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A cabal is a group of people united in some close design to promote their private views or interests in an ideology, state, or other community by intrigue and unbeknownst to those outside their group. The use of this term carries negative connotations of political purpose and secrecy, it can refer to a secret plot or a clique, or may be used as a verb. The term cabal derives from the Jewish mystical interpretation of the Hebrew scripture. In Hebrew it means "reception" or "tradition", denoting the sod level of Jewish exegesis. In European culture it became associated with a secret, it came into English via the French cabale from the medieval Latin cabbala, was known early in the 17th century through usages linked to Charles I and Oliver Cromwell. By the middle of the 17th century it had developed further to mean some intrigue entered into by a small group and referred to the group of people so involved, i.e. a semi-secret political clique. There is a theory that the term took on its present meaning from a group of ministers formed in 1668 - the "Cabal ministry" of King Charles II of England.

Members included Sir Thomas Clifford, Lord Arlington, the Duke of Buckingham, Lord Ashley, Lord Lauderdale, whose initial letters coincidentally spelled CABAL, who were the signatories of the Secret Treaty of Dover that allied England to France in a prospective war against the Netherlands. The theory that the word originated as an acronym from the names of the group of ministers is a folk etymology, although the coincidence was noted at the time and could have popularized its use; the dictionary definition of Cabalism at Wiktionary Quotations related to cabalism at Wikiquote

Thailand Convention and Exhibition Bureau

The Thailand Convention and Exhibition Bureau is a public organization established by royal decree in 2002 to promote Thailand as a destination for meetings, conferencing, exhibitions. The establishment of the organization was announced on 18 September 2002, it became operational in 2004. Thailand's MICE revenues in 2004 amounted to 31.7 million baht. The Royal Thai Government established TCEB under the Office of the Prime Minister to be the organization responsible for stimulating MICE in Thailand). One of the bureau's roles is to encourage the inclusion of Thai arts and culture in these events in order to promote the national heritage. Chiruit Isarangkun Na Ayuthaya began a four-year term as president of TCEB on 15 May 2017, he is keen on spreading MICE business to areas beyond Bangkok four target cities: Chiang Mai, Khon Kaen and Phuket. The organization acts as a source of advisory services, it is involved in: Meetings and incentives services: The Meetings and Incentives Department serves as a one-stop source of information and recommendations on the promotion of international corporate meetings and incentive travel in Thailand.

Convention services: Assists international associations organize conventions in Thailand. Exhibition services: Help in establishing exhibitionsIn 2011 TCEB launched a campaign entitled "The Next Best Shows"; the campaign sought to raise the number of visitors and revenue before the campaign's scheduled end in 2014. In 2013 TCEB launched "Thailand CONNECT" campaign; the campaign will enhance the global visibility of the Thailand brand as part of the five-year master plan and its three key strategies: win, develop. In 2014 TCEB adopted social media campaigns. TCEB claims that in 2018 200,000 visitors met with 35,000 exhibitors on a combined show floor of more than 640,000 m2, generating revenue of 10 billion baht. In the first quarter of 2019, exhibition visitors to Thailand grew by 61 percent, from 21,845 to 43,100, while revenues climbed 45 percent year-over-year, from 2,223 to 3,214 million baht. TCEB's budget for fiscal year 2019 is 895 million baht, down from 958.5 million in FY2018 and 992.3 million baht in FY2017.

MICE revenues in 2017 were 104 billion baht. The 2018 target is 124 billion baht

Huashi, Beijing

Huashi, colloquially known as Huarshi and the "Flower Market", is a predominantly residential neighborhood to the south of Chongwenmen and Dongbianmen in Dongcheng District, Beijing. Huashi was known during imperial times for its markets for fresh and handmade flowers and was for centuries, one of Beijing's notable Hui Muslim quarters. Huashi is located southeast of Chongwenmen inside the Second Ring Road in central Beijing; the neighborhood is bound by the Ming City Wall Relics Park to the north, by Chongwenmen Outer Street to the west, by the Second Ring Road and Beijing-Shanhaiguan Railway to the east and by Guangqumen Inner Street to the south. Huashi Street, the historic main street of the neighborhood, runs the length of the neighborhood from west to east; the neighborhood is divided into West Huashi by Huashi North and South Street. The intersection at Xiaoshikou, or the Little Market Intersection, marks the heart of neighborhood. East Huashi, which accounts for two-thirds of the neighborhood, is governed by the East Huashi Subdistrict.

