In broadcasting and radio communications, a call sign is a unique designation for a transmitter station. In the United States of America, they are used for all FCC-licensed transmitters. A call sign can be formally assigned by a government agency, informally adopted by individuals or organizations, or cryptographically encoded to disguise a station's identity; the use of call signs as unique identifiers dates to the landline railroad telegraph system. Because there was only one telegraph line linking all railroad stations, there needed to be a way to address each one when sending a telegram. In order to save time, two-letter identifiers were adopted for this purpose; this pattern continued in radiotelegraph operation. These were not globally unique, so a one-letter company identifier was added. By 1912, the need to identify stations operated by multiple companies in multiple nations required an international standard. Merchant and naval vessels are assigned call signs by their national licensing authorities.
In the case of states such as Liberia or Panama, which are flags of convenience for ship registration, call signs for larger vessels consist of the national prefix plus three letters. United States merchant vessels are given call signs beginning with the letters "W" or "K" while US naval ships are assigned call signs beginning with "N". Both ships and broadcast stations were assigned call signs in this series consisting of three or four letters. Ships equipped with Morse code radiotelegraphy, or life boat radio sets, Aviation ground stations, broadcast stations were given four letter call signs. Maritime coast stations on high frequency were assigned three letter call signs; as demand for both marine radio and broadcast call signs grew American-flagged vessels with radiotelephony only were given longer call signs with mixed letters and numbers. Leisure craft with VHF radios may not be assigned call signs, in which case the name of the vessel is used instead. Ships in the US still wishing to have a radio license are under FCC class SA: "Ship recreational or voluntarily equipped."
Those calls follow the land mobile format of the initial letter K or W followed by 1 or 2 letters followed by 3 or 4 numbers. U. S. Coast Guard small boats have a number, shown on both bows in which the first two digits indicate the nominal length of the boat in feet. For example, Coast Guard 47021 refers to the 21st in the series of 47-foot motor lifeboats; the call sign might be abbreviated to the final two or three numbers during operations, for example: Coast Guard zero two one. Aviation mobile stations equipped with radiotelegraphy were assigned five letter call signs.. Land Stations in Aviation were assigned four letter call signs; these call signs were phased out in the 1960s when flight radio officers were no longer required on international flights. USSR kept FRO's for the Moscow-Havana run until around 2000. All signs in aviation are derived from several different policies, depending upon the type of flight operation and whether or not the caller is in an aircraft or at a ground facility.
In most countries, unscheduled general aviation flights identify themselves using the call sign corresponding to the aircraft's registration number. In this case, the call sign is spoken using the International Civil Aviation Organization phonetic alphabet. Aircraft registration numbers internationally follow the pattern of a country prefix, followed by a unique identifier made up of letters and numbers. For example, an aircraft registered as N978CP conducting a general aviation flight would use the call sign November-niner-seven-eight-Charlie-Papa. However, in the United States a pilot of an aircraft would omit saying November, instead use the name of the aircraft manufacturer or the specific model. At times, general aviation pilots might omit additional preceding numbers and use only the last three numbers and letters; this is true at uncontrolled fields when reporting traffic pattern positions or at towered airports after establishing two-way communication with the tower controller. For example, Skyhawk eight-Charlie-Papa, left base.
In most countries, the aircraft call sign or "tail number"/"tail letters" are linked to the international radio call sign allocation table and follow a convention that aircraft radio stations receive call signs consisting of five letters. For example, all British civil aircraft have a five-letter call sign beginning with the letter G. Canadian aircraft have a call sign beginning with C–F or C–G, such as C–FABC. Wing In Ground-effect vehicles in Canada are eligible to receive C–Hxxx call signs, ultralight aircraft receive C-Ixxx call signs. In days gone by American aircraft used five letter call signs, such as KH–ABC, but they were replaced prior to World War II by the current American system of civilian aircraft call signs. Radio call signs used for communication in manned spaceflight is not formalized or regulated to the same degree as for aircraft; the three nations curren
Quadraphonic sound – equivalent to what is now called 4.0 surround sound – uses four channels in which speakers are positioned at the four corners of the listening space, reproducing signals that are independent of one another. Quadraphonic audio was the earliest consumer product in surround sound and thousands of quadraphonic recordings were made during the 1970s, it was a commercial failure due to format incompatibilities. Quadraphonic audio formats were more expensive to produce than standard two-channel stereo. Playback required specially designed decoders and amplifiers. Quadraphonic audio reproduction on vinyl records was problematic; some systems used a demodulator to decode discrete sound channels. This allowed for full channel separation. Other systems used matrix decoding to recover four channels from the two channels cut on the record. Matrix systems do not have full channel separation, some information can be lost between the encoding and decoding processes. Both discrete and matrix quadrophonic recordings could be played in two channels on conventional stereo record players.
