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C. S. Lewis

Clive Staples Lewis was a British writer and lay theologian. He held academic positions in English literature at both Oxford Cambridge University, he is best known for his works of fiction The Screwtape Letters, The Chronicles of Narnia, The Space Trilogy, for his non-fiction Christian apologetics, such as Mere Christianity and The Problem of Pain. Lewis and fellow novelist J. R. R. Tolkien were close friends, they both served on the English faculty at Oxford University and were active in the informal Oxford literary group known as the Inklings. According to Lewis's memoir Surprised by Joy, he was baptised in the Church of Ireland, but fell away from his faith during adolescence. Lewis returned to Anglicanism at the age of 32, owing to the influence of Tolkien and other friends, he became an "ordinary layman of the Church of England". Lewis's faith profoundly affected his work, his wartime radio broadcasts on the subject of Christianity brought him wide acclaim. Lewis wrote more than 30 books which have been translated into more than 30 languages and have sold millions of copies.

The books that make up The Chronicles of Narnia have sold the most and have been popularised on stage, TV, cinema. His philosophical writings are cited by Christian apologists from many denominations. In 1956, Lewis married American writer Joy Davidman. Lewis died on 22 November 1963 from one week before his 65th birthday. In 2013, on the 50th anniversary of his death, Lewis was honoured with a memorial in Poets' Corner in Westminster Abbey. Clive Staples Lewis was born in Belfast, Ireland, on 29 November 1898, his father was Albert James Lewis, a solicitor whose father Richard had come to Ireland from Wales during the mid-19th century. His mother was Florence Augusta Lewis, née Hamilton, known as Flora, the daughter of Thomas Hamilton, a Church of Ireland priest, great granddaughter of both Bishop Hugh Hamilton and John Staples, he had Warren Hamilton Lewis. He was baptised on 29 January 1899 by his maternal grandfather in Dundela; when his dog Jacksie was killed by a car, the four-year old Lewis adopted the name Jacksie.

At first, he would answer to no other name, but accepted Jack, the name by which he was known to friends and family for the rest of his life. When he was seven, his family moved into "Little Lea", the family home of his childhood, in the Strandtown area of East Belfast; as a boy, Lewis was fascinated with anthropomorphic animals. He and his brother Warnie created the world of Boxen and run by animals. Lewis loved to read. Lewis was schooled by private tutors until age nine, his father sent him to live and study at Wynyard School in Watford, Hertfordshire. Lewis's brother had enrolled there three years previously; the school was closed not long afterward due to a lack of pupils. Lewis attended Campbell College in the east of Belfast about a mile from his home, but left after a few months due to respiratory problems, he was sent to the health-resort town of Malvern, where he attended the preparatory school Cherbourg House, which Lewis calls "Chartres" in his autobiography. It was during this time that Lewis abandoned his childhood Christian faith and became an atheist, becoming interested in mythology and the occult.

In September 1913, Lewis enrolled at Malvern College. He found the school competitive. After leaving Malvern, he studied with William T. Kirkpatrick, his father's old tutor and former headmaster of Lurgan College; as a teenager, Lewis was wonder-struck by the songs and legends of what he called Northernness, the ancient literature of Scandinavia preserved in the Icelandic sagas. These legends intensified an inner longing that he would call "joy", he grew to love nature. His teenage writings moved away from the tales of Boxen, he began using different art forms, such as epic poetry and opera, to try to capture his new-found interest in Norse mythology and the natural world. Studying with Kirkpatrick instilled in him a love of Greek literature and mythology and sharpened his debate and reasoning skills. In 1916, Lewis was awarded a scholarship at Oxford. Within months of entering Oxford, the British Army shipped him to France to fight in the First World War. In one of his letters, Lewis cited that his experience of the horror of war, along with the loss of his mother and his unhappiness in school, were the bases of his pessimism and atheism.

Lewis experienced a certain cultural shock on first arriving in England: "No Englishman will be able to understand my first impressions of England," Lewis wrote in Surprised by Joy. "The strange English accents with which I was surrounded seemed like the voices of demons. But what was worst was the English landscape... I have made up the quarrel since.

Bookmarklet

A bookmarklet is a bookmark stored in a web browser that contains JavaScript commands that add new features to the browser. Bookmarklets are unobtrusive JavaScripts stored as the URL of a bookmark in a web browser or as a hyperlink on a web page. Bookmarklets are JavaScript programs. Regardless of whether bookmarklet utilities are stored as bookmarks or hyperlinks, they add one-click functions to a browser or web page; when clicked, a bookmarklet performs one of a wide variety of operations, such as running a search query or extracting data from a table. For example, clicking on a bookmarklet after selecting text on a webpage could run an Internet search on the selected text and display a search engine results page. Another name for bookmarklet is favlet, derived from favorite. Steve Kangas of bookmarklets.com coined the word bookmarklet when he started to create short scripts based on a suggestion in Netscape's JavaScript guide. Before that, Tantek Çelik called these scripts favelets and used that word as early as on 6 September 2001.

