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Programming language

A programming language is a formal language, which comprises a set of instructions that produce various kinds of output. Programming languages are used in computer programming to implement algorithms. Most programming languages consist of instructions for computers. There are programmable machines that use a set of specific instructions, rather than general programming languages. Early ones preceded the invention of the digital computer, the first being the automatic flute player described in the 9th century by the brothers Musa in Baghdad, during the Islamic Golden Age. Since the early 1800s, programs have been used to direct the behavior of machines such as Jacquard looms, music boxes and player pianos; the programs for these machines did not produce different behavior in response to different inputs or conditions. Thousands of different programming languages have been created, more are being created every year. Many programming languages are written in an imperative form while other languages use the declarative form.

The description of a programming language is split into the two components of syntax and semantics. Some languages are defined by a specification document while other languages have a dominant implementation, treated as a reference; some languages have both, with the basic language defined by a standard and extensions taken from the dominant implementation being common. A programming language is a notation for writing programs, which are specifications of a computation or algorithm; some authors restrict the term "programming language" to those languages that can express all possible algorithms. Traits considered important for what constitutes a programming language include: Function and target A computer programming language is a language used to write computer programs, which involves a computer performing some kind of computation or algorithm and control external devices such as printers, disk drives, so on. For example, PostScript programs are created by another program to control a computer printer or display.

More a programming language may describe computation on some abstract, machine. It is accepted that a complete specification for a programming language includes a description idealized, of a machine or processor for that language. In most practical contexts, a programming language involves a computer. Programming languages differ from natural languages in that natural languages are only used for interaction between people, while programming languages allow humans to communicate instructions to machines. Abstractions Programming languages contain abstractions for defining and manipulating data structures or controlling the flow of execution; the practical necessity that a programming language support adequate abstractions is expressed by the abstraction principle. This principle is sometimes formulated as a recommendation to the programmer to make proper use of such abstractions. Expressive power The theory of computation classifies languages by the computations they are capable of expressing.

All Turing complete languages can implement the same set of algorithms. ANSI/ISO SQL-92 and Charity are examples of languages that are not Turing complete, yet called programming languages. Markup languages like XML, HTML, or troff, which define structured data, are not considered programming languages. Programming languages may, share the syntax with markup languages if a computational semantics is defined. XSLT, for example, is a Turing complete language using XML syntax. Moreover, LaTeX, used for structuring documents contains a Turing complete subset; the term computer language is sometimes used interchangeably with programming language. However, the usage of both terms varies among authors, including the exact scope of each. One usage describes programming languages as a subset of computer languages. Languages used in computing that have a different goal than expressing computer programs are generically designated computer languages. For instance, markup languages are sometimes referred to as computer languages to emphasize that they are not meant to be used for programming.

Another usage regards programming languages as theoretical constructs for programming abstract machines, computer languages as the subset thereof that runs on physical computers, which have finite hardware resources. John C. Reynolds emphasizes that formal specification languages are just as much programming languages as are the languages intended for execution, he argues that textual and graphical input formats that affect the behavior of a computer are programming languages, despite the fact they are not Turing-complete, remarks that ignorance of programming language concepts is the reason for many flaws in input formats. Early computers, such as Colossus, were programmed without the help of a stored program, by modifying their circuitry or setting banks of physical controls. Programs could be written in machine language, where the programmer writes each instruction in a numeric form the hardware can execute directly. For example, the instruction to add the value in two memory location might consist of 3 numbers: an "opcode" that selects the "add" operation, two memory locations.

The programs, in decimal or binary form, were read in from punched cards, paper tape, magnetic tape or toggled in on switches on the front panel of the computer. Mac

Robert William Chapman (engineer)

Sir Robert William Chapman MIEAust was an Australian mathematician and engineer. Chapman was born in Stony Stratford in Buckinghamshire, eldest son of Charles Chapman, a currier from Melbourne and his wife Matilda, née Harrison, his parents returned to Melbourne in 1876, where he was educated at Wesley College and the University of Melbourne, graduating MA and BCE with first class honours in Physics and Mathematics. In 1888, at the recommendation of Professor William Bragg, he was appointed a Lecturer in Mathematics and Physics at Adelaide University, he was appointed Professor of Engineering in 1907 and served as Elder Professor of Mathematics and Mechanics from 1910 when Professor Bragg was appointed to the Cavendish chair of physics in the University of Leeds returned to his previous post in 1919. He served as Vice-Chancellor during the absence of Sir William Mitchell and retiring in 1937, he was appointed president of the School of Mines council in 1939 on the death of Sir Langdon Bonython.