There were less sophisticated "derived" solutions that only provided back ambience channels, not a defined placement of individual instruments. Quadraphonic systems based on tape were introduced, based on new equipment capable of playing four discrete channels; these recordings were released in 8-track cartridge formats. A full, four-channel system will reproduce the Left Front, Left Back, Right Front, Right Back audio signals in each of four separate speakers. Regardless of discrete or matrix formats, in four-channel stereo the rear speakers should be of the same or almost-same size or quality and have the same or almost-same frequency range as the front speakers. Discrete reproduction is the only true Quadraphonic system; as its name suggests, with discrete formats the original four audio channels are passed through a four-channel transmission medium and presented to a four-channel reproduction system and fed to four speakers. This is defined as a 4–4–4 system. Q4 / Quadraphonic Reel to Reel Quad-8 / Quadraphonic 8-Track CD-4 / Quadradisc UD-4 / UMX / BMX With Matrix formats, the four channels are converted down to two channels.
These are passed through a two-channel transmission medium before being decoded back to four channels and presented to four speakers. To transmit four individual audio signals in a stereo-compatible manner, there must be four simultaneous linear equations to reproduce the original four audio signals at the output; the term "compatible" indicates that: A single-channel system will reproduce all four audio signals in its one speaker. A two-channel system will reproduce the Left Front & Left Back audio signals in the Left speaker and the Right Front & Right Back signals in the Right Speaker; the original systems were basic and suffered from low front L/R separation and a poor rear L/R separation of 2db. The decoders were designed more to give an effect rather than accurate decoding, due to limitations in both systems, although as both systems were closely related mathematically, users only needed one decoder of either system to play back albums of both systems; the aboves' poor decode performance was the main reason for their disappearance once the improved matrix systems arrived based on the work by Peter Scheiber.
His basic formula utilized 90-degree phase-shift circuitry to enable enhanced 4-2-4 matrix systems to be developed, of which the two main leaders were Columbia's SQ and Sansui's QS Systems. With Scheiber and Martin Willcocks, Jim Fosgate developed the Tate II 101 SQ decoder, which produced a accurate sound field by using gain riding and the Haas effect to mask decoding artifacts, it used custom, hand-assembled and -calibrated circuitry with components sorted to 1%, for exact performance. Sansui's QSD- series decoders and QRX- series receivers were good synthesizing L—R stereo into a ⋂ horseshoe topology. However, all these came too late in the game and were too expensive or difficult to procure for public purchase, to rescue matrix quad; the differences between the original systems and the new were so large that it made it impossible to decode DY/EV-4 with either SQ or QS decoders with any accuracy, the results being just a form of artificial quad. This 4:2:4 process could not be accomplished without some information loss.
