Post-hardcore is a punk rock music genre that maintains the aggression and intensity of hardcore punk but emphasizes a greater degree of creative expression inspired by post-punk and noise rock. Like post-punk, the term has been applied to a broad constellation of groups. Post-hardcore began in the 1980s with bands like Hüsker Dü, Black Flag, Minutemen; the genre expanded in the 1980s and 1990s with releases by bands from cities that had established hardcore scenes, such as Fugazi from Washington, D. C. as well as groups such as Big Black and Jawbox that stuck closer to post-hardcore's noise rock roots. In the 2000s, post-hardcore achieved mainstream success with the popularity of bands like My Chemical Romance, AFI, Hawthorne Heights, The Used, At the Drive-In and Senses Fail. In the 2010s, post-hardcore bands like Sleeping With Sirens and Pierce the Veil achieved success and bands like Title Fight and La Dispute experienced underground popularity. Hardcore punk features fast tempos, loud volume, heavy bass levels, as well as a "do-it-yourself" ethic.
Music database AllMusic stated "these newer bands, termed post-hardcore found complex and dynamic ways of blowing off steam that went outside the strict hardcore realm of'loud fast rules'. Additionally, many of these bands' vocalists were just as to deliver their lyrics with a whispered croon as they were a maniacal yelp." Allmusic claims that post-hardcore bands find creative ways to build and release tension rather than "airing their dirty laundry in short, frenetic bursts". Jeff Terich of Treblezine stated, "Instead of sticking to hardcore's rigid constraints, these artists expanded beyond power chords and gang vocals, incorporating more creative outlets for punk rock energy." British post-punk of the late 1970s and early 1980s has been seen as influential on the musical development of post-hardcore bands. As the genre progressed, some of these groups experimented with a wide array of influences, including soul, funk and dance-punk, it has been noted that since some post-hardcore bands included members that were rooted in the beginnings of hardcore punk, some of them were able to expand their sound as they became more skilled musicians.
Groups such as Saccharine Trust, Naked Raygun, The Effigies, which were active around the early 1980s, are considered to be forerunners to the post-hardcore genre. Chicago's Naked Raygun, formed in 1981, has been seen as merging post-punk influences of bands such as Wire and Gang of Four with hardcore punk, while author Steven Blush notes the band's use of "oblique lyrics and stark post-punk melodies"; the Effigies, who hailed from the Chicago scene, released music influenced by the hardcore of Minor Threat and the British post-punk of bands like The Stranglers, Killing Joke, The Ruts. During the early to mid-1980s, the desire to experiment with hardcore's basic template expanded to many musicians, associated with the genre or had strong roots in it. Many of these groups took inspiration from the 1980s noise rock scene pioneered by Sonic Youth; some bands signed to the independent label Homestead Records, including Squirrel Bait and Steve Albini's Big Black are associated with post-hardcore.
Big Black, which featured former Naked Raygun guitarist Santiago Durango, made themselves known for their strict DIY ethic, related to practices such as paying for their own recordings, booking their own shows, handling their own management and publicity, remaining "stubbornly independent at a time when many independent bands were eagerly reaching out for the major-label brass ring". The band's music, punctuated by the use of a drum machine, has been seen as influential to industrial rock, while Blush has described the Albini-fronted project as "an angst-ridden response to the rigid English post-punk of Gang of Four". After the issuing of the "Il Duce" single, Big Black left Homestead for Touch and Go Records, which would reissue not only their entire discography, but would be responsible for the release of the complete works of Scratch Acid, an act from Austin, Texas described as post-hardcore, according to Stephen Thomas Erlewine, "laid the groundwork for much of the distorted, grinding alternative punk rockers of the'90s".
According to Ryan Cooper of About.com and author Doyle Greene, 1980s hardcore punk band Black Flag is one of the pioneers of post-hardcore for the experimental style the band started playing on in the 1980s. Post-hardcore bands Minutemen and Hüsker Dü are prominent 1980s post-hardcore bands. Hüsker Dü's 1984 album; when Zen Arcade was first released, the album received positive critical reception from The New York Times and Rolling Stone. Outside the United States, post-hardcore would take shape in the works of the Canadian group Nomeansno, related with Jello Biafra and his independently run label Alternative Tentacles, and, active since 1979; the magazine Dusted noted that the group's 1989's release Wrong was "one of the most aggressive and powerful opuses in post-hardcore made". During the years 1984 and 1985 in the "harDCore" scene, a new movement had "swept over"; this movement was led by bands associated with the D. C. independent record label Dischord Records, home in the early 1980s to seminal hardcore bands such as Minor Threat, State of Alert and Government Issue.
