New Hebrides franc
The Franc was the currency of the Anglo-French Condominium of the Pacific island group of the New Hebrides. It circulated alongside British and Australian currency; the New Hebrides franc was nominally divided into 100 Centimes, although the smallest denomination was the 1 franc. Between 1945 and 1969, it was part of the CFP franc; until World War II, the New Hebrides used the British and Australian pounds. In 1941, the Free French forces introduced paper money for circulation on the New Hebrides. In 1945, the CFP franc was introduced to insulate France's Pacific colonies from the devaluation of the French franc and the New Hebrides used a combination of New Caledonian franc coins and locally issued notes. In 1949, the CFP franc's relationship to the French franc stabilized at 5.5 French francs = 1 CFP franc. From 1959, the exchange rate to the Australian pound was exactly 200 francs = 1 pound; this rate became 100 francs = 1 Australian dollar in 1966. The Australian dollar circulated alongside the local currency.
From 1966, coins were produced in the name of the New Hebrides. In 1969, the New Hebrides franc broke away from the CFP franc and maintained the relationship with the Australian dollar of 100 francs = 1 dollar until 1973. In 1981, the franc was replaced at par by the vatu following independence as Vanuatu. At the same time, the Australian dollar ceased to circulate. In 1966, silver 100 franc coins were introduced; these were followed by nickel 10 and 20 francs in 1967, nickel-brass 1, 2 and 5 francs in 1970 and nickel 50 francs in 1972. Only the nickel coins were the same size and obverse as the corresponding French Polynesian and New Caledonian coins; the overall design has not changed since the introduction of the New Hebrides franc coins. The only notable change is the addition of "I. E. O. M" in 1973; the first New Hebridean banknote was issued in 1921, a 25 franc note of the Comptoirs Français des Nouvelles Hébrides dated 22 août 1921. This is a rare note; the New Hebrides began issuing banknotes again in 1941.
These were overprints on New Caledonian banknotes, in denominations of 5, 20, 100, 500 and 1000 francs. The same denominations were issued in 1943 by the Free French Services Nationaux Français des Nouvelles Hébrides. In 1965, the Institut d'Emission d'Outre-Mer took over the issuance of paper money on the New Hebrides and introduced notes in denominations of 100, 500 and 1000 francs between 1965 and 1972. Unlike the French Polynesian and New Caledonian counterparts, New Hebrides never had a 5000 franc note. CFP franc New Caledonian franc French Polynesian franc
In Māori mythology, Tiki is the first man created by either Tūmatauenga or Tāne. He found Marikoriko, in a pond. By extension, a tiki is a large or small wooden or stone carving in humanoid form, although this is a somewhat archaic usage in the Māori language. Carvings similar to tikis and coming to represent deified ancestors are found in most Polynesian cultures, they serve to mark the boundaries of sacred or significant sites. In traditions from the West Coast of the South Island of New Zealand, the first human is a woman created by Tāne, god of forests and of birds, her name is Hine-ahu-one. In other legends, Tāne makes the first man Tiki makes a wife for him. In some West Coast versions, Tiki himself, as a son of Rangi and Papa, creates the first human by mixing his own blood with clay, Tāne makes the first woman. Sometimes Tūmatauenga, the war god, creates Tiki. In another story the first woman is Mārikoriko. Tiki marries her and their daughter is Hine-kau-ataata. In some traditions, Tiki is the penis of Tāne.
In fact, Tiki is associated with the origin of the reproductive act. In one story of Tiki among the many variants, Tiki was craved company. One day, seeing his reflection in a pool, he thought he had found a companion, dove into the pool to seize it; the image shattered and Tiki was disappointed. He when he awoke he saw the reflection again, he covered the pool with earth and it gave birth to a woman. Tiki lived with her in serenity, her excitement passed to Tiki and the first reproductive act resulted. John White names several Tiki or manifestations of Tiki in Māori tradition: Tiki-tohua, the progenitor of birds Tiki-kapakapa, the progenitor of fish and of a bird, the tui Tiki-auaha, the progenitor of humanity Tiki-whakaeaea, the progenitor of the kūmara; the word appears as tiki in New Zealand Māori, Cook Islands Māori and Marquesan. The word has not been recorded in the Rapa Nui language. In Hawaiian traditions the first man was Kumuhonua, he was made by Kāne, or by Kāne, Kū, Lono. His body was made by mixing red earth with saliva.