That is to say, the four channels produced at the final stage were not identical to those with which the process had begun. Matrix H SQ / Stereo Quadraphonic QS / RM DY / Dynaquad EV / Stereo-4 Derived formats were inexpensive electronic solutions that provided back ambience channels from regular stereo records. There was no deliberate placement of individual instruments on the back channels. DY / Dynaquad Hafler circuit The first medium for 4-channel sound was reel-to-reel tape, used first in European electronic-music studios by 1954, an outstanding example of, the tape part of Karlheinz Stockhausen’s piece and was introduced to the American market by the Vanguard Recording Society in June 1969 as "Quadraphonic open reel tape" tapes. All available 4 tracks were used in one direction on the tape, running at twice the speed of the regular 4-Track reel-to-reel tapes. RCA Records followed, in April 1970, with its announcement of a 4 channel version of the 8-track tape, named Quad-8 or Quadra
Richard Georg Strauss was a leading German composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras. He is known for his operas, which include Der Rosenkavalier, Die Frau ohne Schatten and Salome. Strauss was a prominent conductor in Western Europe and the Americas, enjoying quasi-celebrity status as his compositions became standards of orchestral and operatic repertoire. Strauss, along with Gustav Mahler, represents the late flowering of German Romanticism after Richard Wagner, in which pioneering subtleties of orchestration are combined with an advanced harmonic style. Strauss was born on 11 June 1864 in Munich, the son of Josephine and Franz Strauss, the principal horn player at the Court Opera in Munich. In his youth, he received a thorough musical education from his father, he wrote his first composition at the age of six, continued to write music until his death. During his boyhood Strauss attended orchestra rehearsals of the Munich Court Orchestra, where he received private instruction in music theory and orchestration from an assistant conductor.
In 1872, he started receiving violin instruction at the Royal School of Music from Benno Walter, his father's cousin. In 1874, Strauss heard his first Wagner operas and Tannhäuser; the influence of Wagner's music on Strauss's style was to be profound, but at first his musically conservative father forbade him to study it. Indeed, in the Strauss household, the music of Richard Wagner was viewed with deep suspicion, it was not until the age of 16 that Strauss was able to obtain a score of Tristan und Isolde. In life, Strauss said that he regretted the conservative hostility to Wagner's progressive works. Strauss's father undoubtedly had a crucial influence on his son's developing taste, not least in Strauss's abiding love for the horn. In early 1882, in Vienna, he gave the first performance of his Violin Concerto in D minor, playing a piano reduction of the orchestral part himself, with his teacher Benno Walter as soloist; the same year he entered Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, where he studied philosophy and art history, but not music.
He left a year to go to Berlin, where he studied before securing a post as assistant conductor to Hans von Bülow, enormously impressed by the young composer's Serenade for wind instruments, composed when he was only 16 years of age. Strauss learned the art of conducting by observing Bülow in rehearsal. Bülow was fond of the young man, decided that Strauss should be his successor as conductor of the Meiningen Court Orchestra when Bülow resigned in 1885. Strauss's compositions at this time were indebted to the style of Robert Schumann or Felix Mendelssohn, true to his father's teachings, his Horn Concerto No. 1, is a staple of the modern horn repertoire. Strauss married soprano Pauline de Ahna on 10 September 1894, she was famous for being irascible, garrulous and outspoken, but to all appearances the marriage was happy, she was a great source of inspiration to him. Throughout his life, from his earliest songs to the final Four Last Songs of 1948, he preferred the soprano voice to all others, all his operas contain important soprano roles.
The Strausses had one son, Franz, in 1897. Franz married Alice von Grab-Hermannswörth, daughter of a Jewish industrialist, in a Roman Catholic ceremony in 1924. Franz and Alice had two sons and Christian. In 1906, Strauss purchased a block of land at Garmisch-Partenkirchen and had a villa built there with the down payments from the publisher Adolph Fürstner for his opera Salome, residing there until his death; some of Strauss's first compositions were solo instrumental and chamber works. These pieces include early compositions for piano solo in a conservative harmonic style, many of which are lost: two piano trios, a string quartet, a piano sonata, a cello sonata, a piano quartet, a violin sonata, as well as a serenade and a longer suite, both scored for double wind quintet plus two additional horns and contrabassoon. After 1890, Strauss composed infrequently for chamber groups, his energies being completely absorbed with large-scale orchestral works and operas. Four of his chamber pieces are arrangements of portions of his operas, including the Daphne-Etude for solo violin and the String Sextet, the overture to his final opera Capriccio.
