CP/M standing for Control Program/Monitor and Control Program for Microcomputers, is a mass-market operating system created in 1974 for Intel 8080/85-based microcomputers by Gary Kildall of Digital Research, Inc. Confined to single-tasking on 8-bit processors and no more than 64 kilobytes of memory versions of CP/M added multi-user variations and were migrated to 16-bit processors; the combination of CP/M and S-100 bus computers was loosely patterned on the MITS Altair, an early standard in the microcomputer industry. This computer platform was used in business through the late 1970s and into the mid-1980s. CP/M increased the market size for both hardware and software by reducing the amount of programming required to install an application on a new manufacturer's computer. An important driver of software innovation was the advent of low-cost microcomputers running CP/M, as independent programmers and hackers bought them and shared their creations in user groups. CP/M was displaced by DOS soon after the 1981 introduction of the IBM PC.

A minimal 8-bit CP/M system would contain the following components: A computer terminal using the ASCII character set An Intel 8080 or Zilog Z80 microprocessor The NEC V20 and V30 processors support an 8080-emulation mode that can run 8-bit CP/M on a PC DOS/MS-DOS computer so equipped, though any PC can run the 16-bit CP/M-86. At least 16 kilobytes of RAM, beginning at address 0 A means to bootstrap the first sector of the diskette At least one floppy disk driveThe only hardware system that CP/M, as sold by Digital Research, would support was the Intel 8080 Development System. Manufacturers of CP/M-compatible systems customized portions of the operating system for their own combination of installed memory, disk drives, console devices. CP/M would run on systems based on the Zilog Z80 processor since the Z80 was compatible with 8080 code. While the Digital Research distributed core of CP/M did not use any of the Z80-specific instructions, many Z80-based systems used Z80 code in the system-specific BIOS, many applications were dedicated to Z80-based CP/M machines.

On most machines the bootstrap was a minimal bootloader in ROM combined with some means of minimal bank switching or a means of injecting code on the bus. CP/M used the 7-bit ASCII set; the other 128 characters made possible by the 8-bit byte were not standardized. For example, one Kaypro used them for Greek characters, Osborne machines used the 8th bit set to indicate an underlined character. WordStar used the 8th bit as an end-of-word marker. International CP/M systems most used the ISO 646 norm for localized character sets, replacing certain ASCII characters with localized characters rather than adding them beyond the 7-bit boundary. In the 8-bit versions, while running, the CP/M operating system loaded into memory had three components: Basic Input/Output System, Basic Disk Operating System, Console Command Processor; the BIOS and BDOS were memory-resident, while the CCP was memory-resident unless overwritten by an application, in which case it was automatically reloaded after the application finished running.

A number of transient commands for standard utilities were provided. The transient commands resided in files with the extension. COM on disk; the BIOS directly controlled hardware components other than main memory. It contained functions such as character input and output and the reading and writing of disk sectors; the BDOS implemented the CP/M file system and some input/output abstractions on top of the BIOS. The CCP took user commands and either executed them directly or loaded and started an executable file of the given name. Third-party applications for CP/M were essentially transient commands; the BDOS, CCP and standard transient commands were the same in all installations of a particular revision of CP/M, but the BIOS portion was always adapted to the particular hardware. Adding memory to a computer, for example, meant that the CP/M system had to be reinstalled with an updated BIOS capable of addressing the additional memory. A utility was provided to patch the supplied BIOS, BDOS and CCP to allow them to be run from higher memory.

Once installed, the operating system was stored in reserved areas at the beginning of any disk which would be used to boot the system. On start-up, the bootloader would load the operating system from the disk in drive A:. By modern standards CP/M was primitive. With version 1.0 there was no provision for detecting a changed disk. If a user changed disks without manually rereading the disk directory the system would write on the new disk using the old disk's directory information, ruining the data stored on the disk. From version 1.1 or 1.2 onwards, changing a disk trying to write to it before its directory was read would cause a fatal error to be signalled. This avoided overwriting the disk but required a reboot and loss of the data, to be stored on disk; the majority of the complexity in CP/M was isolated in the BDOS, to a lesser extent, the CCP and transient commands. This meant that by porting the limited number of simple routines in the BIOS to a particular hardware platform, the entire OS would work.