West Huashi, the western third of the neighborhood, which contains the Glory Mall, is administered by the Chongwenmen Outer Subdistrict, whose jurisdiction includes other malls south of Chongwenmen. In all, the Huashi neighborhood contains 14 residential communities. West Huashi is home to nine of the 12 residential communities in the Chongwen Outer Subdistrict: East Huashi is home to five of the eight residential communities in the East Huashi Subdistrict: In the Yuan Dynasty, the vicinity of what is now Huashi was a scenic area of lush meadows and gardens just outside the city of Dadu. In 1422, an imperial lumber shop called the Sacred Wood Factory opened to process logs shipped from Sichuan to build palaces of the Ming Dynasty. In 1553, when the neighborhood was enclosed by the outer city wall, there were 322 shops in the area. By the mid-Qing Dynasty, Huashi was teeming with craftshops those making artificial flowers. Handmade flowers from cloth and silk were popular adornment for ladies' head fashion.

Locally made flowers were sold to nationally and won a gold prize at the Panama–Pacific International Exposition of 1915. In addition to artificial flowers, Huashi was known for fresh cut flowers and tree sapplings. Huashi was a religiously diverse neighborhood with the Buddhist Long'an Temple, Daoist Fire God, Kitchen God and Saturn Peach Temple, Huashi Mosque, Huashi Methodist Church; the Saturn Peach Temple was razed in the 1950s. The Huashi Church, built in 1905 by the American Methodist Episcopal Mission, which opened the Tongren Hospital and Huiwen Middle School, was converted into a depot in the 1950s and became a pool hall before it was demolished in November 2004; the Kitchen God Temple became a school for Hui Muslim children in 1943. The Fire God and Long'an Temples, which were converted into a library and a science center, have been preserved as historical landmarks. Only the Huashi Mosque remains an active house of worship; until the 1980s, Huashi was a traditional neighborhood with narrow lanes, courtyard homes and streets lined with small shops.

The lanes running east-west were called tiao numbered while those running north-south were called hutongs. In the 1990s, much of the traditional residences in East Huashi were razed and replaced with mid-rise residential apartment buildings. Baorunyuan, built on North Huashi Street in 1998, was one of the first luxury apartment high-rises in Beijing with duplex suites and underground parking. In 1999, Shantou-based developer Zhang Zhangsun built the upscale Fuguiyuan condominium complex in East Huashi, which became one of the top ten best-selling real estate projects in Beijing, he followed suit in West Huashi, with the vast Glory Mall and sprawling Glory City condominiums in 2003. Other high-rise residential complexes in Huashi include Xinjing Homeland. By 2007 only a few significant traditional buildings remain standing amidst the forest of mid- and high-rise apartment towers in Huashi. From 1950 to 2011, Huashi was part of Beijing's Chongwen District until Chongwen merged with Dongcheng District.

Huashi Mosque, at No. 30 Huashi Street near Xiaoshikou, is the spiritual home of the local Hui Muslim community. The mosque was founded in 1415 in the early Ming dynasty by Hui generals Chang Yuchun or Hu Dahai; the mosque compound occupies an area of 2,000 m2, including a main hall of 1,000 m2 that can accommodate 1,000 worshippers. Among relics housed in the Huashi Mosque are gifts of calligraphy from the Kangxi and Qianlong emperors of the Qing dynasty. Long'an Temple at No. 1 Baiqiao Nanli built in 1454, rebuilt in 1609 and 1708, was one of the largest Chinese Buddhist temples in Beijing's outer city. Active worship at the temple ended in the late Qing dynasty. In 1952, the temple was converted to the Long'an Temple Primary School and in 1983 became a children's science center, now known as the Dongcheng District Chongwen Children's Technology Center; the temple complex, nearly 10,000 m2, is a protected historical landmark. The temple grounds has stone steles, the oldest of which date to the reign of the Jingtai Emperor and two trees over 500 years old.

