The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire known as the Conquest of Mexico or the Spanish–Mexican War, was one of the primary events in the Spanish colonization of the Americas. There are multiple 16th-century narratives of the events by Spanish conquerors, their indigenous allies, the defeated Aztecs, it was not a contest between a small contingent of Spaniards defeating the Aztec Empire but rather the creation of a coalition of Spanish invaders with tributaries to the Aztecs, most the Aztecs' indigenous enemies and rivals. They combined forces to defeat the Mexica of Tenochtitlan over a two-year period. For the Spanish, the expedition to Mexico was part of a project of Spanish colonization of the New World after twenty-five years of permanent Spanish settlement and further exploration in the Caribbean. Following an earlier expedition led by Juan de Grijalva to Yucatán in 1518, Spanish settler, Hernán Cortés, led an expedition to Mexico. Two years in 1519, Cortés and his retinue set sail for Mexico.
The Spanish campaign against the Aztec Empire had its final victory on 13 August 1521, when a coalition army of Spanish forces and native Tlaxcalan warriors led by Cortés and Xicotencatl the Younger captured the emperor Cuauhtemoc and Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec Empire. The fall of Tenochtitlan marks the beginning of Spanish rule in central Mexico, they established their capital of Mexico City on the ruins of Tenochtitlan. Cortés made alliances with tributary city-states of the Aztec Empire as well as their political rivals the Tlaxcalteca and Texcocans, a former partner in the Aztec Triple Alliance. Other city-states joined, including Cempoala and Huexotzinco and polities bordering Lake Texcoco, the inland lake system of the Valley of Mexico. Important to the Spanish success was a multilingual indigenous slave woman, known to the Spanish conquistadors as Doña Marina, as La Malinche. After eight months of battles and negotiations, which overcame the diplomatic resistance of the Aztec Emperor Moctezuma II to his visit, Cortés arrived in Tenochtitlan on 8 November 1519, where he took up residence with fellow Spaniards and their indigenous allies.
When news reached Cortés of the death of several of his men during the Aztec attack on the Totonacs in Veracruz, Cortes claims that he took Motecuhzoma captive. Capturing the cacique or indigenous ruler was standard operating procedure for Spaniards in their expansion in the Caribbean, so capturing Motecuhzoma had considerable precedent but modern scholars are skeptical that Cortes and his countrymen took Motecuhzoma captive at this time, they had great incentive to claim they did, owing to the laws of Spain at this time, but critical analysis of their personal writings suggest Motecuhzoma was not taken captive until a much date. When Cortés left Tenochtitlan to return to the coast and deal with the expedition of Pánfilo de Narváez, sent to rein in Cortés's expedition that had exceeded its specified limits, Cortés's right-hand man Pedro de Alvarado was left in charge. Alvarado allowed a significant Aztec feast to be celebrated in Tenochtitlan and on the pattern of the earlier massacre in Cholula, closed off the square and massacred the celebrating Aztec noblemen.
The official biography of Cortés by Francisco López de Gómara contains a description of the massacre. The Alvarado massacre at the Main Temple of Tenochtitlan precipitated rebellion by the population of the city. Moctezuma was killed. According to one account, when Moctezuma, now seen by the population as a mere puppet of the invading Spaniards, attempted to calm the outraged populace, he was killed by a projectile. According to an indigenous account, the Spanish killed Moctezuma. Cortés had returned to Tenochtitlan and his men fled the capital city during the Noche Triste in June 1520; the Spanish and reinforcements returned a year on 13 August 1521 to a civilization, weakened by famine and smallpox. This made it easier to conquer the remaining Aztecs. Many of those on the Cortés expedition of 1519 had never seen combat before, including Cortés. A whole generation of Spaniards participated in expeditions in the Caribbean and Tierra Firme, learning strategy and tactics of successful enterprises.
The Spanish conquest of Mexico had antecedents with established practices. The fall of the Aztec Empire was the key event in the formation of the Spanish Empire overseas, with New Spain, which became Mexico. Historical sources for the conquest of Mexico recount some of the same events in both Spanish and indigenous sources. Others, are unique to a particular primary source or group narrating the event. Individuals and groups laud their own accomplishments, while denigrating or ignoring those of their opponents or their allies or both. 1428 – Creation of the Triple Alliance of Tenochtitlan and Tlacopan 1492–93 – Columbus reaches the Caribbean.
The 2015 North Carolina A&T Aggies football team represented North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University in the 2015 NCAA Division I FCS football season. This season marked the 92nd for the program, led by fifth-year head coach Rod Broadway, and played their home games at Aggie Stadium. They were a member of the Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference; the Aggies finished the season 10–2, 7–1 in MEAC play to finish in a three-way tie for the MEAC championship, capturing their eighth conference title and earning the opportunity to compete in the inaugural Celebration Bowl. The Aggies defeated Southwestern Athletic Conference champion Alcorn State in the Celebration Bowl, earning their fourth black college football national championship; the Aggies finished the season 9–3, 6–2 in MEAC play to finish in a five-way tie, earning the school's seventh MEAC championship and 12th conference title. Due to the MEAC tiebreaker system, A&T did not earn the conference's automatic bid to the FCS Playoffs and did not receive an at-large bid.
