The single-camera setup, or single-camera mode of production known as Portable Single Camera, is a method of filmmaking and video production. The single-camera setup developed during the birth of the classical Hollywood cinema in the 1910s and has remained the standard mode of production for cinema. In this setup, each of the various shots and camera angles are taken using the same camera, or multiple cameras pointed in one direction, which are moved and reset to get each shot or new angle. If a scene cuts back and forth between actor A and actor B, the director will first point the camera towards A and run part or all of the scene from this angle move the camera to point at B, run the scene through from this angle. Choices can be made during the post-production editing process for when in the scene to use each shot, when to cut back and forth between the two angles; this then allows parts of the scene to be removed if it is felt that the scene is too long. In practice, sometimes two cameras shooting from the same angle are used: one to capture a medium shot, the other a close-up during the same take.
By contrast, a multiple-camera setup consists of multiple cameras arranged to capture all of the different camera angles of the scene and the set must be lit to accommodate all camera setups concurrently. Multi-camera production results in faster but less versatile videography, whereas the single-camera setup is more time-consuming but gives the director more control over each shot. Unlike film producers, who always opt for single-camera shooting, television producers need to make a distinct decision to shoot in either single-camera or multiple-camera mode. Single-camera is reserved for prime time dramas, made-for-TV movies, music videos and commercial advertisements. Soap operas, talk shows, game shows, most reality television series, sitcoms more use the multiple-camera setup. Multiple-camera shooting is the only way that an ensemble of actors presenting a single performance before a live audience can be recorded from multiple perspectives. For standard, dialogue-driven domestic situation comedies, the multi-camera technique, cheaper and takes less production time, is used.
Situation comedies may be shot in either multiple- or single-camera modes. It may be deemed preferable to use the single-camera technique if specific camera angles and camera movements for a feature film-like visual style are considered crucial to the success of the production, if visual effects are to be used. Though multi-camera was the norm for U. S. sitcoms during the 1950s, the 1960s saw increased technical standards in situation comedies, which came to have larger casts and used a greater number of different locations in episodes. Several comedy series of the era made use of feature film techniques. To this end, many comedies of this period, including Leave It to Beaver, Mister Ed, The Andy Griffith Show, My Three Sons, The Addams Family, The Munsters, Bewitched, I Dream of Jeannie, Gilligan's Island, Get Smart, Hogan's Heroes, Family Affair and The Brady Bunch, used the single-camera technique. Apart from giving the shows a feature film style, this technique was better suited to the visual effects used in these shows, such as magical appearances and disappearances and lookalike doubles in which the regular actors played a dual role.
These effects were created using editing and optical printing techniques, would have been difficult had the shows been shot using a multi-camera setup. In the case of Get Smart, the single-camera technique allowed the series to present fast-paced and tightly-edited fight and action sequences reminiscent of the spy dramas that it parodied. Single-camera comedies were prevalent into the early 1970s. With its large cast, varied locations, seriocomic tone, the TV series M*A*S*H was shot using single-camera style. Happy Days began in 1974 as a single-camera series, before switching to the multi-camera setup in its second season. However, the success of All in the Family and Norman Lear's subsequent sitcom productions led to a renewed interest by sitcom producers in the multi-camera technique. By the mid-1970s, with domestic situation comedies in vogue, the multi-camera shooting style for sitcoms came to dominate and would continue to do so through the 1980s and 1990s, although the single-camera format was still seen in television series classified as comedy-drama or "dramedy".
