SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Cabildo (council)

A cabildo or ayuntamiento was a Spanish colonial, early post-colonial, administrative council which governed a municipality. Cabildos were sometimes appointed, sometimes elected; the colonial cabildo was the same as the one developed in medieval Castile. The cabildo was the legal representative of the municipality—and its vecinos—before the Crown, therefore it was among the first institutions established by the conquistadors themselves after, or before, taking over an area. For example, Hernán Cortés established La Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz to free himself from the authority of the Governor of Cuba; the word cabildo has the same Latin root as the English word chapter, in fact, is the Spanish word for a cathedral chapter. The term ayuntamiento was preceded by the word excelentísimo as a style of office, when referring to the council; this phrase is abbreviated Exc.mo Ay.to The Castilian cabildo has some similarities to the ancient Roman municipium and civitas—especially in the use of plural administrative officers and its control of the surrounding countryside, the territorium—but its evolution is a uniquely medieval development.

With the collapse of the Western Roman Empire and the establishment of the Visigothic Kingdom, the ancient municipal government vanished. In many areas, seeking to escape from the political instability around them, people entrusted themselves to large landholders, exchanging their service for the landholder's protection, in a process that led to feudalism. In areas where the old territoria survived, the Visigothic kings appointed a single officer, called either a comes or a iudice to replace the defunct municipia or civitates. After the Muslim conquest, the new rulers appointed various judicial officers to manage the affairs of the cities. Qadis heard any cases that fell under the purview of Sharia law and sahibs oversaw the administration of the various other areas of urban life, such as the markets and the public order; the cabildo proper began its slow evolution in the process of the Reconquista. As fortified areas grew into urban centers or older cities were incorporated into the expanding Christian kingdoms of Portugal, León and Castile, kings granted the cities various levels of self-rule and unique sets of laws and made them the administrative center of a large terminus or alfoz, analogous to the ancient territorium.

In general, municipal governments consisted of a council open to all the property-owning adult males of the city and a nobleman appointed to represent the king and organize the defense of the city and terminus. By the 13th century, these open councils proved unwieldy and were replaced by a smaller body, the cabildo or ayuntamiento consisting of set number of regidores elected by the property owners in the city; these new bodies took their permanent form by the end of the 14th century. As part of the same process, a municipal council with different attributes and composition evolved in the neighboring Kingdom of Aragon during this period. In theory, every municipality in the Spanish colonies in the Americas and the Spanish Philippines had a cabildo. Municipalities were not just the cities. All lands were assigned to a municipality; the cabildo made local laws and reported to the presidente of the audiencia, who in turn reported to the viceroy. The cabildo had judicial and administrative duties.

For this reason it was addressed with the formula, Justicia y Regimiento. The cabildo consisted of several types of officials. There were four depending on the size and importance of the municipality. Regidores, were not just deliberative officers, but all shared in the administration of the territory, dividing tasks among themselves; the regidores were elected by all the heads of household. In the late Middle Ages, these elections turned violent, with citizens forming bands to control elections and resorting to murder. To minimize this kings began to appoint a certain number of, or all of, the regidores in certain cities. By the modern era different cabildos had different mixes of elected and appointed regidores both on the Peninsula and overseas. To add another layer of control, the kings introduced corregidores to represent them directly and preside over the cabildos. Although many municipalities lost their right to elect all or some of their regidores as time went on, cities and cabildos gained new power with the development of the Castilian and Leonese parliaments because cities had a right to representation in them.

In addition to the council members, the cabildo had one or two magistrates, the alcaldes, whom the regidores elected every January 1. Alcaldes served as judges of first instance in all criminal and civil cases and acted as presiding officers of the cabildo, unless there was a corregidor. In provincial capitals the first alcalde would fill in for incapacitated governors. Other officers were the alférez real, who had a vote in cabildo deliberations and would substitute the alcalde if the latter could not carry out the functions of his office. After the Bou

Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 842

Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 842 is a papyrus manuscript, written in Ancient Greek, discovered during the 1906 excavations in Oxyrhynchus in modern Egypt by Bernard Pyne Grenfell and Arthur Surridge Hunt. It contains a history of classic Greece for the years 396-395 BCE. Along with PSI XII 1304, it makes up the Hellenica Oxyrhynchia. Consisting of around 230 fragments of various sizes and Hunt were able to piece together all but 53 of them, they produced a transcription of the pieced together fragments, along with two plates and a translation in The Oxyrhynchus Papyri, Part 5 in 1908. The manuscript itself is written on the verso of a papyrus roll, used as an official land-survey register. Though starting off fragmentary, the final result evidences around 21 columns of text; the average dimensions of each column is 16.7 cm height by 9 cm width, with the roll height at 21.2 cm. The script type of the manuscript is an example of the severe strenger stil; this is characterised by a sloping, pointed handwriting with alternating thick and thin horizontal and vertical strokes.