Tomb of Yuan Chonghuan at No. 52 East Huashi Diagonal Street, is a temple and tomb honoring the Ming dynasty general Yuan Chonghuan who repelled Manchu invasions only to fall prey to a treacherous plot and was executed by the Chongzhen Emperor as a traitor. He was secretly buried on the grounds in 1630 and was rehabilitated by the Qianlong Emperor in the 18th century; the tomb was renovated in 1952 at the direction of Mao Zedo

Yeni Ay

Yeni Ay is the fifth studio album by Turkish singer Sıla. It was released by Sony Music Entertainment and Columbia Records on 18 February 2014. After "using dark and introspective themes" in her fourth studio album Vaveyla, Sıla started working on Yeni Ay "at a time of feeling well", she composed them together with Efe Bahadır. She produced the album together with Bahadır. İskender Paydaş, Can Baydar, Bedük and Fatih Ahıskalı worked on the album. The recording of the album began in late 2013 and continued until early 2014; the album was recorded in Istanbul in Athens at Sierra Studios. A pop album, Yeni Ay was released in two separate discs; the second disc has 11 songs in total: ten songs plus a remix of the song "Yabancı". The second disc features demos of the songs; the lyrics in the album are about "new beginnings, new hopes and new beauties", that's what the album's title is based on. Many of the critics praised Sıla's ability in songwriting. Four of the album's songs were turned into music videos, all of which ranked on top of Turkey's official music chart.

The album's lead single. The second and fourth music videos were released for "Yabancı" and "Hediye" both of which ranked first on the chart; the third music video, "Reverans", rose to number two on the official chart. Yeni Ay received the Best Album award at the 2014 Kral Turkey Music Awards; the album earned Sıla the Best Female Artist award, she was named the Artist with the Most Number of Songs Played on Radios. Yeni Ay sold 70,000 copies on its first week of released and ranked first on D&R's List of Best-Selling albums for weeks. By the end of 2014, it sold 158,000 copies in Turkey, becoming the best-selling album of the year in both digital and physical formats. To promote the album, Sıla gave concerts across Europe. Sıla used "dark and introspective themes" for her previous album Vaveyla, released in October 2012. Three music videos were released for the songs "İmkânsız", "Zor Sevdiğimden" and "Aslan Gibi" from this album, the first two of them ranked second on Türkçe Top 20. On 20 September 2013, at her concert in Cemil Topuzlu Open-Air Theatre, Sıla performed the song "Saki", written by herself and composed by Fatih Ahıskalı, for the first time.

From this time, she continued to perform the song at a number of her concerts. In October, it was reported that she had started working on her fifth album and the recordings began in November; the recording continued until January 2014. In February, she appeared on a radio program to perform her new album's lead single "Vaziyetler", but instead she decided to sing a song about "Alp Er Tunga Saga" and surprised the audience. "Vaziyetler" was broadcast on 11 February on radio programs and was released on digital platforms. It was made available for pre-ordering on iTunes Store. Yeni Ay was released on 18 February by Sony Music Columbia Records; the song "Tamam mıyız?", which Sıla had prepared for Çağan Irmak's 2013 movie Tamam mıyız?, was included in the album. The album was produced by Sıla and Efe Bahadır and contains two different discs, the second of which features the demos of the songs found in the first disc. Sıla wrote all of the album's songs on her own, with the exception of "Doldur", which she wrote together with Can Baydar.