According to the Dischord website: "The violence and nihilism that had become identified with punk rock by the media, had begun to take hold in DC and many of the older pun
Get a Life (TV series)
Get a Life is a television sitcom, broadcast in the United States on the Fox Network from September 23, 1990, to March 8, 1992. The show stars Chris Elliott as a 30-year-old paperboy named Chris Peterson. Peterson lived in an apartment above his parents' garage; the opening credits depict Chris Peterson delivering newspapers on his bike to the show's theme song, "Stand" by R. E. M; the show was a creation of Elliott, Adam Resnick, writer/director David Mirkin. Mirkin was executive producer/showrunner of the series and directed most of the episodes. Notable writers of the series included screenwriter of Being John Malkovich; the show was unconventional for a prime time sitcom, many times the storylines of the episodes were surreal. For example, Elliott's character dies in twelve episodes; the causes of death included being crushed by a giant boulder, old age, stab wounds, gunshot wounds, falling from an airplane, getting run over by cars, choking on cereal, exploding. For this reason, it was a struggle for Mirkin to get the show on the air.
Many of the executives at the Fox Network hated the show and thought it was too disturbing and found Elliott's character to be too unlikeable and insane. After only two VHS/DVD volumes were released, Chris Elliott confirmed that Shout! Factory would be releasing the complete series of the show on September 18, 2012 – the first time all of the show's episodes were made commercially available. Chris Peterson is a childlike bachelor who refuses to live the life of an adult. At the age of 30, Chris still lives with his parents and maintains a career delivering the St. Paul Pioneer Press, he has no driver's license. He is depicted as being childish, gullible, foolish irresponsible, dimwitted, his lack of intelligence is exaggerated to absurd levels: at one point, he tries to leave his parents' house but is unable to operate the front door. He fell out of an airplane after opening the plane's airlock, believing that the "EXIT" sign was a restroom. Chris' parents are a vapid middle-aged retired couple who are always seen in their pajamas and robes.
They are shown doing something abnormal like polishing handguns, or trying to shoot the deer that ate the flowerbulbs out of their garden. Gladys is a smiling, caring mother who doted over Chris, though makes cynical, passive-aggressive comments about him and his lifestyle. Fred is a much more blunt, wise-cracking old man, exasperated by his son, seems to have a reckless disregard for Chris' well-being. In the early episodes, Chris wanted little more than to spend his days reliving his childhood with his father and his best friend, Larry. Larry was Chris' friend since childhood, but unlike Chris, Larry has since "grown up", owns a house, works a dead-end job as an accountant, has two children and a wife, Sharon. Sharon is an overbearing housewife who does not want her husband associating with Chris, preferring instead that he make friends with more sophisticated socialites that better befits their image. Sharon despises Chris, Chris takes any opportunity to irritate her. Larry is envious of Chris' carefree lifestyle, is coerced by Chris into joining him in his adventures, despite his wife's wishes.
To Chris' dismay, Larry heeds his advice and leaves his wife and children at the beginning of the second season. This leaves Sharon traumatized, she becomes more and more obsessed with killing Chris in revenge. In a defiant nod to Fox Network demands that his character "be more independent", Chris Peterson was moved out of his parents' house at the beginning of the second season, much to his parents' amazement and joy, into the garage of ex-cop Gus Borden, played by Brian Doyle-Murray, fired from the police force for urinating on his boss, he is a gruff, demeaning sociopath with minimal tolerance for Chris' antics, which Chris seems to be oblivious to, while looking up to Gus as a sort of paternal figure. For that reason, Gus serves as Chris' comic foil throughout the second season. One of the more controversial episodes featured a character named Spewey the Alien, an extraterrestrial who secretes mucus from under his scales and projectile vomits when he becomes overwrought. At the end of the episode and Gus barbecued and ate Spewey, although the creature was resurrected inside their refrigerator.
