The Memorial Wall is a memorial at the Central Intelligence Agency headquarters in Langley, Virginia. It honors CIA employees; the Memorial Wall is located in the Original Headquarters Building lobby on the north wall. There are 133 stars carved into the white Alabama marble wall, each one representing an employee who died in the line of service. Paramilitary officers of the CIA's Special Activities Division compose the majority of those memorialized. A black Moroccan goatskin-bound book, called the "Book of Honor", sits in a steel frame beneath the stars, its "slender case jutting out from the wall just below the field of stars", is "framed in stainless steel and topped by an inch-thick plate of glass." Inside it shows the stars, arranged by year of death and, when possible, lists the names of employees who died in CIA service alongside them. The identities of the unnamed stars remain secret in death. In 1997, there were 70 stars. There were 79 stars in 2002, 83 in 2004, 90 in 2009, 107 in 2013, 111 in 2014, 125 in 2017, 129 in 2018, 133 in 2019.
Of the 133 entries in the book, 94 contain names. These 40 are represented only by a gold star followed by a blank space; the Wall bears the inscription "In honor of those members of the Central Intelligence Agency who gave their lives in the service of their country." The Wall is flanked by the flag of the United States on the left and a flag bearing the CIA seal on the right. When new names are added to the Book of Honor, stone carver Tim Johnston of the Carving and Restoration Team in Manassas, Virginia adds a new star to the Wall if that person's star is not present. Johnston learned the process of creating the stars from the original sculptor of the Wall, Harold Vogel, who created the first 31 stars and the Memorial Wall inscription when the Wall was created in July 1974. Although the wall was "first conceived as a small plaque to recognize those from the CIA who died in Southeast Asia, the idea grew to a memorial for Agency employees who died in the line of duty." The process used by Johnston to add a new star is as follows: Johnston creates a star by first tracing the new star on the wall using a template.
Each star measures half an inch deep. Johnston uses both a chisel to carve out the traced pattern. After he finishes carving the star, he cleans the dust and sprays the star black, which as the star ages, fades to gray; the Honor and Merit Awards Board recommends approval of candidates to be listed on the wall to the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. The CIA states that nclusion on the Memorial Wall is awarded posthumously to employees who lose their lives while serving their country in the field of intelligence. Death may occur in the United States. Death must be of an heroic character while in the performance of duty. After approval by the director, the Office of Protocol arranges for a new star to be placed on the Wall; the first suicide to be added to the wall was for employee Ranya Abdelsayed, who committed suicide in 2013 after working for a year in Afghanistan. CIA leadership was criticized by some. Jane Wallis Burrell was the first CIA officer to die in the Agency's service when an Air France DC-3 from Brussels crashed on approach to the Le Bourget Airport near Paris on January 6, 1948, killing all five crew members and 10 of the 11 passengers.
She died only 110 days after the CIA was established the previous September. Burrell was never a candidate for a Star on the CIA's Memorial Wall because the Wall commemorates Agency employees who died in specific circumstances and deaths from commercial aircraft crashes have not qualified. On May 6, 1954, during the Battle of Dien Bien Phu, two CIA pilots, James B. McGovern, Jr. and Wallace Buford, were killed when their C-119 Flying Boxcar cargo plane was shot down while on a resupply mission for the French military. They worked for Civil Air Transport, reorganized as Air America. Neither of them has a star on the Memorial Wall. There were more than 30 pilots and other crew members of the CIA's Air America company who were killed during the Vietnam War that were not counted as part of the Agency though they worked for it; the names of some of them were: Eugene DeBruin, Joseph C. Cheney, Charles Charles Herrick, John Lerdo Oyer.