She described "Doldur" as "the album's most celebratory song" in an interview with Bugün's Fatih Vural. Sıla composed six of the songs together with Efe Bahadır. Bedük made a remixed version of the album's first song "Yabancı"; the recordings were done at Sierra Studios. Alp Turaç, Arzu Alsan amd Dimitris Mourlas did the mixing, while mastering was done by Mirko D'Agostino and Tom Coyne. A pop album, Yeni Ay came to existence at a time when the singer "needed to see the light", she chose the title Yeni Ay to reflect the "new beginnings, new hopes and new beauties" inside the album. She described Yeni Ay as "an album. More fun and fast. An album that can be learned more easily." She stated that making the album was a "journey of hope, beginnings and new intentions." She further stated: "It is no different. I again wrote the lyrics, made the compositions together with Efe; the only difference is that my other friends joined us, what a good thing they did! İskender Paydaş, Can Baydar, Bedük, Fatih Ahıskalı.

What else can you expect?!" Yeni Ay received mixed reviews from music critics. The lyrics were praised, yet Sıla's repetition of the same style resulted in a number of different views. Radikal's Sarp Dakni stated that after the huge success of Konuşmadığımız Şeyler Var, he had high expectations for Sıla's future works, as those expectations were not met with Vaveyla, he had impatiently waited for Yeni Ay. At the end of this waiting, he was pleased with the album and wrote: "Just like its predecessor Vaveyla, Yeni Ay is not turning to a new and different direction. Sıla is in the safe zone again, but this time we give up. Because we are much happier with listening to her like this." According to Milliyet Sanat's Yavuz Hakan Tok, despite working with the same team again, Sıla had managed to save herself from repetition. Tok compared the album to Vaveyla and said: "Compared to the depressive mood in the previous album, this one has a more balanced distribution with spacious and cheerful songs." Milliyet's Asu Maro beilved that with Yeni Ay, Sıla had "solidified her place as both a singer and composer".

Writing for Hürriyet, Hikmet Demirkol found elements of alaturka in the album and described it as "an album with details and content that will ma

Prenatal cocaine exposure

Prenatal cocaine exposure, theorized in the 1970s, occurs when a pregnant woman uses cocaine and thereby exposes her fetus to the drug. Teratogens are environmental agents, substances that can cause serious damage if exposure occurs to a fetus in the prenatal period; these can cause there to be long-term effects or be fatal to the fetus. Mothers that are using this drug while pregnant risk exposure to their unborn babies; this exposure can lead to many different developmental health issues to arise overtime for the child and it grows and develops."Crack baby" was a term coined to describe children who were exposed to crack as fetuses. Other terms are "cocaine baby" and "crack kid". Early studies reported that people, exposed to crack in utero would be emotionally and physically disabled. Fears were widespread that a generation of crack babies were going to put severe strain on society and social services as they grew up. Studies failed to substantiate the findings of earlier ones that PCE has severe disabling consequences.

Scientists have come to understand that the findings of the early studies were vastly overstated and that most people who were exposed to cocaine in utero do not have disabilities. No specific disorders or conditions have been found to result for people whose mothers used cocaine while pregnant. Studies focusing on children of six years and younger have not shown any direct, long-term effects of PCE on language, growth, or development as measured by test scores. PCE appears to have little effect on infant growth. However, PCE is associated with premature birth, birth defects, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, other conditions; the effects of cocaine on a fetus are thought to be similar to those of tobacco and less severe than those of alcohol. No scientific evidence has shown a difference in harm to a fetus between powder cocaine. PCE is difficult to study because it rarely occurs in isolation: it coexists with a variety of other factors, which may confound a study's results. Thus, studies have failed to show that PCE has negative cognitive effects because such effects may be due to concurrent factors.

Pregnant mothers who use cocaine use other drugs in addition, or they may be malnourished and lacking in medical care. Children in households where cocaine is abused are at risk of violence and neglect, those in foster care may experience problems due to unstable family situations. Factors such as poverty that are associated with PCE have a much stronger influence on children's intellectual and academic abilities than does exposure to cocaine in isolation, thus researchers have had difficulty in determining which effects result from PCE and which result from other factors in the children's histories. During 1980s and 1990s, there was a surge in use of crack cocaine in US cities: the crack epidemic. During this time fears arose throughout the country that PCE would create a generation of youth with severe behavioral and cognitive problems. Early studies in the mid-1980s reported that cocaine use in pregnancy caused children to have severe problems including cognitive and emotional disruption.

