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CDC 6600

The CDC 6600 was the flagship of the 6000 series of mainframe computer systems manufactured by Control Data Corporation. Considered to be the first successful supercomputer, it outperformed the industry's prior recordholder, the IBM 7030 Stretch, by a factor of three. With performance of up to three megaFLOPS, the CDC 6600 was the world's fastest computer from 1964 to 1969, when it relinquished that status to its successor, the CDC 7600; the first CDC 6600's were delivered in 1965 to Los Alamos. They became a must-have system in high-end scientific and mathematical computing, with systems being delivered to Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, CERN, the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, many others. At least 100 were delivered in total. A CDC 6600 is on display at the Computer History Museum in California; the only running CDC 6000 series machine has been restored by Living Computers: Museum + Labs. CDC's first products were based on the machines designed at ERA, which Seymour Cray had been asked to update after moving to CDC.

After an experimental machine known as the Little Character, in 1960 they delivered the CDC 1604, one of the first commercial transistor-based computers, one of the fastest machines on the market. Management was delighted, made plans for a new series of machines that were more tailored to business use. Cray was not interested in such a project, set himself the goal of producing a new machine that would be 50 times faster than the 1604; when asked to complete a detailed report on plans at one and five years into the future, he wrote back that his five-year goal was "to produce the largest computer in the world", "largest" at that time being synonymous with "fastest", that his one-year plan was "to be one-fifth of the way". Taking his core team to new offices nearby the original CDC headquarters, they started to experiment with higher quality versions of the "cheap" transistors Cray had used in the 1604. After much experimentation, they found that there was no way the germanium-based transistors could be run much faster than those used in the 1604.

The "business machine" that management had wanted, now forming as the CDC 3000 series, pushed them about as far as they could go. Cray decided the solution was to work with the then-new silicon-based transistors from Fairchild Semiconductor, which were just coming onto the market and offered improved switching performance. During this period, CDC grew from a startup to a large company and Cray became frustrated with what he saw as ridiculous management requirements. Things became more tense in 1962 when the new CDC 3600 started to near production quality, appeared to be what management wanted, when they wanted it. Cray told CDC's CEO, William Norris that something had to change, or he would leave the company. Norris felt he was too important to lose, gave Cray the green light to set up a new laboratory wherever he wanted. After a short search, Cray decided to return to his home town of Chippewa Falls, where he purchased a block of land and started up a new laboratory. Although this process introduced a lengthy delay in the design of his new machine, once in the new laboratory, without management interference, things started to progress quickly.

By this time, the new transistors were becoming quite reliable, modules built with them tended to work properly on the first try. The 6600 began to take form, with Cray working alongside Jim Thornton, system architect and "hidden genius" of the 6600. More than 100 CDC 6600s were sold over the machine's lifetime. Many of these went to various nuclear weapon-related laboratories, quite a few found their way into university computing laboratories. Cray turned his attention to its replacement, this time setting a goal of ten times the performance of the 6600, delivered as the CDC 7600; the CDC Cyber 70 and 170 computers were similar to the CDC 6600 in overall design and were nearly backwards compatible. The 6600 was three times faster than the IBM 7030 Stretch. Then-CEO Thomas Watson Jr. wrote a memo to his employees: "Last week, Control Data... announced the 6600 system. I understand that in the laboratory developing the system there are only 34 people including the janitor. Of these, 14 are engineers and 4 are programmers...

Contrasting this modest effort with our vast development activities, I fail to understand why we have lost our industry leadership position by letting someone else offer the world's most powerful computer." Cray's reply was sardonic: "It seems like Mr. Watson has answered his own question." Typical machines of the era used a single CPU to drive the entire system. A typical program would first load data into memory, process it, write it back out; this required the CPUs to be complex in order to handle the complete set of instructions they would be called on to perform. A complex CPU implied a large CPU, introducing signalling delays while information flowed between the individual modules making it up; these delays set a maximum upper limit on performance, as the machine could only operate at a cycle speed that allowed the signals time to arrive at the next module. Cray took another approach. At the time, CPUs ran slower than the main memory to which they were attached. For instance, a processor might take 15 cycles to multiply two numbers, while each memory access took only one or two.

This meant. It was this idle time; the CDC 6600 used a simplified core processor that wa

Ayr United F.C.

