The CFA franc is the name of two currencies, the West African CFA franc, used in eight West African countries, the Central African CFA franc, used in six Central African countries. Both currencies are guaranteed by the French treasury. Although separate, the two CFA franc currencies have always been at parity and are interchangeable; the ISO currency codes are XAF for the Central African CFA franc and XOF for the West African CFA franc. On 22 December 2019, it was announced that the West African currency would be replaced by an independent currency to be called Eco. Both CFA francs have a fixed exchange rate to the euro: 100 CFA francs = 1 former French franc = 0.152449 euro. CFA francs are used in fourteen countries: twelve nations ruled by France in West and Central Africa, plus Guinea-Bissau, Equatorial Guinea; these fourteen countries have a combined population of 147.5 million people, a combined GDP of US$166.6 billion. The ISO currency codes are XAF for the Central African CFA franc and XOF for the West African CFA franc.
The currency has been criticized for making economic planning for the developing countries of French West Africa all but impossible since the CFA's value is pegged to the euro. Others disagree and argue that the CFA "helps stabilize the national currencies of Franc Zone member-countries and facilitates the flow of exports and imports between France and the member-countries"; the European Union's own assessment of the CFA's link to the euro, carried out in 2008, noted that "benefits from economic integration within each of the two monetary unions of the CFA franc zone, more so between them, remained remarkably low" but that "the peg to the French franc and, since 1999, to the euro as exchange rate anchor is found to have had favourable effects in the region in terms of macroeconomic stability". Between 1945 and 1958, CFA stood. Since independence, CFA is taken to mean Communauté Financière Africaine, but in actual use, the term can have two meanings; the CFA franc was created on 26 December 1945, along with the CFP franc.
The reason for their creation was the weakness of the French franc after World War II. When France ratified the Bretton Woods Agreement in December 1945, the French franc was devalued in order to set a fixed exchange rate with the US dollar. New currencies were created in the French colonies to spare them the strong devaluation, thereby facilitating imports from France. French officials presented the decision as an act of generosity. René Pleven, the French minister of finance, was quoted as saying - In a show of her generosity and selflessness, metropolitan France, wishing not to impose on her far-away daughters the consequences of her own poverty, is setting different exchange rates for their currency; the CFA franc was created with a fixed exchange rate versus the French franc. This exchange rate was changed only twice: in 1948 and in 1994. Exchange rate: 26 December 1945 to 16 October 1948 – 1 CFA franc = 1.70 FRF. This 0.70 FRF premium is the consequence of the creation of the CFA franc, which spared the French African colonies the devaluation of December 1945.
17 October 1948 to 31 December 1959 – 1 CFA franc = 2.00 FRF 1 January 1960 to 11 January 1994 – 1 CFA franc = 0.02 FRF 12 January 1994 to 31 December 1998 – 1 CFA franc = 0.01 FRF 1 January 1999 onwards – 100 CFA franc = 0.152449 euro or 1 euro = 655.957 CFA franc. The 1960 and 1999 events were changes in the currency in use in France: the relative value of the CFA franc versus the French franc/euro changed only in 1948 and 1994; the value of the CFA franc has been criticized as being too high, which many economists believe favours the urban elite of the African countries, who can buy imported manufactured goods cheaply at the expense of farmers who cannot export agricultural products. The devaluation of 1994 was an attempt to reduce these imbalances. Over time, the number of countries and territories using the CFA franc has changed as some countries began introducing their own separate currencies. A couple of nations in West Africa have chosen to adopt the CFA franc since its introduction, despite the fact that they were never French colonies.
Leroux, LeRoux, Le Roux or Roux is a surname of French origin meaning "red-haired" or "red-skinned" and may come in certain cases from Breton Ar Roue meaning ″The King″. It may refer to: Adélaïde Leroux, French actress AJ le Roux, South African rugby player Alain Le Roux, associate of William I of England André Leroux, Canadian politician Antoine Leroux, New Mexico mountain man Auguste Leroux, French painter Bernard Le Roux, South African born French rugby union player Bruno Le Roux, French politician Buddy LeRoux, American businessman and baseball club owner Charles Le Roux, French painter Charles Leroux, American balloonist and parachutist Chris Leroux, Canadian baseball pitcher Claudine Le Roux, French canoer Christophe Le Roux, French footballer Daniel Le Roux, South African footballer Doppies le Roux, South African rugby player Etienne Leroux, South African writer François Le Roux, French baritone François Leroux, Canadian ice hockey player Fred le Roux, South African cricketer Garth Le Roux, South African fast bowler Gaspard Le Roux, French harpsichordist Gaston Leroux, French journalist and novelist Gaston Leroux, Canadian ice hockey player Gaston Leroux, Canadian politician Georges Paul Leroux, French painter, brother of Auguste Leroux Grant le Roux, South African rugby player Hennie le Roux, South African rugby player Isabel Le Roux, South African sprinter Jean Leroux, Canadian politician Jean Paul Leroux, Venezuelan actor Jean-Yves Leroux, Canadian ice hockey player Josephine Leroux, French Ursuline nun Lash LeRoux, American professional wrestler Laurent Leroux, Canadian businessman and politician Le Roux Smith Le Roux, South African artist, actor & broadcaster Louis Héctor Leroux, French painter Louis Napoleon Le Roux, Breton nationalist Marie-Élisabeth Laville-Leroux, French painter Maurice Le Roux, French composer and conductor Maxime Leroux, French actor Ollie le Roux, South African rugby player Paul Calder Le Roux, criminal cartel boss and DEA informant P. K.