These early studies had methodological problems including small sample size, confounding factors like poor nutrition, use of other drugs by the mothers. However, the results of the studies sparked widespread media discussion in the context of the new War on Drugs. For example, a 1985 study that showed harmful effects of cocaine use during pregnancy created a huge media buzz; the term "crack baby" resulted from the publicity surrounding crack and PCE. It was common in media reports to emphasize that babies, exposed to crack in utero would never develop normally; the children were reported to be destined to be physically and mentally disabled for their whole lives. Babies exposed to crack in utero were written off as doomed to be disabled, many were abandoned in hospitals, they were expected to be unable to form normal social bonds. Experts foresaw the development of a "biological underclass" of born criminals who would prey on the rest of the population. Crime rates were predicted to rise, it was predicted that the children would be difficult to console and hyperactive, putting a strain on the school system.

Charles Krauthammer, a columnist for The Washington Post wrote in 1989, "heirs will be a life of certain suffering, of probable deviance, of permanent inferiority." The president of Boston University at the time, John Silber, said "crack babies... won't achieve the intellectual development to have consciousness of God." These claims of biological inferiority played into existing class and racial biases. Reporting was sensational, favoring the direst predictions and shutting out skeptics. Reporting on the effects of PCE may have been affected by publication bias, a disproportionate publication of studies indicating more severe outcomes as the crack epidemic emerged. Scientific studies that report that PCE has significant effects may be more to be published than those that do not. Between 1980 and 1989, 57% of studies showing cocaine has effects on a fetus were accepted by the Society for Pediatric Research, compared with only 11% of studies showing no effects. Findings that other factors such as prematurity were behind symptoms that cocaine-exposed babies

Minuscule 669

Minuscule 669, ε 1025, known as Benton Gospel 3, is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament, on parchment. It is dated palaeographically to the 11th century. Scrivener labelled it by 902e; the manuscript is lacunose. The codex contains the text of the four Gospels on 272 parchment leaves, with some Lacunae; the text is written in one column per 17 lines per page in minuscule letters. The text is divided according to the κεφαλαια, smaller the Ammonian Sections; the numbers of the κεφαλαια are given with their τιτλοι at the top in red. The Ammonian sections were given with a references to the Eusebian Canons; the lists of the κεφαλαια precede Gospel of Mark and Gospel of Luke, the lists before Luke and John have not survived to the present day. The codex contains miniatures and decorated initial letters; the tables of the κεφαλαια and Synaxarion were added by a hand. The Greek text of the codex is a representative of the Byzantine text-type. Hermann von Soden classified it to the Kx. Aland placed it in Category V.

According to the Claremont Profile Method it belongs to the textual family Family Kx in Luke 10 and Luke 20. In Luke 1 its text is defective; the text of Luke 22:43.44 is marked by an obelus and John 5:3.4 is marked by an asterisk. The manuscript was written in Constantinople in the 10th century; the manuscript was brought to America in 1844 by George Benton. In 1913 it was presented to the General Theological Seminary in New York City; the manuscript was added to the list of New Testament manuscripts by Gregory. It was examined by J. Rendel Harris, it was part of Private Collection Ch. C. Ryrie in Dallas, it was sold at auction December 5, 2016, now is in the collection at Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, DC. List of New Testament minuscules Textual criticism J. R. Harris, Sunday School Times, p. 355. C. C. Edmunds, W. H. P. Hatch, The Gospel Manuscripts of the General Theological Seminary, HTS 4, pp. 7, 50-68. K. W. Clark, A Descriptive Catalogue of Greek New Testament Manuscripts in America, pp. 83–85.

Images of Minuscule 669 at the CSNTM