Ayr United Football Club are a football club in Ayr, that plays in the Scottish Championship, the second tier of the Scottish Professional Football League. Formed in 1910 by the merger of Ayr Parkhouse and Ayr F. C. their nickname is The Honest Men, from a line in the Robert Burns poem "Tam o' Shanter". They play at Somerset Park; the club are managed by Mark Kerr, appointed on 22 October 2019. The club have spent 34 seasons in Scotland's top division, the last being 1977–78, have been the champions of the second tier of Scottish football on six occasions, of the third tier on three occasions; the club's most successful manager, Ally MacLeod, went on to manage the Scottish national football team. In 2018, Ayr United secured promotion to the Scottish Championship as champions of League One. Ayr United were founded in 1910 by the merger of Ayr Parkhouse and Ayr F. C.. Although Inverness Caledonian Thistle are the product of a merger between two clubs, Ayr United are the only Scottish Football League club to have been formed from a merger of two existing league clubs.

The club's honours include winning six Second Division titles and a further three titles, most in 2017–18. They have not won any national cup competitions, although they were runners-up in the 2001–02 Scottish League Cup, in the Scottish Challenge Cup in the first two seasons in which the competition was held: 1990–91 and 1991–92, they have won the local competition the Ayrshire Cup on 26 occasions, most facing fierce local rivals Kilmarnock in the final. The Ayrshire Cup was last played for in season 1996–97, since when the competition has been suspended; the club's record scorer in a single season is Jimmy Smith, who scored 66 goals for Ayr in only 38 league matches in 1927–28 and holds the British goalscoring record for the most league goals scored in a single season. The club's overall record scorer is Peter Price, who scored 213 times in competitive matches for the club between 1955 and 1962. Former Scottish national team manager Ally MacLeod is regarded as the club's most famous and most successful manager.

He led the club on three separate occasions spanning 15 years, during which his teams recorded a record 214 wins, won two league titles. In 1973 MacLeod was voted Ayr's Citizen of the Year. More recent managers have included the recent Scottish national team manager, George Burley, former Scottish League Cup winner with Raith Rovers, Gordon Dalziel. Gordon Dalziel is the only manager to take Ayr to a National Cup Final on 17 March 2002 when they lost to Rangers 4–0, their current manager is Mark Kerr. Although the club has spent 34 seasons in Scotland's top division, they have played in the second and third tiers of Scottish senior football since the 1977–78 season. During the late 1990s and early 2000s, the club established a record of defeating teams which played in higher leagues in cup competitions, including Hibernian, Dundee United, Dunfermline Athletic and four consecutive wins in cup competitions against their fiercest rivals Kilmarnock. In 1988, Ayr United fan and businessman Sir David Murray offered to buy the club but the club's shareholders rejected the bid by a vote of 60 to 56.

The manager at that time, Ally MacLeod, had threatened to leave if Murray's bid had succeeded: Murray went on to become chairman of Rangers, which coincided with a period of financial growth and league success for that club. During much of the 1990s and 2000s, a period of relative success both in league and cup competitions, the Ayr United chairman was local construction magnate Bill Barr. After Barr stood down, there were occasional boardroom struggles: the club suffered significant cashflow problems in 2004 although it survived with a combination of efforts. Prestwick-based Roy Kennedy failed to take over the club in 2005, his company Kennedy Construction went bankrupt in 2006. On 24 May 2009, Ayr won the Scottish First Division Play-off against Airdrie United 3–2 on aggregate to win promotion to the First Division; the following season, to celebrate the club's centenary, Ayr United played in black and white hoops, the club's original black and white kit. The away kit was gold with blue shorts to reflect the original club colours.

But it was not a successful season. Ayr were relegated on the last day of the season after losing 2–1 to Morton; the club bounced back the following season, winning promotion after defeating Forfar Athletic and Brechin City in the play-offs. That same season, they knocked out Hibernian in the Scottish Cup, winning 1–0 at Somerset Park in a replay. In the 2011–12 season, Ayr enjoyed success in the 2011–12 Scottish League Cup, beating SPL sides Inverness Caledonian Thistle, Heart of Midlothian and St Mirren on their way to the semi-finals. Ayr United played Ayrshire derby rivals Kilmarnock in the semi-finals, the first time the two clubs had met at this stage. Kilmarnock won one-nil, but the league campaign was less successful, as United were relegated to the Second Division following a play-off defeat to Airdrie United. Following relegation, United announced; the club appointed Mark Roberts, top scorer in the previous three seasons, with head of youth development, Davie White, as his assistant. In January 2015, Ian McCall was appointed Ayr's new manager.