His research work included: Breakage of locomotive and other railway axles Established a laboratory where local stone and timber could be tested Distribution of stress in steel reinforcing rods in concrete Effects of building a dam on the Mundoo Channel, Lake Alexandrina Use of brown coal from Leigh Creek, including briquettes He was elected to the Royal Society of South Australia in 1888 and to the Australian Association for the Advancement of Science. He was a founding member of the South Australian Institute of Engineers and a foundation member of the Institution of Engineers Australia in 1921, in 1918 the first chairman of its South Australian division and the third Federal President, he was awarded their Peter Nicol Russell Memorial Medal in 1928 and made honorary life member in 1932. He was awarded Melbourne University's Kernot Medal in 1927, he was president of the Astronomical Society of South Australia for a record 32 years and elected a Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1902?

1909?. He was a member of the council of the Australasian Institute of Mining Engineers and in 1920 elected president of the Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, he was a member of the South Australian Institute of Surveyors from 1912 and president 1917–1929He was a member of the councils of both the University of Adelaide and the School of Mines. On his retirement from the University of Adelaide in 1937 he was made Emeritus Professor, he was appointed CMG in 1927 and knighted in 1938. On 14 February 1889 he married Eva Maud Hall, he was chief engineer with the South Australian Railways second son C. G. Chapman, who as a lieutenant with the Royal Engineers was killed in Mesopotamia during World War I. Eva Florence Chapman married Essington Day on 19 March 1919, lived at Burnside Lilian Eleanor Chapman married Edgar Bills of Orroroo on 4 October 1922, lived at Peterborough W. H. Chapman of Bulolo, New Guinea fourth son James Douglas Chapman married Gwendolen Ruth Johnston on 7 January 1929.

He was an engineer with the Adelaide City Council E. S. Chapman, dentist in Clare youngest son Leslie Drake Chapman engaged to Ellen Rose McBeath, he was engineer associated with the Goolwa barrage

Dodge Monaco

The Dodge Monaco is an automobile, marketed by the Dodge division of Chrysler Corporation. Introduced as the flagship of the Dodge product line, the Monaco was introduced for 1965 to replace the Custom 880 superseding the Polara model line. During its production, the Monaco was offered in multiple body configurations, including two-door and four-door hardtop sedans, four-door sedans, two-door convertibles, station wagons. From 1965 to 1977, three generations of the Monaco were produced with the full-size Chrysler C platform. For 1977 and 1978, Dodge shifted the Monaco to the intermediate Chrysler B platform downsizing the model line. For 1979, the model line was renamed the Dodge St. Regis. After a 12-year hiatus, the full-size Monaco was revived for 1990 as the flagship Dodge sedan, replacing the Diplomat. A rebadged version of the AMC-developed Eagle Premier, the Monaco was replaced by the Dodge Intrepid for 1993. On introduction on September 25, 1964, for the 1965 model year, the Dodge Monaco was intended to compete with the Pontiac Grand Prix in what came to be known as the personal luxury market, but ended up filling in for Dodge in the full-size, luxury line instead.

The 1965 Monaco was based on the Custom 880 two-door hardtop body. The Monaco received special badging, different taillight and grille treatment, a sportier interior with a full-length center console, as well as a 383 cu in 325 hp V8 engine as standard equipment. Larger, more powerful engines were available as options; the Monaco competed with the Ford LTD, a top-of-the-line model in the Galaxie 500 series, the Caprice package for the Impala Sport Sedan, as well as the 1966 Plymouth VIP model for its Fury series and the Ambassador DPL offered by American Motors. These models provided competition for mid-priced sedans like Chrysler, Oldsmobile and Mercury. In Canada, a version of the Plymouth Sport Fury was marketed as the Dodge Monaco, it was available in hardtop coupe or convertible body styles. The Canadian Monacos were equipped with Plymouth dashboards in 1965 and 1966. Unlike the U. S. Monaco versions, the Canadian Monaco were available with a 318 cu in V8 or the slant six. For 1966, in the U.

S. the Monaco replaced the Custom 880 series and the former Monaco became the Monaco 500. The basic Monaco was available in hardtop coupe, four-door hardtop sedan, conventional four-door sedan, four-door station wagon bodystyles. In the U. S. the Monaco 500 was available only as a hardtop coupe. Although there was no convertible in the 1966 U. S. Monaco range, there was in the 1966 Canadian Monaco lineup; the Canadian Dodge hung onto the "Monaco" name for the Sport Fury equivalent and Polara 880 for the Fury III competitor. For 1967, all full-sized Dodges, the Monaco included, received a significant facelift with all-new exterior sheet metal. Chief designer Elwood Engel's work featured flat body planes with sharp-edged accent lines; the hardtop coupes got a new semi-fastback roofline with a reverse-slanted trailing edge on the rear quarter window. In Canada, the Monaco name was applied for 1967 to all of the premium full-sized Dodge cars, replacing the Polara 880 at the top of the Dodge line. Taking the Monaco's place as a premium full-size model was the Monaco 500, available only as a two-door hardtop and convertible.