He was made in the shape of Kāne, who carried the earth from which the man was made from the four corners of the world. A woman was made from one of his ribs. Kanaloa was watching when Kāne made the first man, he too made a man, but could not bring him to life. Kanaloa said to Kāne, “I will take your man, he will die.” And so death came upon mankind. In Tahiti, Tiʻi was the first man, was made from red earth; the first woman was Ivi, made from one of the bones of Tiʻi. In the Marquesas Islands, there are various accounts. In one legend Atea and his wife created people. In another tradition Atanua and her father Atea brought forth humans. In the Cook Islands, traditions vary. At Rarotonga, Tiki is the guardian of the entrance to the underworld. Offerings were made to him as gifts for the departing soul of someone, dying. At Mangaia, Tiki is the sister of Veetini, the first person to die a natural death; the entrance to Avaiki is called ‘the chasm of Tiki’. According to Easter Island legend, Hotu Matu'a, the first chief brought along a moʻai symbolizing ancestors, which became the model for the large moʻai.
Dr. Jo Anne Van Tilburg of the Easter Island Statue Project at UCLA says that the first stone statues originated on Rapa Nui, although oral traditions do not support this and hers is just an opinion. Others contend that the first statues originated in the Austral Islands. Hei-tiki, Māori neck pendants called tiki Moai, a monolithic human figure on Easter Island, sometimes erroneously called tiki Tiki culture, a 20th-century decorative style used in Polynesian-themed restaurants Anito, similar carvings of ancestral and nature spirits in the Philippine islands Totem pole, artworks similar in shape and purpose from Cascadian cultures Chemamull, Mapuche statues
Minerva was the Roman goddess of wisdom and strategic warfare and the sponsor of arts and strategy. From the second century BC onward, the Romans equated her with the Greek goddess Athena, though the Romans did not stress her relation to battle and warfare as the Greeks did. Following the Greek myths around Athena, she was born of Metis, swallowed by Jupiter, burst from her father's head armed and clad in armor. Jupiter forcefully impregnated the titaness Metis, which resulted in her attempting to change shape to escape him. Jupiter recalled the prophecy that his own child would overthrow him as he had Saturn, in turn, Saturn had Caelus. Fearing that their child would be male, would grow stronger than he was and rule the Heavens in his place, Jupiter swallowed Metis whole after tricking her into turning herself into a fly; the titaness gave birth to Minerva and forged weapons and armor for her child while within Jupiter's body. In some versions of the story, Metis continued to live inside of Jupiter's mind as the source of his wisdom.
Others say she was a vessel for the birth of Minerva. The constant pounding and ringing left Jupiter with agonizing pain. To relieve the pain, Vulcan used a hammer to split Jupiter's head and, from the cleft, Minerva emerged, adult, in full battle armor, she was the virgin goddess of music, medicine, commerce and the crafts. She is depicted with her sacred creature, an owl named as the "owl of Minerva", which symbolised her association with wisdom and knowledge as well as, less the snake and the olive tree. Minerva was worshipped at several locations in Rome, most prominently as part of the Capitoline Triad, she was worshipped at the Temple of Minerva Medica, at the "Delubrum Minervae", a temple founded around 50 BC by Pompey on the site now occupied by the church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva. The Romans celebrated her festival from March 19 to March 23 during the day, called, in the neuter plural, the fifth after the Ides of March, the nineteenth, an artisans' holiday. A lesser version, the Minusculae Quinquatria, was held on the Ides of June, June 13, by the flute-players, who were useful to religion.