At the conclusion of the 2014 football season, the Aggies lost key players such as All-American center Ronald Canty, All-American and three-time All-MEAC standout guard/tackle William Ray Robinson III and 2014 starting right guard Olin Leak and defensive back Donald Mattocks. In addition, one of the best tacklers in school history, All-MEAC linebacker D’Vonte Grant, played his final season with the Aggies. NC A&T was picked to win the MEAC championship and junior running back Tarik Cohen was selected as the preseason offensive player of the year. Source: NCAT Sports Information This game marked the 21st meeting overall between the Shaw University Bears and the Aggies, the first between the two in 52 Years. Going into the match up, the Aggies held the all-time series at 3–17–1; the last meeting between the two in 1968, saw The Aggies defeat the Bears 0–69. The Aggies called upon redshirt freshman quarterback Lamar Raynard to be the starting quarterback. Raynard passed for 188 yards with 1 interception.
Junior Wide Receiver Denzel Keyes went on to make a career-high six catches to finish with 119 yards receiving and two touchdowns. Preseason All-American & MEAC Offensive player of the year, running back Tarik Cohen, ran for 106 yards and two touchdowns on 21 carries; this game marked Cohen's 13th career 100-yard game. Cohen is now 928 rushing yards short of becoming the all-time leading rusher in school history; the Bears were held to 44 yards on the ground in 30 attempts. Bruce Parker Jr. returned an interception 85 yards for a touchdown for the team's lone score. This game marked the first meeting between the Tar Heels and the Aggies; the Aggies last saw an opponent from the ACC with a 42 -- 3 loss to Wake Forest. This game marked the 11th meeting between nearby In-state FCS opponent Elon. Goin into the game, the Aggies held a 7–4 all-time record against the Phoenix, with the Aggies getting a 17–12 victory on the road in 2014; this game marked the 44th meeting between Hampton. Going into the game, Hampton held a 26–16–2 all-time record against the A&T, with the Aggies winning the last meeting 31–14 in front of a home crowd.
This game marked the 39th meeting between the Aggies and Norfolk State and the first game between the two since 2012. Going into the game, A&T held a 28–11 all-time record against the Spartans, with the Aggies winning the last meeting 30–9 in front of a near capacity Homecoming crowd; this game marked the 36th meeting between the A&T and Bethune-Cookman and the first game between the two since 2012. Going into the game, Bethune-Cookman held a 22–14 all-time record against the Aggies, with the Wildcats winning the last meeting 28–12 in Daytona Beach, FL; this game marked the 38th meeting between the Howard. Going into the game, A&T held a 26–20–2 all-time record against the Bison, with the Aggies winning the last meeting 38–22 in 2014. For the first time this season, the Aggies are nationally ranked, breaking into the top 25 at #24. Junior Running Back Tarik Cohen rushed for 137 yards and three touchdowns as North Carolina A&T rolled over 0–7 Howard in the Aggies' Homecoming game. Quarterback Kwashaun Quick threw for 67 yards and one touchdown and rushed for 85 yards and another score, while Amos Williams rushed for 85 yards and one touchdown.
On the Bison's side, Quarterback Kalen Johnson threw for two touchdowns. Howard was able to establish a 14–13 lead until Cohen broke for a 31-yard touchdown run with 5:13 left in the second quarter; the Aggies quickly added 10 more points to go into halftime with a 30–14 lead. In the second half, the Aggies scored 34 unanswered points. Howard were never able to mount a rushing attack as A&T compiled 311 rushing yards and held the Bison to only 31; the win secures A&T's fourth straight winning season. This game will mark the 63rd meeting between the A&T and Florida A&M. Going into the game, Florida A&M holds a 44–16–3 all-time record against the Aggies, with the A&T winning the last meeting 40–21 in 2014; this game will mark the 53rd meeting between rival South Carolina State. Going into the game, South Carolina State holds a 32–18–2 all-time record against the Aggies, with the Bulldogs shutting out A&T 13–0 in the 2014 Atlanta Football Classic. With both North Carolina A&T and South Carolina State being the top two defenses in the MEAC, the contest was low scoring and relied upon the team's defensive lines.
In the final play of the game, SC State Kicker Tyler Scandrett missed a 33-yard field goal attempt as time expired. This win was the first time, the 2nd in 16 attempts, since 1969 that the aggies defeated rival SC State inside Dawson Stadium, ending a 14-game losing streak; this game marked the 44th meeting between the Delaware State. Going into the game, Delaware State held a
Thomas Francis Gormley was an American football player and coach. He played in the American Professional Football League with the Canton Bulldogs, Cleveland Tigers, Washington Senators and the New York Brickley Giants. Brickley's New York Giants are not related to the modern-day New York Giants, he played for the independent Youngstown Patricians from 1917 until 1919. Gormley played college football at Catholic University of America, Georgetown University, Ursinus College and Villanova University, he became the head coach of the Catholic Cardinals football team. Tom Gormley at Find a Grave