In the 2000s, television saw a resurgence in the use of single-camera in sitcoms, such as I'm Alan Partridge, Malcolm in the Middle Curb Your Enthusiasm, The Office, Peep Show, Arrested Development, Corner Gas, Zoey 101, The Office, My Name is Earl, It's Always Sunny In Philadelphia, Extras, 30 Rock, Samantha Who?, The Middle, Modern Family, Glee and Recreation, Cougar Town, Happy Endings, New Girl, The Mindy Project, Brooklyn Nine-Nine, The Goldbergs, About a Boy, Fresh Off the Boat and Santa Clarita Diet. Unlike single-camera sitcoms of the past, nearly all contemporary comedies shot in this manner are produced without
Brenda Buell Vaccaro is an American stage and film actress. In a career spanning over half a century, she received one Academy Award nomination, three Golden Globe Award nominations, four Primetime Emmy Award nominations, three Tony Award nominations. Vaccaro was born in Brooklyn, New York, to Italian American parents Christine M. and Mario A. Vaccaro, a restaurateur, she was raised in Dallas, where her parents, in 1943, co-founded Mario's Restaurant, where she graduated from Thomas Jefferson High School. She returned to New York City to study acting under the guidance of Sanford Meisner at the Neighborhood Playhouse, made her Broadway debut in the short-lived 1961 comedy Everybody Loves Opal, for which she won a Theatre World Award. Vaccaro's Broadway credits include The Affair, Cactus Flower, How Now, Dow Jones, The Goodbye People, the female version of The Odd Couple, Jake's Women; the husky-voiced actress is a three-time Tony Award nominee, for Best Featured Actress in a Play, Best Actress in a Musical, Best Actress in a Play.
Vaccaro appeared with Dustin Hoffman and Jon Voight in the 1969 film Midnight Cowboy, for which she was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress. For her performance in the 1975 film adaptation of Jacqueline Susann's Once Is Not Enough she gained an Academy Award nomination and won the Golden Globe for Best Supporting Actress. Additional screen credits include Airport'77, Capricorn One, The Pride of Jesse Hallam, The Mirror Has Two Faces, Heart of Midnight, The Gay Blade and House by the Lake known as Death Weekend, her television credits include the title role in the 1976 series Sara, a number of television movies, a regular role in the short-lived 1984 series Paper Dolls, in addition to guest appearances on Banacek, The Fugitive, The Defenders, Coronet Blue, The Name of the Game, Marcus Welby, M. D. McCloud, The Streets of San Francisco, The Love Boat, St. Elsewhere, She Wrote, The Golden Girls, Touched by an Angel, The King of Queens, Nip/Tuck, she was nominated for an Emmy Award three times and won for Best Supporting Actress in Comedy-Variety, Variety or Music for The Shape of Things in 1974.
She supplied the voice for Johnny Bravo's mother Bunny Bravo in the animated cartoon series. She was the first voice of Jay's's ex-wife Ardeth on The Critic, she made an appearance on The Smurfs opposite Paul Winchell. After ill health forced Valerie Harper to bow out of the production of Nice Work if You Can Get It at the Ogunquit Playhouse, Vaccaro took over the role of Millicent Winter for the remaining performances of the limited run from August 4–15, 2015. Brenda Vaccaro at the Internet Broadway Database Brenda Vaccaro on IMDb
Daphne Maxwell Reid
Daphne Etta Maxwell-Reid is an American actress and comedian. She is best known for her role as the second Vivian Banks on the NBC sitcom The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air from 1993 until 1996. Reid was born in the daughter of Rosalee and Green Maxwell, she is a graduate of The Bronx High School of Science. She received a degree in interior design and architecture from Northwestern University, which she attended on a scholarship and where she became the first African-American woman to be named homecoming queen. While at Northwestern she began a modeling career signing with the Eileen Ford modeling agency, she was the first black woman to be on the cover of Glamour magazine. She has appeared in numerous television programs, her best-known role was replacing Janet Hubert-Whitten as Vivian Banks on the NBC sitcom The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air from 1993 to 1996. She joined the show right after the fictional character Nicky Banks was born toward the end of Season 3, when Hubert-Whitten was released from her contract after a contract violation and multiple problems working with the show's star, Will Smith.