In the DVD commentary for the series by David Mirkin, he discusses the development of the Chris Peterson character and the series in great detail. Mirkin states that the Chris Peterson character was somewhat based on Dennis the Menace, i.e. "What would Dennis The Menace have been like when he was 30 years old?" In the pilot, "Terror on the Hell Loop 2000", Chris Peterson was a functioning, wisecracking adult, beating the system. However, as the series went on, he became a more psychotic, character. According to Mirkin, the main character was made more likeable in the pilot to get the network to agree to order the
The Bermuda Triangle known as the Devil's Triangle or Hurricane Alley, is a loosely-defined region in the western part of the North Atlantic Ocean, where a number of aircraft and ships are said to have disappeared under mysterious circumstances. Most reputable sources dismiss the idea; the vicinity of the Bermuda Triangle is amongst the most traveled shipping lanes in the world, with ships crossing through it for ports in the Americas and the Caribbean islands. Cruise ships and pleasure craft sail through the region, commercial and private aircraft fly over it. Popular culture has attributed various disappearances to the paranormal or activity by extraterrestrial beings. Documented evidence indicates that a significant percentage of the incidents were spurious, inaccurately reported, or embellished by authors. In 1964, Vincent Gaddis wrote in the pulp magazine Argosy of the boundaries of the Bermuda Triangle, giving its vertices as Miami. Subsequent writers did not follow this definition; some writers gave different boundaries and vertices to the triangle, with the total area varying from 1,300,000 to 3,900,000 km2.
"Indeed, some writers stretch it as far as the Irish coast." The determination of which accidents occurred inside the triangle depends on which writer reported them. The earliest suggestion of unusual disappearances in the Bermuda area appeared in a September 17, 1950, article published in The Miami Herald by Edward Van Winkle Jones. Two years Fate magazine published "Sea Mystery at Our Back Door", a short article by George X. Sand covering the loss of several planes and ships, including the loss of Flight 19, a group of five US Navy Grumman TBM Avenger torpedo bombers on a training mission. Sand's article was the first to lay out the now-familiar triangular area where the losses took place. Flight 19 alone would be covered again in the April 1962 issue of American Legion magazine. In it, author Allan W. Eckert wrote that the flight leader had been heard saying, "We are entering white water, nothing seems right. We don't know where we are, the water is green, no white." He wrote that officials at the Navy board of inquiry stated that the planes "flew off to Mars."
Sand's article was the first to suggest a supernatural element to the Flight 19 incident. In the February 1964 issue of Argosy, Vincent Gaddis' article "The Deadly Bermuda Triangle" argued that Flight 19 and other disappearances were part of a pattern of strange events in the region; the next year, Gaddis expanded this article into Invisible Horizons. Others would follow with their own works. Lawrence David Kusche, author of The Bermuda Triangle Mystery: Solved argued that many claims of Gaddis and subsequent writers were exaggerated, dubious or unverifiable. Kusche's research revealed a number of inaccuracies and inconsistencies between Berlitz's accounts and statements from eyewitnesses and others involved in the initial incidents. Kusche noted cases where pertinent information went unreported, such as the disappearance of round-the-world yachtsman Donald Crowhurst, which Berlitz had presented as a mystery, despite clear evidence to the contrary. Another example was the ore-carrier recounted by Berlitz as lost without trace three days out of an Atlantic port when it had been lost three days out of a port with the same name in the Pacific Ocean.
Kusche argued that a large percentage of the incidents that sparked allegations of the Triangle's mysterious influence occurred well outside it. His research was simple: he would review period newspapers of the dates of reported incidents and find reports on relevant events like unusual weather, that were never mentioned in the disappearance stories. Kusche concluded that: The number of ships and aircraft reported missing in the area was not greater, proportionally speaking, than in any other part of the ocean. In an area frequented by tropical cyclones, the number of disappearances that did occur were, for the most part, neither disproportionate, nor mysterious. Furthermore and other writers would fail to mention such storms or represent the disappearance as having happened in calm conditions when meteorological records contradict this; the numbers themselves had been exaggerated by sloppy research. A boat's disappearance, for example, would be reported, but its eventual return to port may not have been.