After saving the club from relegation on the final day of the 2014–15 season, McCall led Ayr back to the Championship with a penalty shoot-out victory over Stranraer in the play-offs. Following their relegation in 2017, Ayr competed in League One but finished the season as Champions, regaining their Championship status at the first time of asking and winning their first league title in ov

Hyrax Hill

Hyrax Hill is a prehistoric site near Nakuru in the Rift Valley province of Kenya. It is a rocky spur half a kilometer in length, with an elevation of 1,900 meters above sea level at its summit; the site was first discovered in 1926 by Louis Leakey during excavations at the nearby Nakuru Burial Site, Mary Leakey conducted the first major excavations between 1937 and 1938. There are two distinct areas of occupation at Hyrax Hill: one, occupied during the Pastoral Neolithic and late Iron Age, one, occupied by the Sirikwa earlier in the Iron Age. Hyrax Hill is named after a small mammal that lives in rocky areas. Hyraxes were once common in the rocky crevasses of Hyrax Hill, but their numbers have dropped in recent years due to the rapid urbanization of the surrounding area. Hyrax Hill is the location of Museum. Louis Leakey discovered the remains of prehistoric settlements at Hyrax Hill while excavating the nearby Nakuru Burial in 1926, he did not excavate it at the time because he believed it to be a recent occupation, was busy working at several other sites.

Louis Leakey returned to the area in 1937 with Mary Leakey. It was Mary Leakey, she excavated and named both Site I and Site II between 1937 and 1938. With no carbon dating technology available, dating the sites was difficult at the time. Leakey mistakenly described the Iron Age "Sirikwa Holes" as a pre-Iron Age village with "pit-dwellings." Excavations at the site were not undertaken again until after Hyrax Hill was obtained by the National Museums of Kenya in 1965, at which time one of the Sirikwa holes was excavated by Ron Clark and museum staff for display at the museum. Hyrax Hill is located near Lake Nakuru. 5000 to 6000 years ago, during the occupation of Site I, a wetter climate meant that lake levels were as much as 100 meters higher than their present levels. Hyrax Hill was a peninsula at this time; the occupants would have had access to a steady supply of fresh water, as well as fish. Mary Leakey identified the ancient rocky beach of the lake in her 1938 excavations; the early occupation of Site I lies directly on the ancient beach, she was able to use this and relative dating to date this portion of the site.

Lake levels began to drop starting 3500 years ago, the area became a more open savanna grassland. The drier environment was well suited to the pastoralism used by the Sirikwan inhabitants of Site II. "Site I" is the area of Hyrax Hill, occupied during the Neolithic and late Iron Age. Although the early occupation of the site 5000 years ago is referred to as the "Neolithic", evidence has yet to be found for the cultivation of crops or raising of animals at the early occupation of Site I at Hyrax Hill; the Iron Age portion of the site dates to around 200 years ago, consists of several stone enclosures and a large midden. Directly under this layer was an earlier Neolithic cemetery; the Neolithic cemetery consisted of several low burial mounds formed out of large blocks of stone. Many of the individuals buried at the site were dismembered; the occupants of this period of the site manufactured distinctive ground stone bowls, many were found associated with female burials in the Neolithic cemetery at Hyrax Hill and other sites in the area.

The bowls from Hyrax Hill are round or oblong shallow, made from an accessed local variety of stone. Because these bowls were so distinctive at many sites in the Rift Valley, archaeologists created the term "Stone Bowl Culture" to encompass the Neolithic culture they were believed to represent; the term "Stone Bowl Culture" is not used today, having been supplanted by "Savanna Pastoral Neolithic", a culture which Christopher Ehret indicates was produced by early Cushitic settlers. In Kenya, the broader term "Pastoral Neolithic" refers to sites archaeological containing a Later Stone Age lithic industry, predominant livestock husbandry, ceramic vessels; the ceramic type known as "Nderit ware" is found at Site I. These are rounded vessels with a textured surface of wedge-shaped impressions, which are found at Neolithic sites in eastern Africa, they resemble baskets. "Site II" lies on the north-western side of Hyrax hill, opposite from Site I. It was occupied earlier in the Iron Age than Site I. Radiocarbon dates have found that Site II was occupied between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries AD.