His last independent chamber work, an Allegretto in E major for violin and piano, dates from 1948. He composed two large-scale works for wind ensemble during this period: Sonatina No. 1 "From an Invalid's Workshop" and Sonatina No. 2 "Happy Workshop" —both scored for double wind quintet plus two additional horns, a third clarinet in C, bassett horn, bass clarinet, contrabassoon. Strauss wrote two early symphonies: Symphony No. 1 and Symphony No. 2. However, Strauss's style began to develop and change when, in 1885, he met Alexander Ritter, a noted composer and violinist, the husband of one of Richard Wagner's nieces, it was Ritter who persuaded Strauss to abandon the conservative style of his youth and begin writing tone poems. He introduced Strauss to the essays of Wagner and the writings of Arthur Schopenhauer. Strauss went on to conduct one of Ritter's operas, at Strauss
Mount Royal is a large volcanic-related hill or small mountain in the city of Montreal west of Downtown Montreal, Canada. The City of Montreal takes its name from Mt Royal; the hill is part of the Monteregian Hills situated between the Laurentians and the Appalachian Mountains. It gave Mons Regius, to the Monteregian chain; the hill consists of three peaks: Colline de la Croix at 233 m, Colline d'Outremont at 211 m, Westmount Summit at 201 m elevation above mean sea level. In June 2017, during the 375th anniversary of Montreal, the city formally renamed the Outremont peak Tiohtià:ke Otsira’kéhne, Mohawk for "the place of the big fire," reflecting how the hill had been used for a fire beacon by First Nations people. Mount Royal is the deep extension of a vastly eroded ancient volcanic complex, active about 125 million years ago; as a result, the tourist guidebook Michelin Guide to Montreal states. The mountain, along with the other mountains of the Monteregian Hills, was formed when the North American Plate moved westward over the New England hotspot.
By a process known as intrusion: magma intruded into the sedimentary rocks underneath the area, producing at least eight igneous stocks. The main rock type is a gabbro composed of pyroxene and variable amounts of plagioclase. During and after the main stage of intrusion, the gabbros and surrounding rocks were intruded by a series of volcanic dikes and sills. Subsequently, the surrounding softer sedimentary rock was eroded, leaving behind the resistant igneous rock that forms the mountain; the mineral montroyalite, discovered in Montreal, is named after the mountain that provided the definition sample. The first European to scale the mountain was Jacques Cartier, guided there in 1535 by the people of the village of Hochelaga, he named it in honour of his patron, Francis I of France. He wrote in his journal: "And among these fields is situated and seated the said town of Hochelaga, near to and adjoining a mountain… We named this mountain Mount Royal." On one theory, the name of the Island of Montréal derives from Mont Réal, as the mountain's name was spelled in Middle French.
However, Cartier's 1535 diary entry refers to "le mont Royal". Another argument, mentioned by the Government of Canada on its website concerning Canadian place names, is that the name Montréal was adopted because a Venetian map from 1556 used the Italian name of the mountain, "Monte Real"; the name was first applied to the island and was unofficially applied to the city Ville-Marie, by the 18th century. In 1643, Paul de Chomedey, Sieur de Maisonneuve made a pilgrimage to the top of the mountain, in order to fulfill a vow made in the winter season on occasion of a great flood which swept up to the town palisades. In 1876, land owner and farmer James Swail began planning residential subdivisions on the western slope of Mount Murray, in what is now the Cote-des-Neiges district. In 1906, a large housing development was started in the area, called Northmount Heights, with homes built along what is now Decelles Street by developer Northmount Land Company. Much of this area has since been expropriated by the Université de Montréal.
In 1914–1918, the Mount Royal Tunnel was dug under the mountain by the Canadian Northern Railway, a predecessor of the Canadian National Railway. It is used by the AMT's Deux-Montagnes commuter rail line; the area was considered as a candidate for the site of Expo 67, before the exposition grounds were built on adjoining islands in the Saint Lawrence River. For the 1976 Summer Olympics, the park itself hosted the individual road race cycling event. Mount Royal is 2.5 kilometers north to south. The mountain emerges from the plains occupied by neighboring regions. Two roads cross the territory: The Camillien-Houde Way Côte-des-Neiges Road Mount Royal is home to many animal species. In particular we find: Gray Squirrels Raccoon Fox Marmot Skunk Bee Birds From the point of view of the flora, the mountain shelters a set of natural spaces and semi-natural rich in trees and herbaceous plants The first Mount Royal Cross was placed there in 1643 by Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve, the founder of the city, in fulfillment of a vow he made to the Virgin Mary when praying to her to stop a disastrous flood.