In 207 BC, a guild of poets and actors was formed to meet and make votive offerings at the temple of Minerva on the Aventine Hill. Among others, its members included Livius Andronicus; the Aventine sanctuary of Minerva continued to be an important center of the arts for much of the middle Roman Republic. As Minerva Medica, she was the goddess of medicine and physicians; as Minerva Achaea, she was worshipped at Lucera in Apulia where votive gifts and arms said to be those of Diomedes were preserved in her temple. Her worship was spread throughout the empire. In Britain, for example, she was syncretized with the local goddess Sulis, invoked for restitution for theft. In Fasti III, Ovid called her the "goddess of a thousand works". Minerva was worshipped throughout Italy, when she became equated with the Greek goddess Athena, she became a goddess of battle. Unlike Mars, god of war, she was sometimes portrayed with sword lowered, in sympathy for the recent dead, rather than raised in triumph and battle lust.
In Rome her bellicose nature was emphasized less than elsewhere. Minerva is featured on the coinage of different Roman emperors, she is represented on the reverse side of a coin holding an owl and a spear among her attributes. Stemming from an Italic moon goddess *Meneswā, the Etruscans adopted the inherited Old Latin name, *Menerwā, thereby calling her Menrva, it is presumed that Minerva, is based on this Etruscan mythology. Minerva was the goddess of wisdom, art and commerce, she was the Etruscan counterpart to Greek Athena. Like Athena, Minerva burst from the head of her father, who had devoured her mother in an unsuccessful attempt to prevent her birth. By a process of folk etymology, the Romans could have linked her foreign name to the root men- in Latin words such as mens meaning "mind" because one of her aspects as goddess pertained to the intellectual; the word mens is built from the Proto-Indo-European root *men-'mind'. The Etruscan Menrva was part of a holy triad with Tinia and Uni, equivalent to the Roman Capitoline Triad of Jupiter-Juno-Minerva.
As a patron goddess of wisdom, Minerva features in statuary, as an image on seals, in other forms at educational institutions. The Seal of California depicts the Goddess Minerva, her birth fully-grown parallels California becoming a state without first being a territory. According to John Robison's Proofs of a Conspiracy, the third degree of the Bavarian Illuminati was called Minerval or Brother of Minerva, in honor of the goddess of learning; this title was adopted for the first initiation of Aleister Crowley's OTO rituals. Minerva Schools at KGI is a global four-year undergraduate program A statue of Minerva is displayed by the University of North Carolina at Greensboro and is the university's new graphic identity starting 2004. A small Roman shrine to Minerva stands in Chester, it sits in a public park. A statue to Minerva was designed by John Charles Felix Rossi to adorn the Town Hall of Liverpool, where it has stood since 1799, it was restored as part of the 2014 renovations conducted by the city.
The Minerva Roundabout in Guadalajara, located at the crossing of the López Mateos, Vallarta, López Cotilla, Agustín Yáñez, G
The kagu or cagou is a crested, long-legged, bluish-grey bird endemic to the dense mountain forests of New Caledonia. It is the only surviving member of the genus Rhynochetos and the family Rhynochetidae, although a second species has been described from the fossil record. Measuring 55 cm in length, it has bright red legs. Its'nasal corns' are a unique feature not shared with any other bird. Flightless, it spends its time on or near the ground, where it hunts its invertebrate prey, builds a nest of sticks on the forest floor. Both parents share incubation of a single egg, as well as rearing the chick, it is threatened with extinction. The kagu's affinities are not well resolved, it was long one of the most enigmatic birds and in more recent times is affiliated with the Gruiformes. It was classed as a member of the clade Ardeidae because of the presence of powder down, similarities in plumage colour and internal anatomy, the colour of the chicks and eggs, the change in colouration of the chick as it grows.