Changes were minimal for 1968. The Monaco 500 was dropped at the end of the 1968 model year in the United States and at the end of the 1970 model year in Canada. For the 1969 model year, the wheelbase of the Monaco was increased from 121 inches to 122 inches, the length was increased to about 220 inches. Returning for 1969 was the "500" option, which in the U. S. market gave the Monaco front a center armrest. In Canada, the Monaco 500 was a separate series that used the side trim of the Polara 500 sold in the U. S. Canadians could buy a Monaco convertible. S. Dodge full-size convertible shoppers had Polara 500 to choose from. All full-sized Dodge cars including the Monaco adopted Chrysler Corporation's new "fuselage" styling, in which the upper and lower body are melded into a uniformly curved unit. Curved side glass adds to the effect; the look starts in the front of the car, with a nearly straight-across bumper—demanded by a Chrysler executive after a Congressional committee attacked him over the seeming inability of car bumpers to protect cars from extensive damage in low-speed collisions—and a five-segment eggcrate grille that surrounds the headlamps.

When the cars failed to spark buyers' interest, Dodge executives demanded a change. By the summer of 1969, the division released new chrome trim for the front fender caps and leading edge of the hood as an option, which gives the appearance of a then-fashionable loop bumper without the tooling expense. At the rear, Dodge's signature delta-shaped taillamps were presented in a new form that required the top of the bumper to slope downward toward each end; the standard-equipment engine on the 1969 Monaco is Chrysler's 245-horsepower B-block 383 cu in V8 engine with a two-barrel 2245 Holley carburetor. Buyers could order the 383 with a four-barrel carburetor that increased power to 330 hp, or they could opt for the 375-horsepower 440 cu in Magnum RB-block engine. Wagon buyers choosing the 440 got a 350 horsepower version; the 1969 Monaco offered, as the first modern polyellipsoidal automotive road lamp. Called "Super-Lite" and mounted in the driver's side of the grille, this auxiliary headlamp was produced in a joint venture between Chrysler Corporation and Sylvania.

It uses an 85 watt halogen bulb and was intended as a mid-beam, to extend the re

St John's Cathedral, Parramatta

St John's Cathedral is a heritage-listed, Anglican cathedral in Parramatta, City of Parramatta, New South Wales, Australia. St John's was given the status of provisional cathedral of the Anglican Diocese of Sydney in 1969, designated a Regional Cathedral in 2011 for the Western Region, it was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 5 March 2010. The current rector is Reverend Canon Bruce Morrison. St John's Cathedral is located near Parramatta railway station and is the oldest church site in Australia in continuous use. In October 1788, soon after the first load of convicts arrived at Sydney Cove, Governor Arthur Phillip took a trip up to find the head of the Sydney Harbour. Finding inhabitable land there he formed a settlement at Rose Hill and mapped out the bare bones of a town that extended from the foot of Rose Hill for one mile eastward along the creek; this place he named Parramatta as this was his interpretation of the name given by the first peoples to the spot on which the town is situated.

The Chaplain of the First Fleet, Reverend Richard Johnson, conducted the first Christian worship in Parramatta on 28 December 1788. Johnson visited Parramatta fortnightly and held services under a tree on the river bank near the present day ferry terminal at the end of Smith Street; the service on Christmas Day 1791 was held in a carpenter's shop near Governor Phillip's residence in Parramatta. By there were one thousand people living in the district and being ministered by Reverend Johnson. In a letter to Governor Phillip dated 23 March 1792, Johnson states: "Last spring there was the foundation of a church laid a Parramatta. Before it was finished it was converted into a gaol or lock up house, now it is converted into a granary. … I go up to Parramatta, as usual, once a fortnight the distance by water about fourteen miles."On 10 March 1794, the Reverend Samuel Marsden, appointed Assistant Chaplain, arrived in Parramatta and relieved Johnson of the care of these Western settlements. In 1796 Marsden dedicated a makeshift building of two old timber huts at the corner of George and Marsden Streets as the first church building in the settlement.

In a letter dated 17 September 1796 at Parramatta, Marsden wrote, "A convict hut is now ready for me to preach in at Parramatta, the first building of any kind, appropriated for that sacred use here since I came to the Colony."On 14 September 1798, Marsden wrote about his first service in this church, attended by twelve worshippers. This reference has caused confusion to historians due to an editor's note which states that this temporary church was "Built where St John's now stands."In his book In Old Australia: Records and Reminiscences from 1794, Reverend James Samuel Hassall twice mentions the old timber church: "There had been a church, built of timber, at the corner of George and Macquarie Streets, but it was gone in my time, a Court-house built upon the site..." and "At Parramatta, the services were held in a carpenter's shop or in the open air, until, on the first Friday in August, 1796, Mr. Marsden opened a church built out of the materials of two old huts; this temporary place of worship stood at the corner of George and Marsden streets."The Rev. James Samuel Hassall was born in Parramatta in 1823 and lived there during his childhood, being educated at The King’s School.