Today, the mountain is crowned by a 31.4-metre-high illuminated cross, installed in 1924 by the Société Saint-Jean-Baptiste and now owned by the city. It was converted to fibre-optic light in 1992, to LEDs in 2009; the cross is lit in white, but can now be changed to any colour, including the purple traditionally used upon the death of a pope. Beside the cross, a plaque marks the placement of a time capsule in 1992, during Montréal's 350th birthday celebration, it contains messages and drawings from 12,000 children, depicting their visions for the city in the year 2142, when the capsule is scheduled to be opened. The mountain is the site of one of Montreal's largest greenspaces; the park was designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and was inaugurated in 1876, although not completed to his design. Olmsted had planned to emphasize the mountainous topography through the use of vegetation. Shade trees at the bottom of the carriage path would resemble a valley; as the visitor went higher, the vegetation would get more sparse to give the illusion of exaggerated height.
However, Montreal suffered a depression in the mid-1870s and many of
AM broadcasting is a radio broadcasting technology, which employs amplitude modulation transmissions. It was the first method developed for making audio radio transmissions, is still used worldwide for medium wave transmissions, but on the longwave and shortwave radio bands; the earliest experimental AM transmissions began in the early 1900s. However, widespread AM broadcasting was not established until the 1920s, following the development of vacuum tube receivers and transmitters. AM radio remained the dominant method of broadcasting for the next 30 years, a period called the "Golden Age of Radio", until television broadcasting became widespread in the 1950s and received most of the programming carried by radio. Subsequently, AM radio's audiences have greatly shrunk due to competition from FM radio, Digital Audio Broadcasting, satellite radio, HD radio and Internet streaming. AM transmissions are much more susceptible than FM or digital signals are to interference, have lower audio fidelity.
Thus, AM broadcasters tend to specialise in spoken-word formats, such as talk radio, all news and sports, leaving the broadcasting of music to FM and digital stations. The idea of broadcasting — the unrestricted transmission of signals to a widespread audience — dates back to the founding period of radio development though the earliest radio transmissions known as "Hertzian radiation" and "wireless telegraphy", used spark-gap transmitters that could only transmit the dots-and-dashes of Morse code. In October 1898 a London publication, The Electrician, noted that "there are rare cases where, as Dr. Lodge once expressed it, it might be advantageous to'shout' the message, spreading it broadcast to receivers in all directions". However, it was recognized that this would involve significant financial issues, as that same year The Electrician commented "did not Prof. Lodge forget that no one wants to pay for shouting to the world on a system by which it would be impossible to prevent non-subscribers from benefiting gratuitously?"On January 1, 1902, Nathan Stubblefield gave a short-range "wireless telephone" demonstration, that included broadcasting speech and music to seven locations throughout Murray, Kentucky.
However, this was transmitted using induction rather than radio signals, although Stubblefield predicted that his system would be perfected so that "it will be possible to communicate with hundreds of homes at the same time", "a single message can be sent from a central station to all parts of the United States", he was unable to overcome the inherent distance limitations of this technology. The earliest public radiotelegraph broadcasts were provided as government services, beginning with daily time signals inaugurated on January 1, 1905, by a number of U. S. Navy stations. In Europe, signals transmitted from a station located on the Eiffel tower were received throughout much of Europe. In both the United States and France this led to a small market of receiver lines designed geared for jewelers who needed accurate time to set their clocks, including the Ondophone in France, the De Forest RS-100 Jewelers Time Receiver in the United States The ability to pick up time signal broadcasts, in addition to Morse code weather reports and news summaries attracted the interest of amateur radio enthusiasts.