When seen as a gruiform, the kagu is considered related to the extinct adzebills from New Zealand and the sunbittern from Central and South America. Recent studies do indicate. For example, Fain & Houde found these to be sister taxa, they and the mesites did not group with traditional Gruiformes in their study, but instead with their proposed clade Metaves, which includes the hoatzin, Caprimulgiformes, tropicbirds, Apodiformes and grebes. The internal structure of this group was not well resolvable by their data, although studies confirmed a close relationship between the kagu and sunbittern; the kagu and sunbittern, the adzebills, seem to form a distinct Gondwanan lineage of birds one order more, though the relationships between them and groups considered related, such as the mesites and the "core Gruiformes," are not yet resolved. It is notable, that the sunbittern and the mesites possess powder down too, whereas the "core Gruiformes" do not. While the kagu is the only living species in the clade Rhynochetidae, a larger species, the lowland kagu, has been described from Holocene subfossil remains.
The measurements of this species were 15% bigger than Rhynochetos jubatus, with no overlap in measurements except those of the forelimbs. Given that the sites from which R. orarius remains have been recovered are all lowland sites, that no fossils of R. jubatus have been found in these sites, the scientists that described the fossils have suggested that they represent highland and lowland species respectively. R. orarius is one of many species to have become extinct in New Caledonia after the arrival of humans. The validity of the species accepted by others; the generic name Rhynochetos, the clade name Rhynochetidae, are derived from the Greek rhis meaning nose and chetos meaning corn, referring to the corn-shaped flaps over the nostrils. The specific name jubatus is derived from the Latin iabatus meaning crested; the name kagu is derived from the Melanesian names for the species. The species is variously known as the kavu or kagou in the Kanak languages, as the cagou in French; the kagu is 55 cm in length.
The weight can vary by individual and by season, ranging from 700 to 1,100 g. Its plumage is unusually bright for a bird of the forest floor. There is little sexual dimorphism beyond a difference in the amount of barring in the primary feathers, it possesses powder downs which help keep it dry and insulate it in the extremes of New Caledonia's tropical climate. The crest, used to display to other members of the species, is noticeable when at rest but can be erected and fanned out, it is nearly flightless, using its wings for displays, for moving through the forest. It can use them to glide when fleeing danger; the wings are not reduced in size like some other flightless birds, have a span of around 77.5 cm, but they lack the musculature for flight. It possesses bright red legs which are long and strong, enabling the bird to travel long distances on foot and run quickly, it has large eyes, positioned so that they give good binocular vision, helpful in finding prey in the leaf litter and seeing in the gloom of the forest.
It possesses'nasal corns', structures covering its nostrils, which are a feature not shared by any other bird. These are presumed to prevent particles entering the nostrils. Another unique characteristic of the species is that it has only one-third as many red blood cells and three times more hemoglobin per red blood cell than is usual in birds; the kagu is endemic to the forests and shrubland of New Caledonia. Within that island group it is restricted to the main island of Grande Terre. There is no evidence that it occurred on the Loyalty Islands, although fossil remains of the extinct lowland form R. orarius have been found on the Ile des Pines. The kagu is a habitat generalist and able to exist in a range of different forest types if sufficient prey is present, from rain forest to drier lowland forest, they are able to feed in some drier shrubland associated with the island's ultrabasic rocks, although not in the low-prey, poor shrubland of this type. They are absent from areas where extensive ground cover makes foraging difficult, such as grassland or areas with high fern cover, but may pass through such area
Marianne is a national symbol of the French Republic, a personification of liberty and reason, a portrayal of the Goddess of Liberty. Marianne is displayed in many places in France and holds a place of honour in town halls and law courts, she symbolizes the Triumph of the Republic, a bronze sculpture overlooking the Place de la Nation in Paris, is represented with another Parisian statue in the Place de la République. Her profile stands out on the official government logo of the country, is engraved on French euro coins and appears on French postage stamps. Marianne is one of the most prominent symbols of the French Republic, is used on most government documents. Marianne is a significant republican symbol; as a national icon she represents opposition to monarchy and the championship of freedom and democracy against all forms of oppression. Other national symbols of France include the tricolor flag, the national motto Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité, the national anthem "La Marseillaise", the coat of arms, the official Great Seal of France.