Le Roux, South African politician Pierre Leroux, French philosopher and political economist Pieter Louis Le Roux, South African missionary René Le Roux, Breton author going by the pen name Meven Mordiern Robert Leroux, Canadian sociologist Robert Leroux, French fencer Roland Leroux, German chemist Roulland Le Roux, French gothic architect Shaun Le Roux, South African squash player Stephanus Petrus le Roux, South African politician and father of writer Etienne Leroux Sydney Leroux, Canadian-American soccer player Xavier Leroux, French composer Willie le Roux, South African rugby player Yvon Le Roux, French football player Zommari Leroux, a villain from the manga Bleach
Drug resistance is the reduction in effectiveness of a medication such as an antimicrobial or an antineoplastic in treating a disease or condition. The term is used in the context of resistance that pathogens or cancers have "acquired", that is, resistance has evolved. Antimicrobial resistance and antineoplastic resistance challenge drive research; when an organism is resistant to more than one drug, it is said to be multidrug-resistant. The development of antibiotic resistance in particular stems from the drugs targeting only specific bacterial molecules; because the drug is so specific, any mutation in these molecules will interfere with or negate its destructive effect, resulting in antibiotic resistance. Furthermore there is mounting concern over the abuse of antibiotics in the farming of livestock, which in the European Union alone accounts for three times the volume dispensed to humans – leading to development of super-resistant bacteria. Bacteria are capable of not only altering the enzyme targeted by antibiotics, but by the use of enzymes to modify the antibiotic itself and thus neutralize it.
Examples of target-altering pathogens are Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci and macrolide-resistant Streptococcus, while examples of antibiotic-modifying microbes are Pseudomonas aeruginosa and aminoglycoside-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. In short, the lack of concerted effort by governments and the pharmaceutical industry, together with the innate capacity of microbes to develop resistance at a rate that outpaces development of new drugs, suggests that existing strategies for developing viable, long-term anti-microbial therapies are doomed to failure. Without alternative strategies, the acquisition of drug resistance by pathogenic microorganisms looms as one of the most significant public health threats facing humanity in the 21st century. Resistance to chemicals is only one aspect of the problem, another being resistance to physical factors such as temperature, sound and magnetism, not discussed in this article, but found at Physical factors affecting microbial life.
Drug, toxin, or chemical resistance is a consequence of evolution and is a response to pressures imposed on any living organism. Individual organisms vary in their sensitivity to the drug used and some with greater fitness may be capable of surviving drug treatment. Drug-resistant traits are accordingly inherited by subsequent offspring, resulting in a population, more drug-resistant. Unless the drug used makes sexual reproduction or cell-division or horizontal gene transfer impossible in the entire target population, resistance to the drug will follow; this can be seen in cancerous tumors where some cells may develop resistance to the drugs used in chemotherapy. Chemotherapy causes fibroblasts near tumors to produce large amounts of the protein WNT16B; this protein stimulates the growth of cancer cells. MicroRNAs have been shown to affect acquired drug resistance in cancer cells and this can be used for therapeutic purposes. Malaria in 2012 has become a resurgent threat in South East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, drug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum are posing massive problems for health authorities.
Leprosy has shown an increasing resistance to dapsone. A rapid process of sharing resistance exists among single-celled organisms, is termed horizontal gene transfer in which there is a direct exchange of genes in the biofilm state. A similar asexual method is used by fungi and is called "parasexuality". Examples of drug-resistant strains are to be found in microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses, parasites both endo- and ecto-, fungi, mammals, reptiles and amphibians. In the domestic environment, drug-resistant strains of organism may arise from safe activities such as the use of bleach, tooth-brushing and mouthwashing, the use of antibiotics and detergents, soaps antibacterial soaps, hand-washing, surface sprays, application of deodorants and any cosmetic or health-care product and dips; the chemicals contained in these preparations, besides harming beneficial organisms, may intentionally or inadvertently target organisms that have the potential to develop resistance. The four main mechanisms by which microorganisms exhibit resistance to antimicrobials are: Drug inactivation or modification: e.g. enzymatic deactivation of Penicillin G in some penicillin-resistant bacteria through the production of β-lactamases.