She had a recurring role as JT's mother, Frances Hunter, on the UPN sitcom Eve, played Juanita Lawrence on the BET sitcom Let's Stay Together. Reid is an accomplished photographer. During the 1980s and 1990s Reid served on the advisory board of the National Student Film Institute. Recipient of the Women of Vision Award from Women in Film & Video - DC. Coach of the Year Protocol Murder, She Wrote:The Body Politic American Red Cross Emergency Test You Must Remember This Linc's Asunder Alley Cats Strike The Duke A Man Called Sloane Hill Street Blues WKRP in Cincinnati Hardcastle and McCormick Simon & Simon The A-Team The Duck Factory Paper Dolls Matt Houston Cagney & Lacey Frank's Place Murder, She Wrote ABC Afterschool Specials Snoops The Cosby Show The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air Sister, Sister In the House Linc's Crossing Jordan Slavery and the Making of America Eve Let's Stay Together The Whispers - "It's a Love Thing" With her husband, actor Tim Reid, she owned and operated New Millennium Studios in Petersburg, until 2014.
She served on the board of visitors at Virginia State University, for 8 years. She was appointed, in July 2008. On July 31, 2010, she became an honorary member of Delta Sigma Theta sorority, during their 50th national convention in New Orleans, she has Chris Tubbs and two stepchildren, Timothy II and Tori Reid. Daphne Maxwell Reid on IMDb
The Muppets are an ensemble cast of puppet characters known for their absurdist and self-referential style of variety-sketch comedy. Created by Jim and Jane Henson in 1955, they are the namesake for the Disney media franchise that encompasses television, music and other media associated with the characters; the Muppets originated in the short-form television series Sam and Friends, which aired from 1955 to 1961. Following appearances on late night talk shows and in advertising during the 1960s, the Muppets began appearing on Sesame Street in 1969; the Muppets attained celebrity status and international recognition through The Muppet Show, which garnered four Primetime Emmy Award wins and twenty-one nominations during its five-year run. During the 1970s and 1980s, the Muppets diversified into theatrical feature films, including The Muppet Movie; the Walt Disney Company began involvement with the Muppets in the late 1980s, during which Henson entered negotiations to sell The Jim Henson Company.
The Muppets continued their media presence in the 1990s with television series The Jim Henson Hour and Muppets Tonight, both of which were similar in format to The Muppet Show, three films: The Muppet Christmas Carol, Muppet Treasure Island, Muppets from Space. Disney acquired the Muppets in February 2004, allowing the characters to gain broader public exposure than in previous years. Under Disney, subsequent projects included two films: The Muppets Most Wanted. Throughout their six-decade career, the Muppets have been regarded as a staple of the entertainment industry and popular culture in the United States, receiving recognition from various cultural institutions and organizations, including the American Film Institute, Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences, Library of Congress, the Hollywood Walk of Fame; the Muppets were created by puppeteer Jim Henson in the 1950s. Conceived for an adult audience, Henson claimed, recanted, that he coined the term "Muppet" as a portmanteau of the words "marionette" and "puppet".
In 1955, the Muppets were introduced in Sam and Friends, a short-form television series produced for WRC-TV in Washington D. C. Developed by Henson and his future wife Jane Nebel, the series was the first form of puppet media not to incorporate a physical proscenium arch typical of such works, relying instead on the natural framing of the television set through which it was viewed. During the 1960s, the characters—in particular and Rowlf the Dog—appeared in skits on several late-night talk shows and on television commercials, including The Ed Sullivan Show. Rowlf became the first Muppet character to appear on network television when he began appearing with Jimmy Dean on The Jimmy Dean Show. In 1966, Joan Ganz Cooney and Lloyd Morrisett began developing a children's educational television program and approached Henson to design a cast of Muppet characters during this stage. Produced by the Children's Television Workshop, the program debuted as Sesame Street in 1969. Henson and his creative team became involved with Sesame Street during the years that followed.
Sesame Street garnered a positive response, the Muppets' involvement in the series was touted to be a vital component of its increasing popularity, providing an "effective and pleasurable viewing" method of presentation for its educational curriculum. In the early 1970s, the Muppets continued their presence in television appearing in The Land of Gorch segments during the first season of Saturday Night Live; as his involvement with Sesame Street continued, Henson mused about the possibility of creating a network television series featuring the Muppets. Two pilot specials, The Muppets Valentine Show and The Muppet Show: Sex and Violence, aired on ABC in 1974 and 1975, respectively. After ABC passed on the pilots and no other major American network expressed interest in backing the project, British producer Lew Grade approached Henson and agreed to co-produce the series for Associated Television. Debuting in 1976, The Muppet Show introduced new characters such as Miss Piggy, Fozzie Bear and Animal alongside existing characters such as Kermit and Rowlf.