Site II was occupied by the Sirikwa, a group of cattle pastoralists. The main feature of this site is a series of mounds; these depressions, called Sirikwa Holes, were deliberately constructed as pens for securing cattle, the low mounds that are adjacent to these hollows were created from heaping dung and refuse outside the pen. The remains of cattle and sheep have been found at Site II, many of which show cut-marks and signs of human use. John Sutton's excavations in 1985 found the mandible of an equine species a donkey. Excavations in 1990 identified the cattle as belonging to the Zebu species. Further analysis showed that female cows were only slaughtered until after lactating age, indicating an emphasis on milk production; this excavation found the remains of a domesticated dog, the first found at a Sirikwa site. Scavenging domesticated dogs account for the carnivore gnaw-marks that have been found on bones at the site. Site II was mistakenly identified as a late Neolithic site when it was first excavated, Mary Leakey assigned it to the Neolithic "Gumban B" culture which Louis Leakey had identified from earlier excavations in the are

Miniature Dinosaurs

Miniature Dinosaurs were a pop/rock band from Stirling, Scotland. The band consisted of Alban Dickson, Andrew McAllister and Sam Waller. Critics compared their music to the likes of The Killers and Weezer. In March 2009 their track' Top Gear' was featured on BBC Radio 1, meaning the band made it to national airwaves 3 months before the outfit performed their first gig. In 2010 the band announced a clothing endorsement with Police-883, the first endorsement of its kind by the fashion company. In the same year the band appeared several times in the MTV drama Being Victor, their 2011 single Fight or Flight was picked up by Electric Honey. Electric Honey is most famous for helping out Biffy Clyro, Snow Patrol and Belle & Sebastian in their early years. 2012 saw the band nominated for Best Live Act at the Scottish Alternative Music Awards and signing to UK independent label Integrity Records. Between 2012 and 2014 the band were working on their debut album at Beetroot Studios in Airdrie. In 2014, with no explanation, the band broke up and their album, In The Spirit of Everything, was posthumously released as a digital download

Hungarian Writers' Union

The Hungarian Writers Union was founded in 1945 at the end of World War II. The union was intended to be an organizational body through which the interests of writers in Hungary could be represented, it grew to become a major voice of dissension against the Communist regime in Hungary during the 1950s and had a significant role in sparking the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. After the ascension of a communist government in Hungary, the Hungarian Writers Union became a tool through which the communist regime imposed its Stalinist literary policies and propaganda, its weekly paper, the Irodalmi Újság, propagated culture. In the early 1950s, the Union's membership shifted to an less communistic ideology. By 1955, most of the high-ranking members of the Union were non-communists and decided to use the Irodalmi Újság as a means to call for reforms in the Hungarian government; this shift in ideology was instrumental in encouraging several other unions within Hungary to do the same. On the afternoon of 23 October 1956 20,000 protesters convened next to the statue of József Bem - a national hero of Poland and Hungary.

Péter Veres, President of the Writers’ Union, read a manifesto to the crowd, We Hungarian writers have formulated the demands of the Hungarian nation in the following seven points: We want an independent national policy based on the principles of socialism. Our relations with all countries and with the USSR and the People’s Democracies in the first place, should be regulated on the basis of the principle of equality. We want a review of international treaties and economic agreements in the spirit of equality of rights. Minority policies which disturb friendship between the peoples must be abandoned. We want true and sincere friendship with our allies - the People's Democracies; this can be realized on the basis of Leninist principles only. The country’s economic position must be stated. We shall not be able to recover after this crisis, unless all workers and intellectuals can play their proper part in the political and economic administration of the country. Factories must be run by specialists.

The present humiliating system of wages and social security conditions must be reformed. The trade unions must represent the interests of the Hungarian workers. Our peasant policy must be put on a new basis. Peasants must be given the right to decide their own future freely. Political and economic conditions to make possible free membership in co-operatives must at last be created; the present system of deliveries to the State and of taxation must be replaced by a system ensuring free socialist production and exchange of goods. If these reforms are to be achieved, there must he changes of structure and of personnel in the leadership of the Party and the State; the Rákosi clique, seeking restoration, must be removed from our political life. Imre Nagy, a pure and brave Communist who enjoys the confidence of the Hungarian people, all those who have systematically fought for socialist democracy in recent years, must he given the posts they deserve. At the same time, a resolute stand must be made against all counter-revolutionary attempts and aspirations.