The Iberian Plate with the microcontinent Iberia encompassed not only the Iberian Peninsula but Corsica, the Balearic Islands, the Briançonnais zone of the Penninic nappes of the Alps. Nowadays, the Iberian plate is a part of the Eurasian plate; the Iberian plate came into existence during the Cadomian Orogeny of the late Neoproterozoic, about 650–550 Ma, on the margin of the Gondwana continent, involving the collisions and accretion of the island arcs of the Central Iberian Plate, Ossa-Morena Plate, South Portuguese Plate. The three plates have never separated from each other since that time. In the Mesozoic, Late Jurassic Africa started moving east, the Alpine Tethys opened. Subsidence related to this caused deep deposits of sediments on the east and some sediment remnants in pop downs in central parts of Spain. Two stages of rifting occurred in the east, one from Later Permian to Triassic, the second from Late Jurassic to early Cretaceous. On the south side deposits of carbonates and clastic sediments formed a shelf in shallow water during late Triassic and Liassic times.
This was rifted in Toarcian times. Active rifting was complete by 160 Ma. After this thermal subsidence occurred till the end of Cretaceous. During this time rifting separated North America from Africa forming a transform zone. In the late Triassic and early Jurassic there were two stages of rifting involving extension and subsidence on the western margin of Iberia, it extended the western margin. The Iberian Abyssal Plain, off the west coast of Portugal and Spain, formed 126 Ma; this separated Newfoundland's Grand Banks, with Flemish Cap being split at 118 Ma. By Early Cretaceous, 110 Ma rifting occurs on west and north west edges. During the time of the supercontinent Pangea, the Iberian plate was joined to Armorica. During the break-up of Pangea, in the early Cretaceous, the Bay of Biscay started opening around 126 Ma and completed by 85 Ma; this created the Biscay Abyssal Plain, parted the Iberian plate from the Trevelyan Escarpment. During this time Iberia rotated anticlockwise relative to Eurasia.
This caused the subduction of the Ligurian Basin onto the eastern side. This formed the Betic nappe stack. After 85 Ma the Atlantic Ocean opening started between Greenland; this left the Bay of Biscay as a failed rift. The rotation of the Iberia and its relation to the formation of the Pyrenees has been difficult to decipher with certainty. Detailed aeromagnetic measurements from the sea floor offshore of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland to show that Iberia moved as part of the African plate from late Cretaceous to mid-Eocene time, with a plate boundary extending westward from the Bay of Biscay; when motion along this boundary ceased, a boundary linking extension in the King's Trough to compression along the Pyrenees came into existence. Since the late Oligocene, the Iberian plate has been moving as part of the Eurasian plate, with the boundary between Eurasia and Africa situated along the Azores–Gibraltar fracture zone. Continued rotation of the Iberian plate in the early Miocene once again separated the Iberian plate from Eurasia opening the Betic Corridor a strait of water connecting the Mediterranean Sea with the Atlantic Ocean.
As the Iberian plate rotated, it closed the Betic Corridor 5.96 million years ago during the Messinian period of the Miocene, precipitating the Messinian Salinity Crisis, a period when the Mediterranean Sea evaporated or completely. The core of the Iberian Peninsula consists of a Hercynian cratonic block known as the Iberian Massif. On the northeast this is bounded by The Pyrenean fold belt, on the southeast it is bounded by the Betic Foldchain; these twofold chains are part of the Alpine belt. To the west, the peninsula is delimited by the continental boundary formed by the magma poor opening of the Atlantic Ocean; the Hercynian Foldbelt is buried by Mesozoic and Tertiary cover rocks to the east, but outcrops through the Iberian Chain and the Catalan Coastal Ranges. List of tectonic plates – A list of the moving sections of the lithosphere of the Earth
Felipe Muñoz Kapamas is a retired breaststroke swimmer from Mexico. He competed at the 1968 and 1972 Summer Olympics and won a gold medal in the 200 m event in 1968. Since 2008, he is the President of the Mexican Olympic Committee. Since 2012 he serves as Deputy of the LXII Legislature of the Mexican Congress. Muñoz is of Greek descent on his mother's side, his nickname is "el tibio", which means "lukewarm" in Spanish, a nickname which has multiple possible explanations. According to some sources, it was coined because he had the habit of refusing to swim in an unheated pool. However, other sources, including the International Swimming Hall of Fame, have stated that it was because his mother was from the town of Río Frío and his father was from the town of Aguascalientes. List of members of the International Swimming Hall of Fame