Aired in first-run syndication in the United States, The Muppet Show became popular due to its sketch-variety format, unique form of humor, prolific roster of guest stars. The series received twenty-one Primetime Emmy Award nominations during its run and won four, including Outstanding Variety Series in 1978; the success of The Muppet Show allowed Henson Associates to diversify into theatrical films centered on the Muppets, the first of which, The Muppet Movie, was released in 1979. Following The Muppet Movie were The Great Muppet Caper and The Muppets Take Manhattan, released in 1981 and 1984, respectively. Collectively, the three films received four Academy Award nominations. In 1983, Henson debuted Fraggle Rock, which aired on HBO in the United States until 1987. In the late 1980s, Henson entered discussions with Michael Eisner and The Walt Disney Company, in which the latter would acquire Jim Henson Productions and, in turn, the Muppets. Disney expressed interest in purchasing the company for $150 million.
In addition, Eisner expressed a desire to include the Sesam
Richard William Farnsworth was an American actor and stuntman. He is best known for his performances in The Grey Fox, for which he received a Golden Globe Award nomination, Anne of Green Gables and The Straight Story, for which he received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actor. Farnsworth was born on September 1, 1920 in Los Angeles, California, to a housewife mother and an engineer father, he was raised during the Great Depression. When he was seven, Farnsworth's father died, he lived with his aunt and two sisters in Downtown Los Angeles. Farnsworth had two children. After becoming a widower, he lived on a ranch in New Mexico. In 1937, age 16, Farnsworth was working as a stable hand at a polo field in Los Angeles for six dollars a week when he was offered employment with better pay as a stuntman, he rode horses in films such as The Adventures of Marco Polo featuring Gary Cooper and performed horse-riding stunts in films including A Day at the Races and Gunga Din. Farnsworth was employed on the set of Spartacus for eleven months.
From stunt work, Farnsworth moved into acting in Western movies. He made uncredited appearances in numerous films, including Gone with the Wind, Red River, The Wild One, The Ten Commandments. Farnsworth received his first acting credit in 1963 and went on to act in western films and television shows, he had a role in Roots. In 1992, he co-starred with Wilford Brimley in The Boys of Twilight, his breakthrough came when he played stagecoach robber Bill Miner in the 1982 Canadian film The Grey Fox. He appeared as a baseball coach in The Natural. In 1985 he was father figure to Anne in Anne of Green Gables. Another prominent role was the suspicious sheriff in the film version of Stephen King's Misery. Farnsworth became well known in the Pacific Northwest as the groundskeeper who saw the mythical "Artesians" in the 1980s Olympia Beer advertising campaign. On October 6, 2000, after a long illness with metastatic prostate cancer, Farnsworth committed suicide by shooting himself at his ranch, he is interred at Forest Lawn Memorial Park in the Hollywood Hills of Los Angeles in the Columbarium of Purity beside his wife, Margaret née Hill.
Comes a Horseman National Board of Review Award for Best Supporting Actor National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Supporting Actor Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Supporting Actor The Grey Fox Genie Award for Best Performance by a Foreign Actor London Film Critics' Circle Award for Actor of the Year Taormina Film Fest: Golden Mask Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama Anne of Green Gables Gemini Award for Best Performance by a Supporting Actor Chase Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Series, Miniseries or Television Film The Straight Story Ft. Lauderdale International Film Festival Award for Best Actor Independent Spirit Award for Best Male Lead New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor Academy Award for Best Actor Chicago Film Critics Association Award for Best Actor Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama Las Vegas Film Critics Society Award for Best Actor Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Actor Online Film Critics Society Award for Best Actor Satellite Award for Best Actor Motion Picture – Drama Southeastern Film Critics Association Award for Best Actor Note: Farnsworth was inducted into the Hall of Great Western Performers at the National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma in 1997.