It was recognized that, much like the telegraph had preceded the invention of the telephone, the ability to make audio radio transmissions would be a significant technical advance. Despite this knowledge, it still took two decades to perfect the technology needed to make quality audio transmissions. In addition, the telephone had been used for distributing entertainment, outside of a few "telephone newspaper" systems, most of which were established in Europe. With this in mind, most early radiotelephone development envisioned that the device would be more profitably developed as a "wireless telephone" for personal communication, or for providing links where regular telephone lines could not be run, rather than for the uncertain finances of broadcasting; the person credited as the primary early developer of AM technology is Canadian-born inventor Reginald Fessenden. The original spark-gap radio transmitters were impractical for transmitting audio, since they produced discontinuous pulses known as "damped waves".
Fessenden realized that what was needed was a new type of radio transmitter that produced steady "undamped" signals, which could be "modulated" to reflect the sounds being transmitted. Fessenden's basic approach was disclosed in U. S. Patent 706,737, which he applied for on May 29, 1901, was issued the next year, it called for the use of a high-speed alternator that generated "pure sine waves" and produced "a continuous train of radiant waves of uniform strength", or, in modern terminology, a continuous-wave transmitter. Fessenden began his research on audio transmissions while doing developmental work for the United States Weather Service on Cobb Island, Maryland; because he did not yet have a continuous-wave transmitter he worked with an experimental "high-frequency spark" transmitter, taking advantage of the fact that the higher the spark rate, the closer a spark-gap transmission comes to producing continuous waves. He reported that, in the fall of 1900, he transmitted speech over a distance of about 1.6 kilometers, which appears to have been the first successful audio transmission using radio signals.
However, at this time the sound was far too distorted to be commercially practical. For a time he continued working with more sophist
A candelabrum, sometimes called a candle tree, is a candle holder with multiple arms. The word comes from Latin. In modern usage the plural form "candelabra" is used in the singular sense, with the true singular form "candelabrum" becoming rare. "candelabra" and "candelabras" are preferred over "candelabrums" as the plural form. Although the electrification of indoor lighting has relegated candleholders to the status of backup light sources in most homes and other buildings, interior designers continue to model light fixtures and lighting accessories after candelabra and candlesticks. Accordingly, the term "candelabra" has entered common use as a collective term for small-based incandescent light bulbs used in chandeliers and other lighting fixtures made for decoration as well as lighting. In Judaism and the Philippine church Iglesia ni Cristo, the menorah is a special kind of candelabrum. In the United States and Canada, the plural term candelabra is a nickname for radio masts and towers with multiple transmission antennas.
Baltimore's TV stations, WMAR-TV, WBAL-TV, WJZ-TV in 1959 built the world’s first three-antenna candelabra tower, 730 feet tall. Other examples include the Mount Royal Candelabra in Montreal, the KXTV/KOVR/KCRA Tower, KSMO Candelabra Tower, KMBC/KCWE Candelabra Tower, the Madison Community Candelabra Tower in Madison, Sutro Tower in San Francisco. Candlestick Chandelier Girandole Julleuchter Ljuskrona Menorah Charlottenburg Candelabra a pair of ornamental colonnades in west Berlin with a passing resemblance to candelabra Radio masts and towers Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Candelabrum". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
CKMF-FM is a French-language Canadian radio station located in Montreal, Quebec. Owned and operated by Bell Media, it broadcasts with an effective radiated power of 41,400 watts as a Class C1 station, using an omnidirectional antenna from the Mount Royal candelabra tower at 297.4 metres in height above average terrain. Its studios and offices are located at the Bell Media Building at 1717 Rene-Levesque Boulevard East; the station airs a Hot Adult Contemporary radio format and is the flagship station of the Énergie network, which operates across Quebec. It offers personality DJs playing francophone and anglophone hits from the current charts to the 1980s; the station signed on the air on May 11, 1964, as CJMS-FM. It was a sister station to the now-defunct 1280 AM CJMS. Both stations were owned by the Radiomutuel Group. After first simulcasting the AM station, CJMS-FM aired a classical music format. Classical music ended in 1970 and the call sign was changed to CKMF-FM, airing an automated Top 40 format.