Some disappearances had, never happened. One plane crash was said to have taken place in 1937, off Daytona Beach, Florida, in front of hundreds of witnesses; the legend of the Bermuda Triangle is a manufactured mystery, perpetuated by writers who either purposely or unknowingly made use of misconceptions, faulty reasoning, sensationalism. In a 2013 study, the World Wide Fund for Nature identified the world's 10 most dangerous waters for shipping, but the Bermuda Triangle was not among them; when the UK Channel 4 television program The Bermuda Triangle was being produced by John Simmons of Geofilms for the Equinox series, the marine insurance market Lloyd's of London was asked if an unusually large number of ships had sunk in the Bermuda Triangle area. Lloyd's determined. Lloyd's does not charge higher rates for passing through this area. United States Coast Guar
Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959. Hawaii is the only U. S. state located in Oceania, the only U. S. state located outside North America, the only one composed of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean; the state encompasses nearly the entire volcanic Hawaiian archipelago, which comprises hundreds of islands spread over 1,500 miles. At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the eight main islands are—in order from northwest to southeast: Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe and the Island of Hawaiʻi; the last is the largest island in the group. The archipelago is ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania. Hawaii's diverse natural scenery, warm tropical climate, abundance of public beaches, oceanic surroundings, active volcanoes make it a popular destination for tourists, surfers and volcanologists.
Because of its central location in the Pacific and 19th-century labor migration, Hawaii's culture is influenced by North American and East Asian cultures, in addition to its indigenous Hawaiian culture. Hawaii has over a million permanent residents, along with many visitors and U. S. military personnel. Its capital is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu. Hawaii is the 8th-smallest and the 11th-least populous, but the 13th-most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. It is the only state with an Asian plurality; the state's oceanic coastline is about 750 miles long, the fourth longest in the U. S. after the coastlines of Alaska and California. The state of Hawaii derives its name from the name of Hawaiʻi. A common Hawaiian explanation of the name of Hawaiʻi is that it was named for Hawaiʻiloa, a legendary figure from Hawaiian myth, he is said to have discovered the islands. The Hawaiian language word Hawaiʻi is similar to Proto-Polynesian *Sawaiki, with the reconstructed meaning "homeland". Cognates of Hawaiʻi are found in other Polynesian languages, including Māori and Samoan.
According to linguists Pukui and Elbert, "lsewhere in Polynesia, Hawaiʻi or a cognate is the name of the underworld or of the ancestral home, but in Hawaii, the name has no meaning". A somewhat divisive political issue arose in 1978 when the Constitution of the State of Hawaii added Hawaiian as a second official state language; the title of the state constitution is The Constitution of the State of Hawaii. Article XV, Section 1 of the Constitution uses The State of Hawaii. Diacritics were not used because the document, drafted in 1949, predates the use of the ʻokina and the kahakō in modern Hawaiian orthography; the exact spelling of the state's name in the Hawaiian language is Hawaiʻi. In the Hawaii Admission Act that granted Hawaiian statehood, the federal government recognized Hawaii as the official state name. Official government publications and office titles, the Seal of Hawaii use the traditional spelling with no symbols for glottal stops or vowel length. In contrast, the National and State Parks Services, the University of Hawaiʻi and some private enterprises implement these symbols.
No precedent for changes to U. S. state names exists since the adoption of the United States Constitution in 1789. However, the Constitution of Massachusetts formally changed the Province of Massachusetts Bay to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1780, in 1819, the Territory of Arkansaw was created but was admitted to statehood as the State of Arkansas. There are eight main Hawaiian islands; the island of Niʻihau is managed by brothers Bruce and Keith Robinson. Access to uninhabited Kahoʻolawe island is restricted; the Hawaiian archipelago is located 2,000 mi southwest of the contiguous United States. Hawaii is the southernmost U. S. the second westernmost after Alaska. Hawaii, like Alaska, does not border any other U. S. state. It is the only U. S. state, not geographically located in North America, the only state surrounded by water and, an archipelago, the only state in which coffee is commercially cultivable. In addition to the eight main islands, the state has many smaller islets. Kaʻula is a small island near Niʻihau.