In addition, Farnsworth received a Hollywood Walk of Fame star for his contributions in the motion pictures on 1560 Vine Street on August 17, 1992. "Richard Farnsworth". The Times. October 9, 2000. Retrieved 2009-10-19. "Richard Farnsworth, Stunt Man And 2-Time Oscar Nominee, 80". The New York Times. October 8, 2000. Retrieved 2009-10-19. "Actor Richard Farnsworth dies". BBC News. October 7, 2000. Archived from the original on January 2, 2013. Retrieved October 19, 2009. Richard Farnsworth on IMDb Richard Farnsworth at AllMovie Richard Farnsworth at Find a Grave Richard Farnsworth at NNDB Richard Farnsworth: The Man Who Talked Straight at Moviecrazed.com The Cowboy Kind Farnsworth wrote the foreword to this book by Darrell Arnold. Published posthumously in 2001. 1999 Disney Press Kit For The Straight Story with publicity photos 1998 Des Moines Register Article The Straight Story on Lynch Net Complete Film notes, photographs and trailers 1999 Obituary Cowboy's Way by Jeff Jensen, 2000
Joseph Sargent was an American film director. Though he directed many television movies, his best known feature-length works were arguably the theatrical releases: Burt Reynolds action movie White Lightning, Gregory Peck biopic MacArthur, horror anthology Nightmares, his most popular feature film was subway thriller The Taking of Pelham One Two Three. Sargent won four Emmy Awards over his career, he is the father of anime dubbing voice actress Lia Sargent. Sargent was born as Giuseppe Danielle Sorgente in Jersey City, New Jersey, the son of Italians Maria and Domenico Sorgente. Sargent began his career as an actor, he appeared in an uncredited role as a soldier in the film From Here to Eternity where he meet his first wife Mary Carver on the set. In the mid 1950s Sargent switched to directing. N. C. L. E." and Star Trek. In 1969, he directed his first feature, science fiction thriller Colossus: The Forbin Project, in 1972 The Man, starring James Earl Jones, begun as a television movie, he alternated between television movies and feature films during the 1970s.
Sargent's directorial work from this period includes. In 1974, he won his first Directors Guild of America Award for The Marcus-Nelson Murders, the TV movie pilot for the Kojak series. In the 1980s, Sargent directed mini-series Manions of America, which featured Pierce Brosnan, Space. In 1987 he directed Jaws: the third sequel to Steven Spielberg's 1975 classic; the film received negative reviews. Roger Ebert called his directing of the climactic sequence "incompetent," and he was nominated for Worst Director in the 1987 Golden Raspberry Awards, he concentrated on TV movies after Jaws: The Revenge, including The Karen Carpenter Story, The Long Island Incident, Dostoevsky's Crime and Punishment and the 2007 remake of Sally Field docudrama Sybil. Joseph Sargent and his wife Carolyn Nelson Sargent laid the groundwork for Deaf West Theatre. Sargent spent time as the Senior Filmmaker-in-Residence for the Directing program at the American Film Institute Conservatory in Los Angeles. Sargent died of complications from heart disease at his home in Malibu, California, on December 22, 2014.
He was 89. Sargent was nominated for several Emmy awards, he won four. His first nomination came for his direction of TV movie Tribes, his second nomination, for Kojak pilot The Marcus-Nelson Murders, resulted in his first Emmy win. He won Emmys for Love Is Never Silent, Caroline? and Miss Rose White. Sargent was nominated for Amber Waves, A Lesson Before Dying, Something the Lord Made and Warm Springs, in which Kenneth Branagh played president Franklin D. Roosevelt. Early in his career, he won a Directors Guild of America award for the Kojak pilot. Sargent was nominated for eight DGA awards for television movies, more than any other director in this category. In 2005 he won the DGA Outstanding Directorial Achievement award for Something the LORD Made, another the following year for Warm Springs. Joseph Sargent on IMDb Biography at Hollywood.com at Archive.today Includes details of awards. Joseph Sargent at The Interviews: An Oral History of Television