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Ieuan Evans

Ieuan Cennydd Evans is a former rugby union player who played on the wing for Wales and the British and Irish Lions. He is the fourth highest try scorer for Wales behind Shane Williams and Gareth Thomas and joint 24th in the world on the all-time test try scoring list. Evans held the record for the most Wales caps as captain with 28, a record overtaken by Ryan Jones in 2012. Evans was born in Pontarddulais and started playing rugby at the age of 10 as a pupil at Queen Elizabeth Grammar School, Carmarthen before captaining the team at the newly renamed Queen Elizabeth Maridunum School; when he was 17, Evans started playing for Carmarthen Quins RFC youth side before joining Llanelli two years initially as a student at Salford University. He went on to win five of seven cup finals for the club. In 1997 he left Llanelli for Bath where he was part of the team which won the Heineken Cup in 1998. At the twilight of his career, Evans played twice for the Hong Kong Football Club in 2015 and 2016, in their annual Bali Memorial game in his preferred position of fly-half, against the Pot Bellied Pigs.

In the 2016 game, Evans scored a breakaway try under the posts, which he said was the finest of his career. While at Llanelli, Evans gained a call-up to the Welsh National Side and made his first international appearance as a right-wing for Wales against France in Paris in 1987, he went on to win 72 caps for Wales, 28 of which as a captain, scored 33 tries – at that time a record for Wales – and was dubbed "Merlin" by TV commentator Bill McLaren. In March 1994, he captained Wales. Evans went on three tours with the British and Irish Lions, to Australia in 1989, New Zealand in 1993 and South Africa in 1997. Among his most memorable moments were scoring the decisive series-winning try in the 3rd Lions Test against Australia in 1989 and his four tries during the 1993 tour to New Zealand, which made him the Lions' top try scorer, he made his final international appearance against Italy in 1998. Evans was awarded the MBE for services to rugby in 1996, announced his retirement from the game in 1998 to run his own PR marketing company.

In 2007 he was inducted into the International Rugby Hall of Fame. In 2014 he was introduced to the IRB Hall of Fame, he has 3 children. After retiring from professional rugby, Evans has been a regular broadcaster and rugby pundit, he has worked for the BBC, ITV and for Sky Sports for over a decade. He has held a non-executive and ambassadorial positions for a number of companies and has been a board member of the Welsh Tourist Board, VisitBritain, 2010 Ryder Cup and Nominet Wales Advisory Group. Evans is involved in a number of charities. Since 2008 he has organised sporting events for Help for Heroes, he has been involved in supporting the Velindre Cancer Centre. In 2010, he took part in the'Captains Climb' which saw 15 past captains of the Welsh Rugby team climb Mount Kilimanjaro, raising thousands of pounds toward the work of the charity. Profile, at Ieuan Evans at ESPNscrum "Ieuan Evans profile". BBC. Retrieved 3 November 2007. "General Biography on personal site".

29 March 2007. Archived from the original on 18 August 2011. Retrieved 3 November 2007

Swedish Dialect Alphabet

The Swedish Dialect Alphabet is a phonetic alphabet created in 1878 by Johan August Lundell and used for the narrow transcription of Swedish dialects. The initial version of the alphabet consisted of 89 letters, 42 of which came from the phonetic alphabet proposed by Carl Jakob Sundevall, it has since grown to over 200 letters. The alphabet supplemented Latin letters with symbols adapted from a range of alphabets, including modified forms of þ and ð from Germanic alphabets, γ and φ from the Greek alphabet and ы from the Cyrillic alphabet, extended with systematic decorations. There are a number of diacritics representing prosodic features; the alphabet has been used extensively for the description of Swedish dialects in both Sweden and Finland. It was the source of many of the symbols used by the Swedish sinologist Bernhard Karlgren in his reconstruction of Middle Chinese. Three of the additional letters were included in version 5.1.0 of Unicode for use in a dictionary of Swedish dialects spoken in Finland.

A proposal to encode a further 106 characters was made in 2008. As of 2019, this proposal is implemented, with some proposed allocations in use by other characters. International Phonetic Alphabet Manne Eriksson, Svensk ljudskrift 1878–1960: En översikt över det svenska landsmålsalfabetets utveckling och användning huvudsakligen i tidskriften Svenska Landsmål Landsmålsalfabetet pronunciation symbols "Landsmålsalfabetet", Nordisk familjebok, volume 15 1044, 1045–6, 1047–8