The Northwest Hawaiian Islands is a group of nine small, older islands to the northwest of Kauaʻi that extend from Nihoa to Kure Atoll. Across the archipelago are around 130 small rocks and islets, such as Molokini, which are either volcanic, marine sedimentary or erosional in origin. Hawaii's tallest mountain Mauna Kea is 13,796 ft above mean sea level; the Hawaiian islands were formed by volcanic activity initiated at an undersea magma source called the Hawaii hotspot. The process is continuing to build islands; because of the hotspot's location, all active land volcanoes are located on the southern half of Hawaii Island. The newest volcano, Lōʻihi Seamount, is located south of the coast of Hawaii Island; the last volcanic eruption outside Hawaii Island occurred
James Jonah Cummings is an American voice actor and singer, who has appeared in 400 roles. He is known for voicing the title character from Darkwing Duck, Dr. Robotnik from Sonic the Hedgehog, Winnie the Pooh, Bonkers D. Bobcat and the Tasmanian Devil, he has performed in numerous Disney animations including Aladdin, The Lion King, Pocahontas and The Princess and the Frog, others from third-parties such as Universal/DreamWorks, MGM and Fox including The Pagemaster, All Dogs Go to Heaven 2, The Road to El Dorado, Titan A. E. and Shrek. He has provided voice-over work for video games, such as Icewind Dale, The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim, Baldur's Gate, Mass Effect 2, Star Wars: The Old Republic, World of Warcraft: Mists of Pandaria, World of Warcraft: Legion, Splatterhouse; some of Cummings' earliest vocal work was at Disney, where he replaced Hal Smith as the voice of Winnie-the-Pooh in 1988. He began replacing Paul Winchell as Tigger, before replacing him as the character in 2000's The Tigger Movie.
In 1991, he ventured to Warner Bros. Animation and began voicing Tasmanian Devil on the animated series Taz-Mania; when actor Jeremy Irons, the voice of Scar in The Lion King, developed vocal problems during recording of the song "Be Prepared", Cummings was chosen to replace him for the rest of the song. Cummings would be hired as the singing double for Russell Means in Pocahontas and Christopher Lloyd in Anastasia. In 2018, he became the first voice performer of animation to reprise his role for a live-action Disney film, reprising the roles of Pooh and Tigger for Christopher Robin, his performance as Pooh was praised by Richard Lawson of Vanity Fair, calling it "Oscar-worthy" and saying in detail, "As Winnie the Pooh, the veteran voice actor gives such sweet, affable life to the wistful bear of literary renown that it breaks the heart. Cummings's performance understands something more keenly than the movie around it, his Pooh is an agreeable nuisance and an accidental philosopher, delivering nonsensical adages in a friendly, deliberate murmur ringed faintly with sadness.
I wanted to yank him from the screen and take him home with me, his fuzzy little paw in mine as we ambled to the subway, the summer sun fading behind us. He's a good bear, this Pooh." Born in Youngstown, Cummings relocated to New Orleans, where he designed and painted Mardi Gras floats, worked as a river boat deck hand and sang and played drums in the regionally successful rock band, "FUSION". He attended Immaculate Conception and St. Columba grade schools as well as Ursuline High School and graduated from there in 1970, he married and moved to Anaheim, where he managed a video store in the early 1980s, before launching his voice-acting career in late 1984. Cummings has two daughters with Stephanie Cummings, as well as two older children from a previous marriage. Terminator 2: 3-D Battle Across Time in Universal Studios Theme Parks: Opening Sequence Narrator IllumiNations: Reflections of Earth at EPCOT in Walt Disney World: Narrator Roger Rabbit's Car Toon Spin at Mickey's Toontown in Disneyland: Baby Herman Jim Cummings on IMDb Jim Cummings at Voice Chasers Jim Cummings Interview at Toon Zone Jim Cummings at Anime News Network's encyclopedia Jim Cummings feature article and photos at Voice Actors in the News Jim Cummings' Imaginography at Imagine Casting Jim Cummings on Wowpedia, a Warcraft wiki
Hip hop production
Hip hop production is the creation of hip hop music in a recording studio. While the term encompasses all aspects of hip hop music creation, including recording the rapping of an MC, a turntablist or DJ providing a beat, playing samples and "scratching" using record players and the creation of a rhythmic backing track, using a drum machine or sequencer, it is most used to refer to recording the instrumental, non-lyrical and non-vocal aspects of hip hop. Hip Hop Producers credited as the record producer and songwriter, are composers of a musical composition and creative directors involved in guiding and supervision of recording sessions; this can range from a single song to a full-length album or EP. A hip hop instrumental is colloquially referred to as a beat or musical composition and its composer is referred to as a programmer, songwriter or beat maker. In the studio, a hip hop producer functions as a traditional record producer, being the person, responsible for the final sound of a recording, for guiding the artists and performers and giving advice to the audio engineer on the selection of microphones and effects processors and on how to mix the levels of the vocals and instrumentals.