The evolution of the situation demands that the PPF should assume the politica lrepresentation of the working strata of Hungarian society. Our electoral system must correspond to the demands of socialist democracy; the people must elect and by secret ballot their representatives in Parliament, in the Councils and in all autonomous organs of administration. That day, a large crowd gathered at the Radio Budapest building, guarded by the ÁVH; the flash point was reached as a delegation attempting to broadcast their demands was detained and the crowd grew unruly as rumors spread that the protesters had been shot. Tear gas was thrown from the upper windows and the ÁVH opened fire on the crowd, killing many; the ÁVH tried to re-supply itself by hiding arms inside an ambulance, but the crowd detected the ruse and intercepted it. Hungarian soldiers sent to relieve the ÁVH hesitated and tearing the red stars from their caps, sided with the crowd. Provoked by the ÁVH attack, protesters reacted violently.

Police cars were set ablaze, guns were seized from military depots and distributed to the masses and symbols of the communist regime were vandalized. During the night of 23 October, Hungarian Working People's Party Secretary Ernő Gerő requested Soviet military intervention "to suppress a demonstration, reaching an greater and unprecedented scale." The Soviet leadership had formulated contingency plans for intervention in Hungary several months before. By 2 a.m. on 24 October, under orders of the Soviet defence minister, Soviet tanks entered Budapest. Early that morning, Gyula Háy and the Hungarian Writers' Union broadcast a desperate plea for Western aid in several languages: Via playwright Juilius Hay, "To every writer in the world, to all scientists, to all writers' federations, to all science academies and associations, to the intelligentsia of the world! We ask all of you for support. You know the facts, there is no need to give you a special report! Help Hungary! Help the Hungarian writers, workers and our intelligentsia!"Western aid did not come and the revolt was put down.

Although the Writers Union was banned at the end of the revolution, some of its editors emigrated to western Europe and kept the organization alive. The first copy of Irodalmi Újság printed outside of Hungary was published in London on March 15, 1957. In 1962, the Union set up editorial offices in Paris an

First impeachment process against Pedro Pablo Kuczynski

The first impeachment process against Pedro Pablo Kuczynski the incumbent President of Peru since 2016, was initiated by the Congress of Peru on 15 December 2017. According to Luis Galarreta, the President of the Congress, the whole process of impeachment could have taken as little as a week to complete; this event is part of the second stage of the political crisis generated by the confrontation between the Government of Pedro Pablo Kuczynski and the Congress, in which the opposition Popular Force has an absolute majority. The impeachment request was rejected by the congress on 21 December 2017, for failing to obtain sufficient votes for the deposition. Prior to the beginning of the process to remove him from office, President Kuczynski was accused by the congressional opposition of lying about receiving bribes from the Brazilian construction company Odebrecht, as he had denied receiving any payments at all from the them, but admitted that he had in fact been receiving payments to a firm he owned, Westfield Capital Ltd, while continuing to deny any irregularities in those payments.

A number of other Latin American politicians had also been implicated in similar accusations of part-taking in financial irregularities involving Odebrecht, including Colombian president Juan Manuel Santos, Mexican president Enrique Peña Nieto, Venezuelan president Nicolás Maduro, former Peruvian presidents Alan García, Alejandro Toledo and Ollanta Humala, as well as Keiko Fujimori, chairwoman of the party Popular Force and daughter of the former president Alberto Fujimori, whom Kuczynski had narrowly defeated in the 2016 general election. Upon the initiation of impeachment proceedings Congress president Luis Galarreta stated that he expected Kuczynski to be removed from office ″within a week″, as Kuczynski's Peruvians for Change party occupies only 18 of the 130 seats in Congress, while the opposition right-wing Popular Force and left-wing Broad Front, both in favor of Kuczynski's removal, together command 81 of the necessary two-thirds congressional majority needed to remove a president from office.

According to reports by the Reuters news agency, Kuczynski had lost the support of his own cabinet members, who had begun to urge him to resign as well. On 14 December 2017 he was given an ultimatum by the congressional opposition to resign by the end of the day or face impeachment in Congress, to which he responded by saying: "It cost us a lot to get our democracy back. We're not going to lose it again. I'm not going to give up my honour, nor my values, nor my responsibilities as president of all Peruvians." President of Peru Congress of Peru List of impeached presidents Alberto Fujimori