Alteration of target site: e.g. alteration of PBP — the binding target site of penicillins — in MRSA and other penicillin-resistant bacteria. Alteration of metabolic pathway: e.g. some sulfonamide-resistant bacteria do not require para-aminobenzoic acid, an important precursor for the synthesis of folic acid and nucleic acids in bacteria inhibited by sulfonamides. Instead, like mammalian cells, they turn to utilizing preformed folic acid. Reduced drug accumulation: by decreasing drug permeability and/or increasing active efflux of the drugs across the cell surface. Biological cost is a measure of the increased energy metabolism required to achieve a function. Drug resistance has a high metabolic price in pathogens for which this concept is relevant In viruses, an equivalent "cost" is genomic complexity; the high metabolic cost means that, in the absence of antibiotics, a resistant pathogen will have decreased evolutionary fitness as compared to susceptible pathogens. This is one of the reasons drug resistance adaptations are seen in environments where antibiotics are absent.
However, in the presence of antibiotics, the survival advantage
Sister Tadea de San Joaquín was a Carmelite nun and writer of the Chilean Colonial period who wrote Catholic confessional ballad about the great flood of 1783. She is said to be the first woman poet of Chile. Tadea García de la Huerta was born around 1750 in Santiago, Chile to the well-to-do family of Pedro García de la Huerta and María Ignacia Rosales, her maternal grandfather was Juan Rosales. In 1770, she joined the newly formed convent Monasterio del Carmen de San Rafael and took the name Sister Tadea de San Joaquín. In 1783, a flood forced the nuns of the convent to flee and Sister Tadea was encouraged to write a ballad about the events to her confessor, away, her detailed depiction of the events, titled Relación de la inundación que hizo el río Mapocho de la ciudad de Santiago de Chile, en el Monasterio de Carmelitas, Titular de San Rafael, describes the nuns' assent to the church tower to escape the rising water. It is considered the first poem of a Chilean woman and was published in Lima, Peru in 1784.
The ballad is 516 verses in octosyllabic meter and demonstrates that she was familiar with both Baroque and epic poetry. Printed with an anonymous author, her identity was not revealed until 1850, when José Ignacio Eyzaguirre Portales ecclesiastical historian of Chile, identified her and her work. Sister Tadea served as superior of the monastery three times and composed verses until her death in 1827. Davies, Catherine. South American Independence: Gender, Text. Liverpool, England: Liverpool University Press. ISBN 978-1-78138-797-9. Tierney, Helen. Women's Studies Encyclopedia. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-31073-7
Dorothy Ada Shirley is a British athlete, who competed in the women's high jump event. She competed for Great Britain in the 1960 Summer Olympics held in Rome, where she won the silver medal in the high jump jointly with Jarosława Jóźwiakowska, it was the fifth straight silver medal for Britain in this event. She represented England in the high jump at the 1958 British Empire and Commonwealth Games in Cardiff, Wales. Four years she competed in the high jump again at the 1962 British Empire and Commonwealth Games in Perth and won a silver medal at the 1966 British Empire and Commonwealth Games in Kingston, Jamaica. A fourth consecutive Games appearance came in 1970 during the 1970 British Commonwealth Games in Edinburgh, she went into teaching and worked as a PE teacher at Bentham Grammar School in the West Riding of Yorkshire in the early 1970s. And continued a successful and influential teaching career as a Primary School Teacher at St. Michael's Primary School in Alkrington, Middleton. Dorothy Shirley at the International Olympic Committee
Pregnant with Success is a studio album by American rapper Junglepussy. It was released on November 17, 2015, it is a follow-up to Satisfaction Guaranteed. The production was handled by Shy Guy, Cousin Gabriel, Matt Parad, Dubbel Dutch. Junglepussy described it as "an ode to my mother, to all mothers, to anyone who's planted a seed, to anyone who's created something, to anyone who's waited patiently for something to come into fruition." Anupa Mistry of Pitchfork gave the album a 7.5 out of 10, calling it "another reminder of how humor can bring the audience closer and form an emotional connection."The album was placed at number 31 on Fact's "50 Best Albums of 2015" list, number 12 on Spin's "50 Best Hip-Hop Albums of 2015" list, number 37 on Rolling Stone's "40 Best Rap Albums of 2015" list. It was included on Respect.'s "Best Hip Hop Projects of 2015" list and Impose's "Best Albums of 2015" list. Pregnant with Success at Discogs Pregnant with Success on SoundCloud