C (programming language)

C is a general-purpose, procedural computer programming language supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope, recursion, while a static type system prevents unintended operations. By design, C provides constructs that map efficiently to typical machine instructions and has found lasting use in applications coded in assembly language; such applications include operating systems and various application software for computers, from supercomputers to embedded systems. C was developed at Bell Labs by Dennis Ritchie between 1972 and 1973 to make utilities running on Unix, it was applied to re-implementing the kernel of the Unix operating system. During the 1980s, C gained popularity, it has become one of the most used programming languages, with C compilers from various vendors available for the majority of existing computer architectures and operating systems. C has been standardized by the ANSI since 1989 and by the International Organization for Standardization. C is an imperative procedural language.

It was designed to be compiled using a straightforward compiler to provide low-level access to memory and language constructs that map efficiently to machine instructions, all with minimal runtime support. Despite its low-level capabilities, the language was designed to encourage cross-platform programming. A standards-compliant C program written with portability in mind can be compiled for a wide variety of computer platforms and operating systems with few changes to its source code; the language is available on various platforms, from embedded microcontrollers to supercomputers. Like most procedural languages in the ALGOL tradition, C has facilities for structured programming and allows lexical variable scope and recursion, its static type system prevents unintended operations. In C, all executable code is contained within subroutines. Function parameters are always passed by value. Pass-by-reference is simulated in C by explicitly passing pointer values. C program source text is free-format, using the semicolon as a statement terminator and curly braces for grouping blocks of statements.

The C language exhibits the following characteristics: The language has a small, fixed number of keywords, including a full set of control flow primitives: if/else, for, do/while and switch. User-defined names are not distinguished from keywords by any kind of sigil, it has a large number of arithmetic and logic operators: +, +=, ++, &, ||, etc. More than one assignment may be performed in a single statement. Functions: Function return values can be ignored, when not needed. Function and data pointers permit ad hoc run-time polymorphism. Functions may not be defined within the lexical scope of other functions. Data typing is weakly enforced. Declaration syntax mimics usage context. C has no "define" keyword. There is no "function" keyword. User-defined and compound types are possible. Heterogeneous aggregate data types allow related data elements to be accessed and assigned as a unit. Union is a structure with overlapping members. Array indexing is a secondary notation, defined in terms of pointer arithmetic.

Unlike structs, arrays are not first-class objects: they cannot be assigned or compared using single built-in operators. There is no "array" keyword in definition. Enumerated types are possible with the enum keyword, they are interconvertible with integers. Strings are not a distinct data type, but are conventionally implemented as null-terminated character arrays. Low-level access to computer memory is possible by converting machine addresses to typed pointers. Procedures are a special case of function, with an untyped return type void. A preprocessor performs macro definition, source code file inclusion, conditional compilation. There is a basic form of modularity: files can be compiled separately and linked together, with control over which functions and data objects are visible to other files via static and extern attributes. Complex functionality such as I/O, string manipulation, mathematical functions are delegated to library routines. While C does not include certain features found in other languages, these can be implemented or emulated through the use of external libraries.

Many languages have borrowed directly or indirectly from C, including C++, C#, Unix's C shell, D, Go, JavaScript, Limbo, LPC, Objective-C, Perl, PHP, Rust, Swift and SystemVerilog. These languages have drawn many of their control structures and other basic features from C. Most of them express similar syntax to C, they tend to combine the recognizable expression and statement syntax of C with underlying type systems, data models, semantics that can be radically different; the origin of C is tied to the development of the Unix operating system implemented in assembly language on a PDP-7 by Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson, incorporating several ideas from colleagues. They decided to port the operating system to a PDP-11; the original PDP-11 version of Unix was developed in assemb

Vernon District Schoolhouse No. 4

The Vernon District Schoolhouse No. 4 is a historic school building at 4201 Fort Bridgman Road in Vernon, Vermont. Built 1848, it is a well-preserved mid-19th century brick district school, which now serves as a local historical museum, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2005. The Vernon District Schoolhouse No. 4 is located in rural southern Vernon, on the east side of Fort Bridgman Road, just south of its junction with Pond Road. It is set on a lot overlooking the Connecticut River, it is a single story brick structure, with a gabled brick foundation. The street-facing facade is three bays wide, each occupied by a sash window; the south facade has a bank of six sash windows. A wood frame addition extends to the rear, with the main entrance in its southern facade, sheltered by a shed-roofed hood. Decorative detailing includes a band of corbeled brickwork in the cornices; the main brick block of the school was built in 1848. One portion of the wood frame addition was added in 1924, at which time the school's interior was also remodeled, to bring the building in line with new state standards.

The addition was enlarged in 1941, adding inside chemical toilets to the building, again in response to new state requirements for indoor bathroom facilities. The school remained in use until 1954, when the town consolidated its districts into a single elementary school; the school sat vacant until 1972, when it was adapted for use as a local history museum by Vernon Historians, the local historical society. It is one of three surviving district school buildings in the town. National Register of Historic Places listings in Windham County, Vermont


Aalbeke is a village in the Belgian province of West Flanders and since 1977 a district of Kortrijk. Aalbeke covers an area of 717 ha; the district had 2,953 inhabitants on December 31, 2007. Aalbeke is located 6 km southwest of Kortrijk and is surrounded by Rollegem, Mouscron and Marke. Near the village of Aalbeke the interchange of the E17 and E403. Jacob van de Kerckhove Willem de Schynckele Joost Cannaert Cornelius van den Bulcke Noël de Praetere Jan Lesaege Pieter Cannaert Jan van den Bulcke Jan-Baptist de Kimpe Pieter Cannaert Antoon-Frans Lienaert Jan de Kimpe Pieter Lerouge Jan-Baptist Cannaert Jan-Jacob Cottignies Joseph-Bernard Berton Honoré Dufaux Pieter-Jan Margo Victor Pycke Jean-Louis Mullier Henri Bonte Henri Castel Edward Torreele Alphons Ovaere René Bonte Georges Gheysen René Vanhoenackere Georges Neirynck