He was a grandson of Rev. Samuel Marsden. Both James Hassall’s father and grandfather were in Parramatta during its earliest days and undoubtedly James would have heard about these early times from them both. Hassall’s first reference to the old church is a little confused; the streets aren’t named with George and Macquarie Streets being parallel rather than intersecting. The second quotation places the building at the corner of George and Marsden Streets; however Hassall’s mention of a court house being on the site is not correct. From 1796 to 1895 the Woolpack Hotel and it predecessors stood on the north-east block at the corner of George and Marsden Streets so it is not possible that Marsden’s timber church was on this site – it was occupied by the hotel; this was the land, not the church site, sold to the Crown in 1895 and a Court House built. The timber church was located across George Street on the south-east corner of the intersection, in fact where the hotel that bears the name Woolpack stands today.

A convict hut was on this block in 1792 and part of this block was leased to the Rev. Samuel Marsden, it was on this site, in this crude converted hut, that services were conducted Sunday by Sunday at Parramatta from September 1796 until Easter Day 1803 when the first St. John’s Church was opened about 350 metres away at, what was the southern end of Church Street. Governor John Hunter was concerned that there were no proper churches. On 1 November 1798, Hunter reported, it was claimed that the foundation stone of St John's, the first brick church in Australia, was laid on 5 April 1797. Foundations were laid for a stone church at Sydney to measure 46 metres long and 16 metres wide. Preparations for "making a similar building at Parramatta of smaller dimensions" were reported. A Return of Public Works since October 1796 showed that by 25 September 1800, Hunter had "Erected an elegant church at Parramatta one hundred feet length and forty-four feet in width, with a room of twenty feet long raised on stone pillars intended for a vestry or council room."

The Church was open but not complete in 1800. Work

2018 Melrose Sevens

The 2018 Melrose Sevens known as the Aberdeen Standard Investments Melrose Sevens was be the 128th staging of the world’s oldest annual Rugby sevens competition at the home of Melrose RFC at the Greenyards in Melrose, Scotland on Saturday 14 April 2018. It was be played as a male only competition which featured 24 teams in a single elimination tournament with all the ties from the first round though to the final being played throughout the same day and formed part of the Kings of the Sevens series; the stages of the tournament was televised live for the last time on BBC Two Scotland and locally, from the first tie right through to the final, on Radio Borders. The tournament was won by Scottish side Watsonian after they beat the home side Melrose 19-14 in a fought final to win the Ladies Cup for the first time since 1996 and was Melrose’s second consecutive loss in the final; the main tournament will consist of 21 teams from across Scotland as well as two specially invited overseas teams from the United States and Poland and the charity team Crusaders to make a combined total of 24 teams.

Sixteen unseeded Scottish sides will enter the competition in the first round whilst the seeded teams which includes the hosts Melrose, the four remaining Scottish teams Ayr, Jed-Forest, Edinburgh Accies and Watsonian the two invited overseas teams and the charity side Crusaders will enter the competition in the second round. The draw for the first and second rounds was made at the Greenyards in Melrose on Saturday 7 April 2018; this was the first Melrose Sevens final where the playing time was reduced from twenty to fourteen minutes in line with all other sevens matches. Melrose Sevens Rugby sevens

Uneasy Paradise

Uneasy Paradise is a 1963 Australian television film directed by William Sterling. It is a 60-minute drama set in Melbourne about a gambler married to Sally, he loses a lot of money at a club run by Paolo. Australian drama was rare at the time. Neville is a gambler married to Sally, he loses a lot of money at a club run by Paolo. Peter Aanensen as Neville Terri Aldred as Sally Syd Conabere as Billy Edward Howell as Paolo Jules Caffari James Lynch Douglas Kelly Ian Boyce Roly Barlee Ron Pinnell Stewart Weller Lewis Tegart Ray Angel; the Sydney Morning Herald wrote that the plot "carried a spell of authenticity, broken only by a contrived and comfortable ending" in which Sterling's production "exploited camera angles and action scenes vividly enough to make the-television medium, seem eminently suitable for an effective if somewhat sordid play that took all the tricks except the final, one of a satisfactory, ending." List of live television plays broadcast on Australian Broadcasting Corporation Uneasy Paradise on IMDb Uneasy Paradise at National Film and Sound Archive