The station moved in 1972 from its original facility at the corner of Berri Street and Ontario Street East to the corner of Roy Street East and Hotel de Ville Avenue in the Plateau. In November 1978, the station became Canada's first radio station with a disco music dedicated segment, heard most evenings; because of Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission rules and the fact that CKMF is a French-language station, it was required to play French-language songs. Therefore English songs were spread thinly across the broadcast schedule; the DJ who spun disco music for the first time on Montreal FM Radio was Robert Ostiguy during his Saturday night dance show Style Libre, heard from 1974 to 1976. On, Michel Trahan began to include disco music during his afternoon drive time show. "Le 5 à 8" became CKMF's most popular show between 1978 and 1986. CKMF concentrated its CRTC quota of English and International music between the hours of 5-8PM. "Le 5 à 8" was hosted by Michel Jasmin and Alain Tanguay, by Alain Montpetit and Guy Aubry.
The show featured the best disco DJs in Montreal including François L'Herbier, Alain Bourque, Big Dan Moreau and Michel Cadoch, doing shows like "Live from the Limelight" and other famous clubs in Montreal. Programs like "Le Show A Mario," with Mario Lirette and DJ Michel Cadoch, gave CKMF 94.3 a unique sound for the Disco era. One of the station's biggest on-air personalities of the disco era was the gay Douglas Coco Leopold, whose trademark was his local trendsetting lists of who and what was "in" and "out" of fashion; as was fictionalised in the 2010 Canadian film Funkytown, Montpetit's popularity as an influential DJ and promoter was tarnished by being named as the prime suspect in the 1982 murder of a model in New York City, would prompt Leopold to criticize fellow airstaffer Montpetit on air publicly. In 1987, Montpetit died of a drug overdose in Washington, DC, just months after station management fired him after he showed up drunk and appeared too incoherent to do an air shift; the station relocated for a final time in 1983 to its current building at the corner of René Lévesque Boulevard East and Papineau Avenue.
The Énergie name began to be used as CKMF transitioned from Rhythmic Top 40 in the 1980s and 1990s, to mainstream Top 40, which began in 1994. In January 2000, Astral Media acquired the assets of Radiomutuel including CKMF; when fourth-adjacent 95.1 CBF-FM increased its power to 100,000 watts, CKMF planned its own a power increase to 75,000 watts. But the boost in power never took place; however this plan was notified internationally, which explains why the United States Federal Communications Commission's FM Query webpage erroneous claims that CKMF-FM has a power of 75,000 watts. The Énergie branding was discarded in August 2009 when Astral Media licensed the NRJ branding from a European broadcaster. CKMF's last song as "Énergie" was Pictures Of You by The Last Goodnight, seguing to the station's morning show as the station relaunched as "NRJ." The first song under the "NRJ" moniker was Beggin' by Madcon. In 2010, the station became the French-language radio flagship of the Montreal Alouettes CFL football team.
The contract was supposed to last until 2013. Both parties were satisfied at the end of the 2010 season, but the contract was terminated. With the merger of Astral and Bell Media on July 5, 2013, CKMF, as well as all "NRJ" stations in Quebec, came under Bell Media ownership. By 2011, CKMF began moving away from Top 40/CHR to Adult Top 40 with an emphasis on modern adult contemporary material, which would evolve into a straight-ahead modern rock presentation by late 2014. Due to its high cost, Bell Media didn't renew the "NRJ" branding, on August 24, 2015, all Quebec "NRJ" stations were rebranded back to the "Énergie" moniker, including CKMF. However, CKMF continued the modern rock format, whereas the other "Énergie" stations remained Adult Top 40. In March 2016, CKMF shifted to Hot Adult Contemporary, while retaining the "Énergie" branding, putting it in line with the Énergie stations in other parts of Quebec, its programming is simulcast in all Énergie stations evenings and weekend mornings. Official site CKMF-FM history – Canadian Communications Foundation Query the REC's Canadian station database for CKMF-FM