According to Grenfell & Hunt, at least two hands were responsible for the manuscript, with the first hand writing most of the manuscript, from Column 1-4 Column 6 line 27-Column 21. Hand two wrote therefore column 5-6 line 26. Hand one wrote in "a small neat uncial of the sloping oval type... at the end of a line is indicated by a horizontal stroke above the final letter... A peculiar characteristic of this scribe is his tendency to combine the letters and or and so that the last vertical stroke of the first letter serves as the first of the second... Diaereses are sometimes placed over ι and υ." Hand two is characterised as writing "rougher than the first. At the end of a line is written as a horizontal stroke. Stops are employed, a slight space being left to mark the pause, sometimes the space occurs where the stop is omitted... A paragraphus is found in vi. 10 marking a transition which the first hand would have ignored... Unlike the first scribe, the second hand writes ι adscript." Based on the land register on the recto mentioning the 4th and 12th year of an unnamed Emperor, Grenfell & Hunt state that "since the survey was written soon after the 12th year, the reign of Commodus, which in Egypt was reckoned from his father's accession and therefore begins with his 20th year, is out of the question.

Accordingly, the LDAB gives the manuscript a date range of 150-224 CE. P. Oxy. V 842 Images online at British Library; the Oxyrhynchus Papyri: Part 5 at Archive.org

Harris Isbell

Harris Isbell was an American pharmacologist and the director of research for the NIMH Addiction Research Center at the Public Health Service Hospital in Lexington, Kentucky from 1945 to 1963. He did extensive research on the physical and psychological effects of various drugs on humans. Early work investigated aspects of physical dependence with opiates and barbiturates, while work investigated psychedelic drugs, including LSD; the research was extensively reported in academic journals such as the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Psychopharmacologia, the AMA Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry. He was born on June 7, 1910 in Arkansas to Francis Taylor Celeste Mathews, he received his M. D. from Tulane University School of Medicine in 1934, held various research positions before becoming head of the Addiction Research Center in 1945. He was awarded the US Public Health Service Meritorious Service Award in 1962. After leaving the ARC in 1963, he became Professor of Medicine and Pharmacology at the University of Kentucky School of Medicine.

Isbell and his associates published extensively on the effects of drugs on human subjects, with over 125 publications. Among their experimental results were the qualitative and quantitative documentation of physical dependence on barbiturates, physical dependence on alcohol,tolerance to amphetamine, the clinical use of opiate antagonists as treatment for opiate overdoses, the ability of methadone to alleviate opiate withdrawal symptoms, rapid tolerance but lack of physical dependence with LSD, cross-tolerance between LSD and psilocybin, the ability of pure THC to cause marijuana-like effects. New pharmaceutical substances were assayed for their abuse and addiction potential, this information was utilized by groups such as the World Health Organization. Other work at the ARC during Isbell's tenure included psychological aspects of human opiate addiction,EEG studies of mental activity during drug use, animal studies.. Isbell died on December 1994 in Lexington, Kentucky. Areas of interest described in Isbell's published work include physical and psychological effects of individual substances, ways to mitigate withdrawal symptoms, the development of reliable rating methods and questionnaires for subjective drug effects, cross-drug comparisons, drug tolerance, classification of drug groups.

The subjects in Isbell's experiments are described as "volunteers". The hospital was a US Government facility for treating drug abuse; the subjects in ARC experiments were all incarcerated male narcotics offenders with a history of drug addiction. Subjects were motivated by payment in the form of drugs; the separate living environment within the ARC for experimental subjects was a motivation. The use of prison subjects for these sorts of experiments would be difficult or impossible to justify by current human subjects and informed consent standards; the potential for coercion in a prison environment is one concern. Subjects in the experiments are described as physically healthy former drug addicts who were not psychotic, although they were described as having "character disorders or inadequate personalities". Subjects in some of the more extreme psychedelic experiments were all "Negro males", though this is not a regular pattern. In spite of the risky nature of some of the experiments, there were no fatalities, though there was at least one close call.

Subjects sometimes dropped out in the middle of an experiment, although in one reported case a subject who wished to drop out after a severe negative reaction to a 180 microgram LSD dose ("He felt that he would die or would become permanently