Brendan Eich, who developed JavaScript at Netscape, gave this account of the origin of bookmarklets: They were a deliberate feature in this sense: I invented the javascript: URL along with JavaScript in 1995, intended that javascript: URLs could be used as any other kind of URL, including being bookmark-able. In particular, I made it possible to generate a new document by loading, e.g. javascript:'hello, world', but to run arbitrary script against the DOM of the current document, e.g. javascript:alert. The difference is that the latter kind of URL uses an expression that evaluates to the undefined type in JS. I added the void operator to JS before Netscape 2 shipped to make it easy to discard any non-undefined value in a javascript: URL; the increased implementation of Content Security Policy in websites has caused problems with bookmarklet execution and usage, with some suggesting that this hails the end or death of bookmarklets. William Donnelly created a work-around solution for this problem in early 2015 using a Greasemonkey userscript and a simple bookmarklet-userscript communication protocol.

It allows bookmarklets to be executed on any and all websites, including those using CSP and having an https:// URI scheme. Note, that if/when browsers support disabling/disallowing inline script execution using CSP, if/when websites begin to implement that feature, it will "break" this "fix". Web browsers use URIs for bookmarks; the URI scheme, such as http:, file:, or ftp:, specifies the protocol and the format for the rest of the string. Browsers implement a prefix javascript: that to a parser is just like any other URI. Internally, the browser sees that the specified protocol is javascript, treats the rest of the string as a JavaScript application, executed, uses the resulting string as the new page; the executing script has access to the current page, which it may change. If the script returns an undefined type, the browser will not load a new page, with the result that the script runs against the current page content; this permits changes such as in-place font color changes without a page reload.

An anonymous function that does not return a value, define a function, etc. can be used to force the script to return an undefined type: However, if a script includes a function definition/redefinition, such as function Use_this_globally, the environment will not be populated with it. For this reason an should be suffixed with. Bookmarklets are used as normal bookmarks; as such, they are simple "one-click" tools. For example, they can: Modify the appearance of a web page within the browser Extract data from a web page Remove redirects from search results, to show the actual target URL Submit the current page to a blogging service such as Posterous, link-shortening service such as bit.ly, or bookmarking service such as Delicious Query a search engine or online encyclopedia with highlighted text or by a dialog box Submit the current page to a link validation service or translation service Set chosen configuration options when the page itself provides no way to do this "Installation" of a bookmarklet is performed by creating a new bookmark, pasting the code into the URL destination field.

Alternatively, if the bookmarklet is presented as a link, under some browsers it can be dragged and dropped onto the bookmark bar. The bookmarklet can be run by loading the bookmark normally. In Microsoft Edge, it is not possible to add a bookmarklet to your favourites, instead right-click on the link and choose'Add to reading list'; the bookmarklet can be run by clicking on it in the reading list. In Microsoft Edge the reading list is in favourites and is opened using the icon, a pile of lines; this example bookmarklet performs a Wikipedia search on any highlighted text in the web browser window. In normal use, the following JavaScript code would be installed to a bookmark in a browser bookmarks toolbar. From on, after selecting any text, clicking the bookmarklet performs the search. Bookmarklets can modify the location, e.g. to save a web page to the Wayback Machine, Open a new web browser window or tab, e.g. to show the source of a web resource if the web browser supports the view-source URI scheme, Show info related to the current URL, e.g. among other things.

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Fay Club

The Fay Club is a private social club located at 658 Main Street in Fitchburg, Massachusetts. It has operated since 1910; the club's building was designed in 1883 by Richard M. Upjohn as the private home of George Fay and his daughter Lucy, was constructed in 1884; the clubhouse was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978. The former Fay Club building stands in downtown Fitchburg, on the south side of Main Street, between Wood Place and Newton Place next to the public library, it is a large and distinctive red brick building with sandstone trim, 2-1/2 stories in height, with asymmetrical massing and trim typical of the Late Victorian Gothic period. It is covered by a hip roof with a gabled peak, has projecting gabled sections to the north and east, along with two chimney stacks with decorative corbelling; the interior of the ground floor is intact, with original woodwork carving and panels, as well as painted frescoes. George Flagg Fay was a prominent businessman in Fitchburg, was a charter member of the Park Club, founded in 1881 and housed in a building at the corner of Main Street and Wallace Street.

He built the house at 658 Main in 1883-4. When he died, his daughter Lucy inherited the property, continued to reside there until 1910, when she moved to another part of the country, she decided to donate the house to her father's club. At the time located at the center of a thriving business community, the club served both as a meetingplace, dining facility, a networking spot; as families of members moved through its auspices, it became a center for weddings and reunions. However, as the city grew and transferred its vibrant core toward its suburbs, the Club membership dwindled. For the last 30 years of its existence the facility was closed during the summer months, re-opening in September. In June 2015, the Board determined that that year's closure would be permanent; as of January 2016, the building was being offered for sale to the public. However, as of October 2016, the club had reopened following a groundswell of support and fundraising by a small group of active members. National Register of Historic Places listings in Worcester County, Massachusetts The Fay Club web site