In classical times it was common to represent ideas and abstract entities by gods and allegorical personifications. Less common during the Middle Ages, this practice resurfaced during the Renaissance. During the French Revolution of 1789, many allegorical personifications of'Liberty' and'Reason' appeared; these two figures merged into one: a female figure, shown either sitting or standing, accompanied by various attributes, including the tricolor cockade and the Phrygian cap. This woman symbolised Liberty, the Nation, the Homeland, the civic virtues of the Republic. In September 1792, the National Convention decided by decree that the new seal of the state would represent a standing woman holding a spear with a Phrygian cap held aloft on top of it. Historian Maurice Agulhon, who in several well-known works set out on a detailed investigation to discover the origins of Marianne, suggests that it is the traditions and mentality of the French that led to the use of a woman to represent the Republic.
A feminine allegory was a manner to symbolise the breaking with the old monarchy headed by kings, promote modern republican ideology. Before the French Revolution, the Kingdom of France was embodied in masculine figures, as depicted in certain ceilings of Palace of Versailles. Furthermore and the Republic themselves are, in French, feminine nouns, as are the French nouns for liberty and reason; the use of this emblem was unofficial and diverse. A female allegory of Liberty and of the Republic makes an appearance in Eugène Delacroix's painting Liberty Leading the People, painted in July 1830 in honour of the Three Glorious Days. Although the image of Marianne did not garner significant attention until 1792, the origins of this "goddess of Liberty" date back to 1775, when Jean-Michel Moreau painted her as a young woman dressed in Roman style clothing with a Phrygian cap atop a pike held in one hand that years would become a national symbol across France. Marianne made her first major appearance in the French spotlight on a medal in July 1789, celebrating the storming of the Bastille and other early events of the Revolution.
From this time until September 1792, the image of Marianne was overshadowed by other figures such as Mercury and Minerva. It was not until September 1792 when the new Republic sought a new image to represent the State that her popularity began to expand. Marianne, the female allegory of Liberty, was chosen to represent the new regime of the French Republic, while remaining to symbolise liberty at the same time; the imagery of Marianne chosen as the seal of the First French Republic depicted her standing and determined. It was a newly created state that had much to prove. Marianne is clad in a classical gown. In her right hand, she wields the pike of revolution with the Phrygian cap resting on it, which represents the liberation of France. Marianne is shown leaning on a symbol of authority. Although she is standing and holding a pike, this depiction of Marianne is "not aggressive", representing the ideology of the moderate-liberal Girondins in the National Convention as they tried to move away from the "frantic violence of the revolutionary days".
Although the initial figure of Marianne from 1792 stood in a conservative pose, the revolutionaries were quick to abandon that figure when it no longer suited them. By 1793, the conservative figure of Marianne had been replaced by a more violent image; the reason behind this switch stems from the shifting priorities of the Republic. Although the Marianne symbol was neutral in tone, the shift to radical action was in response to the beginning of the Terror, which called for militant revolutionary action against foreigners and counter-revolutionaries; as part of the tactics the administration employed, the more radical Marianne was intended to rouse the French people to action. This change, was seen to be insufficiently radical by the republicans. After the arrest of the Girondin deputies in October 1793, the Convention sought to "recast the Republic in a more radical mold" using the symbol of Hercules to represent the Republic; the use of radical images to symbolise the Republic was in direct parallel to the beginning of the violence that came to be known as the Reign of T
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Nouméa is the capital and largest city of the French special collectivity of New Caledonia. It is situated on a peninsula in the south of New Caledonia's main island, Grande Terre, is home to the majority of the island's European, Polynesian and Vietnamese populations, as well as many Melanesians, Ni-Vanuatu and Kanaks who work in one of the South Pacific's most industrialised cities; the city lies on a protected deepwater harbour. At the August 2014 census, there were 179,509 inhabitants in the metropolitan area of Greater Nouméa, 99,926 of whom lived in the city of Nouméa proper. 66.8% of the population of New Caledonia live in Greater Nouméa, which covers the communes of Nouméa, Le Mont-Dore, Dumbéa and Païta. The first European to establish a settlement in the vicinity was British trader James Paddon in 1851. Anxious to assert control of the island, the French established a settlement nearby three years in 1854, moving from Balade in the north of the island; this settlement was called Port-de-France and was renamed Nouméa in 1866.
