeon's House on the west-side. A bequest of £180,000 by William Hunt in 1829, one of the largest charitable bequests in England in historic terms, allowed for a further hundred beds to be accommodated. Hunt's name was given to the southern expansion of the hospital buildings which took place in 1850. Two inner quadrangles were divided by a cloister, restyled and dedicated to the hospital's members who fell in the First World War; the east side comprised the care wards and the'counting house' with the governors'Burfoot Court Room'. The north-side quadrangle is dominated by a statue of Lord Nuffield, the chairman of governors for many years and a major benefactor. In 1974, the hospital added the 34-storey Guy's Tower and 29-storey Guy's House: this complex was designed by Watkins Gray.
The Wolfson Centre for Age-Related Diseases, dedicated to improving outcomes of conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and spinal cord injury, was opened by the Princess Royal in December 2004. In October 2005 children's departments moved to the Evelina London Children's Hospital in the grounds next to St Thomas's close to the Palace of Westminster. A new cancer centre, built by Laing O'Rourke at a cost of £160 million, was completed in April 2016. Medical services at the Guy's site are now concentrated in the buildings to the east of Great Maze Pond: these buildings, which are connected, are known as Tower Wing, Bermondsey Wing, Southwark Wing and Borough Wing; the Cancer Centre is in a separate building just to the south. To the west of the Great Maze Pond is Guy's Campus. At 148.65 metres high, Guy's Tower regained its tallest hospital building in the world status in 2014. It has since been surpassed by the Outpatient Center at the Houston Methodist Hospital, in Houston, USA at 156.05 metres.
Healthcare in London List of hospitals in England King's Health Partners Francis Crick Institute Tall buildings in London Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust Guy's and St Thomas' Charity Wolfson Centre for Age Related Diseases Lists of Guy's Hospital students
Ministry of Information (United Kingdom)
The Ministry of Information, headed by the Minister of Information, was a United Kingdom government department created at the end of the First World War and again during the Second World War. Located in Senate House at the University of London during the 1940s, it was the central government department responsible for publicity and propaganda. In the Great War, several different agencies had been responsible for propaganda, except for a brief period when there had been a Department of Information and a Ministry of Information. Colour key: Conservative Liberal The Ministry of Information was formed on 4 September 1939, the day after Britain's declaration of war, the first Minister was sworn into Office on 5 September 1939; the Ministry's function was "To promote the national case to the public at home and abroad in time of war" by issuing "National Propaganda" and controlling news and information. It was responsible for censorship, issuing official news, home publicity and overseas publicity in Allied and neutral countries.
These functions were matched by a responsibility for monitoring public opinion through a network of Regional Information Offices. Responsibility for publicity in enemy territories was organised by Department EH. Secret planning for a Ministry of Information had started in October 1935 under the auspices of the Committee of Imperial Defence. Draft proposals were accepted on 27 July 1936 and Sir Stephen Tallents was appointed as Director General Designate. Tallents drew together a small group of planners from existing government departments, public bodies and specialist outside organisations; the MOI's planners sought to combine experience gained during the First World War with new communications technology. Their work reflected an increasing concern that a future war would exert huge strain on the civilian population and a belief that government propaganda would be needed to maintain morale; however it was hindered by competing visions for the Ministry, a requirement for secrecy which disrupted the making of key appointments, the reluctance of many government departments to give up their public relations divisions to central control.
The shadow Ministry of Information came into being between 26 September and 3 October 1938 after the Nazi annexation of the Sudetenland heightened international tensions. The seventy one officials who were assembled in temporary accommodation had responsibility for censoring press reports surrounding the Munich Agreement; the week-long experiment was not regarded as a success. Instead it highlighted the extent to which questions over appointments, links to the media and the relationship with other government departments had been left unresolved; the confusion had been made worse by tensions between the shadow MOI and the Foreign Office News Department. This tension spilled over into the Committee for Imperial Defence which considered proposals to abandon plans for the Ministry of Information. Tallents left his post as Director General Designate on 2 January 1939. Planning efforts would increase again after Nazi troops moved into Prague on 15 March 1939; the British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain publicly announced his government's intentions for the MOI in a parliamentary speech on 15 June 1939.
Home Office officials were given until 31 December 1939 to complete their plans. The Ministry of Information was formed on 4 September 1939, the day after Britain's declaration of war, Lord Macmillan was sworn in as its first Minister on 5 September 1939; the MOI's headquarters were housed within the University of London's Senate House and would remain in place until the end of the war. The MOI was organised in four groups. A "Press Relations" group was responsible for both the issue of censorship. A "Publicity Users" group was responsible for propaganda policy. A "Publicity Producers" group was responsible for production; these were overseen by a "Intelligence" group responsible for administration. This structure had only been finalised in May–June 1940 and senior officials were unsure about their responsibilities; the press reacted negatively to the MOI. Initial confusion between the MOI and service departments led to accusations that the MOI was delaying access to the news, a newspaper campaign against censorship was started.
Other commentators pointed to the ministry's large staff and satirised it as ineffective and out of touch. The MOI's first publicity campaign misfired with a poster bearing the message "Your Courage, Your Cheerfulness, Your Resolution, Will Bring Us Victory" criticised for appearing class-bound; these factors led to political scrutiny and resulted in the removal of the Press Relations Group on 9 October 1939 and an announcement on 25 October 1939 that the MOI's staff was to be cut by a third. Lord Macmillan was replaced as Minister by Sir John Reith on 5 January 1940. Reith sought to improve the MOI's governance, expanded its network of Regional Information Offices and introduced a Home intelligence division, he sought to secure the reintegration of the Press and Censorship Division in the belief that the decision to separate this function had been "obviously and monstrously ridiculous and wrong". These changes were announced by Neville Chamberlain on 24 April 1940 but were not operational until June 1940.
Neville Chamberlain's resignation and replacement by Winston Churchill on 10 May 1940 resulted in Reith's s