Since Hip hop producers co-write the original music such as the beat, they are known as Record Producer / Songwriters, that's wearing two hats. They receive production and songwriting credits for both acting roles esp Pharrell Williams, J. R. Rotem, Tricky Stewart, Teddy Riley, Bryan-Michael Cox, Rodney Jerkins, Dr. Dre, Scott Storch, Timbaland etc. Modern producers use producer tags known as audio tags, musical tags or tags, they function as a watermark for beatmakers to make sure that they are given credit. These can range from producers reciting the producer's name or stage name to a phrase unique to them. An example of the former is when Drake starts his song "In My Feelings" with the lyric "Trap, TrapMoneyBenny", shouting out one of the song's co-producers. An example of the latter is Metro Boomin's " Metro Boomin want some more, nigga!" which comes from a sample of Young Thug on his track "Some More" in which he shouts out Boomin, who co-produced the song along with Sonny Digital and TM88.
Producers and beatmakers times utilize a number of tags in order to personalize the track. A prime example is producer CAB's variation between "CAB you're crazy for this", "CAB!", "Yo, it's Charlot". These originate from hip-hop record producers shouting their name over a track before it started, vocal processing became involved, resulting in tags that sound like part of the song, in artists shouting the producer's name rather than producers doing so themselves; the Roland TR-808 drum machine was introduced in 1980, consisted on an analog machine with step programming method. The 808 was used by Afrika Bambaataa, who released "Planet Rock" in 1982, in addition to the electro hip hip groundbreaking classic "Nunk" by Warp 9, produced by Lotti Golden and Richard Scher, giving rise to the fledgling Electro genre. An notable artist is the genre's own pioneer Juan Atkins who released what is accepted as the first American techno record, "Clear" in 1984; these early electro records laid down the foundations that Detroit techno artists such as Derrick May built upon.
In 1983, Run-DMC recorded "It's Like That" and "Sucker MC's," two songs which relied on synthetic sounds, in this case via an Oberheim DMX drum machine, ignoring samples entirely. This approach was much like early songs by the Furious Five. Kurtis Blow was the first hip hop artist to use a digital sampler, when he used the Fairlight CMI for their 1984 album "Ego Trip", specially on the track "AJ Scratch"; the E-mu SP-12 came out in 1985. The E-mu SP-1200 promptly followed with an expanded recording time of 10 seconds, divided on 4 banks. One of the earliest songs to contain a drum loop or break was "Rhymin and Stealin" by the Beastie Boys, produced by Rick Rubin. Marley Marl popularized a style of restructuring drum loops by sampling individual drums, in the mid 1980s, a technique, popularized by the MC Shan's 1986 single "The Bridge" which used chops of "Impeach the President" on two Korg Delay/sampling triggered by a Roland TR-808; the Akai MPC60 came out in 1988. The Beastie Boys released Paul's Boutique in 1989, an entire album created from an eclectic mix of samples, produced by the Dust Brothers using an Emax sampler.
De La Soul released 3 Feet High and Rising that year. Public Enemy's Bomb Squad revolutionized the sound of hip-hop with dense production styles, combining tens of samples per song combining percussion breaks with a drum machine, their beats were much more structured than repetitive beats. The MPC3000 was released in 1994, the AKAI MPC2000 in 1997, followed by the MPC2000XL in 1999 and the MPC2500 in 2006; these machines combined a sampling drum machine with an onboard MIDI sequencer and became the centerpiece of many hip hop producers' studios. The Wu Tang Clan's producer RZA is credited for getting hip hop attention away from Dr. Dre's more polished sound in 1993. RZA's more gritty sound with low rumbling bass, sharp snare drum sounds and unique sampling style based on Ensoniq sampler. With the 1994 release of The Notorious B. I. G.'s Ready to Die, Sean Combs and his assistant producers ushered in a new style where entire sections of records were sampled, instead of short snippets. Records like "Warning", "One More Chance" epitomized this aesthetic.
In the e
An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i