The area served first as a penal colony as a centre for the exportation of the nickel and gold, mined nearby. From 1904 to 1940 Nouméa was linked to Dumbéa and Païta by the Nouméa-Païta railway, the only railway line that existed in New Caledonia. During World War II, Nouméa served as the headquarters of the United States military in the South Pacific; the five-sided U. S. military headquarters complex was adopted after the war as the base for a new regional intergovernmental development organisation: the South Pacific Commission known as the Secretariat of the Pacific Community. The city maintains much of New Caledonia's unique mix of old Melanesian culture. Today the US wartime military influence lingers, both with the warmth that many New Caledonian people feel towards the United States after experiencing the relative friendliness of American soldiers and with the names of several of the quarters in Nouméa. Districts such as "Receiving" and "Robinson", or "Motor Pool", strike the anglophone ear strangely, until the historical context becomes clear.
The city is situated on an irregular, hilly peninsula near the southeast end of New Caledonia, in the south-west Pacific Ocean. Neighbourhoods of Nouméa include: Rivière-Salée 6e km, 7e km, Tina Ducos peninsula: Ducos, Ducos industriel, Kaméré, Logicoop, Tindu 4e Km, Aérodrome, Haut Magenta, Magenta, Ouémo, Portes de fer Faubourg Blanchot and Vallée des Colons Doniambo, Montagne coupée, Vallée du tir Artillerie Nord, Centre Ville, Quartier Latin, Vallée du Génie Anse Vata, Artillerie Sud, Baie des Citrons, Motor Pool, N'géa, Receiving and Val Plaisance The Greater Nouméa urban area had a total population of 179,509 inhabitants at the August 2014 census, 99,926 of whom lived in the commune of Nouméa proper; the Greater Nouméa urban area is made up of four communes: Nouméa Dumbéa, to the north-west of Nouméa Le Mont-Dore, to the north-east of Nouméa Païta, a suburb to the west of Dumbéa and the site of La Tontouta International Airport Average population growth of the Greater Nouméa urban area: 1956-1963: +2,310 people per year 1963-1969: +1,791 people per year 1969-1976: +3,349 people per year 1976-1983: +1,543 people per year 1983-1989: +2,091 people per year 1989-1996: +3,020 people per year 1996-2009: +3,382 people per year 2009-2014: +3,106 people per year The places of birth of the 179,509 residents in the Greater Nouméa urban area at the 2014 census were the following: 66.7% were born in New Caledonia 21.2% in Metropolitan France and its overseas departments 6.3% in foreign countries 5.8% in Wallis and Futuna and French Polynesia The self-reported ethnic communities of the 179,509 residents in the Greater Nouméa urban area at the 2014 census were as follows: 34.5% Europeans 23.4% Kanaks 11.5% Wallisians and Futunians 10.0% mixed ethnicity 20.5% other communities At the 2009 census, 98.7% of the population in the Greater Nouméa urban area whose age was 15 years old and older reported that they could speak French.
97.1% reported that they could read and write it. Only 1.3% of the population whose age was 15 years old and older had no knowledge of French. At the same census, 20.8% of the population in the Greater Nouméa urban area whose age was 15 years old and older reported that they could speak at least one of the Kanak languages. 4.3 % reported. 74.9% of the population whose age was 15 years old and older had no knowledge of any Kanak language. Nouméa features a tropical dry climate with hot summers and warm winters. Temperatures are warmer in the months of January and March with average highs hovering around 30 degrees Celsius and cooler during the months of July and August where average high temperatures are around 23 degrees Celsius; the capital's dry season months are October. The rest of the year is noticeably wetter. Nouméa on average receives 1,100 mm of precipitation annually. Although Nouméa has more sunshine days than any