The Boeing CIM-10 Bomarc was a supersonic ramjet powered long-range surface-to-air missile used during the Cold War for the air defense of North America. In addition to being the first operational long-range SAM and the first operational pulse doppler aviation radar, it was the only SAM deployed by the United States Air Force. Stored horizontally in a launcher shelter with movable roof, the missile was erected, fired vertically using rocket boosters to high altitude, tipped over into a horizontal Mach 2.5 cruise powered by ramjet engines. This lofted trajectory allowed the missile to operate at a maximum range as great as 430 mi. Controlled from the ground for most of its flight, when it reached the target area it was commanded to begin a dive, activating an onboard active radar homing seeker for terminal guidance. A radar proximity fuse detonated the warhead, either a large conventional explosive or the W40 nuclear warhead; the Air Force planned for a total of 52 sites covering most of the major cities and industrial regions in the US.
The US Army was deploying their own systems at the same time, the two services fought both in political circles and in the press. Development dragged on, by the time it was ready for deployment in the late 1950s, the nuclear threat had moved from manned bombers to the intercontinental ballistic missile. By this time the Army had deployed the much shorter range Nike Hercules that they claimed filled any possible need through the 1960s, in spite of Air Force claims to the contrary; as testing continued, the Air Force reduced its plans to sixteen sites, again to eight with an additional two sites in Canada. The first US site was declared operational in 1959, but with only a single working missile. Bringing the rest of the missiles into service took years, by which time the system was obsolete. Deactivations began in 1969 and by 1972 all Bomarc sites had been shut down. A small number were used as target drones, only a few remain on display today. In 1946, Boeing started to study surface-to-air guided missiles under the United States Army Air Forces project MX-606.
By 1950, Boeing had launched more than 100 test rockets in various configurations, all under the designator XSAM-A-1 GAPA. Because these tests were promising, Boeing received a USAF contract in 1949 to develop a pilotless interceptor under project MX-1599; the MX-1599 missile was to be a ramjet-powered, nuclear-armed long-range surface-to-air missile to defend the Continental United States from high-flying bombers. The Michigan Aerospace Research Center was added to the project soon afterward, this gave the new missile its name Bomarc. In 1951, the USAF decided to emphasize its point of view that missiles were nothing else than pilotless aircraft by assigning aircraft designators to its missile projects, anti-aircraft missiles received F-for-Fighter designations; the Bomarc became the F-99. Test flights of XF-99 test vehicles began in September 1952 and continued through early 1955; the XF-99 tested only the liquid-fueled booster rocket, which would accelerate the missile to ramjet ignition speed.
In February 1955, tests of the XF-99A propulsion test. These still had no guidance system or warhead; the designation YF-99A had been reserved for the operational test vehicles. In August 1955, the USAF discontinued the use of aircraft-like type designators for missiles, the XF-99A and YF-99A became XIM-99A and YIM-99A, respectively; the USAF had allocated the designation IM-69, but this was changed to IM-99 in October 1955. In October 1957, the first YIM-99A production-representative prototype flew with full guidance, succeeded to pass the target within destructive range. In late 1957, Boeing received the production contract for the IM-99A Bomarc A interceptor missile, in September 1959, the first IM-99A squadron became operational; the IM-99A had an operational radius of 200 miles and was designed to fly at Mach 2.5–2.8 at a cruising altitude of 60,000 feet. It weighed 15,500 pounds, its armament was either a W40 nuclear warhead. A liquid-fuel rocket engine boosted the Bomarc to Mach 2, when its Marquardt RJ43-MA-3 ramjet engines, fueled by 80-octane gasoline, would take over for the remainder of the flight.
This was the same model of engine used to power the Lockheed X-7, the Lockheed AQM-60 Kingfisher drone used to test air defenses, the Lockheed D-21 launched from the back of an M-21, although the Bomarc and Kingfisher engines used different materials due to the longer duration of their flights. The operational IM-99A missiles were based horizontally in semi-hardened shelters, nicknamed "coffins". After the launch order, the shelter's roof would slide open, the missile raised to the vertical. After the missile was supplied with fuel for the booster rocket, it would be launched by the Aerojet General LR59-AJ-13 booster. After sufficient speed was reached, the Marquardt RJ43-MA-3 ramjets would ignite and propel the missile to its cruise speed of Mach 2.8 at an altitude of 66,000 ft. When the Bomarc was within 10 mi of the target, its own Westinghouse AN/DPN-34 radar guided the missile to the interception point; the maximum range of the IM-99A was 250 mi, it was fitted with either a conventional high-explosive or a 10 kiloton W-40 nuclear fission warhead.
Love Returns is a 2004 Italian comedy-drama film directed by Sergio Rubini. For her performance Giovanna Mezzogiorno won the Nastro d'Argento for best supporting actress. Fabrizio Bentivoglio: Luca Florio Margherita Buy: Silvia Sergio Rubini: Giacomo Giovanna Mezzogiorno: Lena Eros Pagni: Professor Mangiacane Antonio Prisco: Picchio Antonello Fassari: Sergio Simona Marchini: Flora Umberto Orsini: Dr. Ambrosini Michele Placido: Dr. Bianco Mariangela Melato: Federica Strozzi List of Italian films of 2004 Love Returns on IMDb
Pound–Hitchins House known as “Mount Providence” and Ruhlmann House, is a historic home located at Lockport, Niagara County, New York. It was built about 1833, is a two-story, five bay, Greek Revival style dwelling with a large two-story wing, it has a side gable roof, end chimneys, is constructed of large-block ashlar Gasport limestone. It features an elaborate central entry with an original six panel wood door recessed behind two engaged Ionic order columns in antis with sidelights and panels, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2015